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Full text of "North Carolina University Magazine"

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NORTH CAROLINA 

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE 



, Vol. XXVI. No. 1 — OCTOBER, 1893. New Series, Vol. XIII. 



THE ANCIENT GREEK AND MODERN ELIZA- 
BETHAN DRAMA COMPARED. 



The problem of human life in its relation to the universe 
has occupied a large place in the speculative thought of 
the race. From the earliest times the human mind has 
busied itself in striving to establish a harmonious relation 
between the life of man and the whole system of the uni- 
verse. In other words, the aim and tendency of man's 
deepest thought has been to construct a reasonable work- 
ing theory of life. This earnest desire thus dominating 
the human mind has in a general way expressed itself in 
three lines of development, each of which is quite closely 
related to the other. It has expressed itself in religion, in 
philosophy and in literary or dramatic art. In the origin 
and growth of these three departments of human interest 
their aim and intention and ultimate object may be shown 
to be the same. They each attempt from different points 
of view to express and to harmonize the seemingly contra- 
dictory and conflicting elements and activities in the world 
of human existence. The one idea deeply imbedded alike 
in the consciousness of the theologian, the philosopher and 
— — the poet, and which dominates all their thought, is that of 

o- 



n£ 



2 University Magazine. 

the ultimate oneness of the universe. The world is at bot- 
tom a harmonious whole. It is "a mighty maze, but not 
without a plan. ' ' There is believed to be one unifying first 
principle which systematizes the whole, which makes it 
from end to end organic, concentrated, solid. The theolo- 
gian, the philosopher and the poet dwell each in the pres- 
ence of this ruling idea, which seems to harmonize all 
things. The world is a revelation of God's goodness to 
the theologian ; a manifestation of absolute reason to the 
philosopher, and a thing of beauty, and therefore of har- 
mony, to the poet. 

ii. 

This unifying object and aim of literary art is well 
expressed by Browning : 

"Art, which I may style the love of loving, rage 
Of knowing, seeing, feeling the absolute truth of things 
For truth's sake, whole and sole, not any good truth brings 
The knower, seer, feeler beside. Instinctive Art 
Must fumble for the whole, once fixing on a part 
However poor surpass the fragment, and aspire 
To reconstruct thereby the ultimate entire." 

The end aimed at, therefore, in all true art is not mere 
pastime or amusement, but instruction, knowledge. This 
is especially true of dramatic art. Aristotle clearly shows 
this as being the essential element in tragedy, the highest 
form of art ; that it is distinctly serious and practical in its 
object and is concerned with the supreme good or end of 
life. The instinctive motive of the drama is the moral 
education of the individual. It is genuinely religious and 
moral in its origin and aim. The modern popular idea 
regarding the drama, that its essential object is amusement, 
its only motive the momentary gratification of the senses, is 
founded upon a thorough misconception. It shows an utter 



Ancient Greek and Modern Elizabethan Drama. 3 

disregard for the origin and historical development of the 
drama. This purely sensuous conception of the drama in 
the popular mind has in this age tended to degrade it, and 
divorce it almost entirely from all connection with morality 
and religion. In this way it has come about that it is con- 
sidered the duty of orthodox religion to put the drama 
under a ban, to relegate it entirely to the domain of for- 
bidden things, to brand it as belonging wholly to "the 
world, the flesh and the devil." 

The entire history, however, of the origin and develop- 
ment of the drama shows what a perversion and a miscon- 
ception this is. The ancient Greek drama, even in the 
highest stage of its development, was essentially moral and 
religious in its whole aim and intention. In its earliest 
origin it was the natural expression of the religious instinct 
of the Greek race. In its later stage the Greek play was 
considered to be synonymous with the outward observance 
of religion, and the actors in it were, for the time being, 
devoted to the service of a god. The altar standing in the 
foreground of every Greek stage was not there merely for 
scenic effect, but for actual sacred use, and was regarded 
as being built on consecrated ground. As Bishop Wes- 
cott observes, "The Greek theatre was indeed a national 
temple, and more than this, the tragic poets were the 
national preachers. The Athenian, the typical Greek, 
learned his theory of life from the poems of the theatre." 

The history of the English modern drama shows that it 
also was distinctly religious in its origin and development. 
In fact, the modern drama, strange as it may appear, origi- 
nated in the central act of Christian worship, the celebra- 
tion of the Holy Eucharist or Supper of Our Lord. The 
historic facts of man's redemption, dramatically represented 
as they are in this Sacred Feast, form the starting point for 



4 University Magazine. 

our modern drama. From these simple and sublime facts 
of redemption, dramatically represented by the officiating 
priest in the Feast of the Eucharist, within the altar rails 
of the church, there is a true development of the drama, 
through the Mysteries and Miracle Plays and Moralities of 
the Middle Ages. These plays were first entirely under the 
control and sanction of the church. In that rude and illit- 
erate age they served as the most effectual form of religious 
instruction for the people. From these rude plays they 
learned their knowledge of Bible and Gospel history. As 
the development went on the movement of drama may be 
traced from the channel of the church to the nave, and from 
the nave to the space in the church-yard in front of the 
church, and finally from under the control of the church 
altogether to the management of the municipal authorities 
of the town and enacted as pageants on the principal streets 
on the great Festivals of the Christian Year. The interludes 
of Heywood form the transition from the Mysteries and 
Morality Plays to the regular drama of Marlowe, Ben Jon- 
son, and Shakspere. There is thus a distinctly religious 
and ethical intention underlying the whole development of 
the modern drama, from the rudest Mystery Plays enacted 
within the church sanctuary, under the direct management 
of the Parish Priest, to the great literary masterpieces found 
in the tragedies of Marlowe, Shakspere, and Webster. 

in. 

Dramatic art, however, although distinctly ethical in its 
aim, is never openly didactic. The role of the prophet, 
outwardly at least, is entirely foreign to the function of the 
dramatic poet. He does not designedly betray a practical 
aim and purpose, but conceals it under the aesthetic form 
of dramatic action addressed to man's sense of perception. 



Ancient Greek and Modern Elizabethan Drama. 5 

The drama does not openly moralize or tell men what to 
do directly. The lessons and warnings are conveyed by 
indirect methods. The dramatic poet leaves the spectator 
entirely free. He does not preach or make any direct 
appeal to the conscience. The application of ethical prin- 
ciples is made upon some one else and not upon the 
spectator. 

IV. 

It is in tragedy that the highest ethical aim of poetic 
art is supremely manifest. In tragedy art reaches its 
highest development. Tragedy is the imitation of an 
action that is serious ; that is, an action that is concerned 
with the true aim and end of life. It is thus a picture of 
human life and destiny on its serious side as a whole. It 
is furthermore a dramatic, not a narrative, representation of 
life. Schopenhaur has said that every life taken as a whole 
is a tragedy, while any part of it detached from the rest is a 
comedy. Tragedy, then, should be a dramatic representa- 
tion of an entire life in its growth, culmination, decay and 
death. Then tragedy must take up some one life, or some 
one family or race in its corporate life, and represent it 
dramatically in its entirety and completeness. There must 
be nothing transient, accidental or partial about it. It 
must be organic in its unity. The causal bond must give 
it continuity as a whole. It is, in other words, a wide and 
universal view which the tragic poet gives us of human 
affairs, so that we are able to pass judgment upon the 
results of a life, not merely by isolated actions or episodes 
in it, but by summing it up as a whole, by viewing the 
entire life, as affected by circumstances and environments, 
as shaped and influenced by character or destiny, and as 
finallv reaching a crisis and receiving its final reward for 
good or evil at the hands of exact justice. Tragedy is 



6 University Magazine. 

thus the mirror of human life in action. A tragic drama 
is a kind of living organism animated throughout by one 
soul or principle of life. 

Now the effect intended in such a dramatic representa- 
tion of human life is, in the words of Aristotle, a 
" Katharsis" of the emotions of pity and fear. The word 
"Katharsis" is considered to be a medical metaphor, and 
denotes a certain pathological effect upon the soul analogous 
to the effect of medicine upon the body. Our pity and 
fear are excited by the sufferings and trials through which 
the characters in the play are made to pass, and the excita- 
tion purges these emotions; that is, exercises over them a 
healthful, sobering, quieting influence. It produces, in 
other words, in the spectator a kind of resignation to the 
trials and sufferings of life. It tends to give us a theory 
of life by which to regulate our own conduct. This ethical 
office of tragedy is thus accurately expressed by Browning 
in Aristophanes' s Apology: 

"Small rebuked by large, 
We felt our puny hates refine to air, 
Our prides as poor prevent the humbling hand, 
Our petty passion purify its tide. ' ' 

Thus in a negative way the tragic drama reveals to us a 

true unifying first principle in life. It shows us that 

human life is subject to moral law. It gives us a practical 

working basis for life. It teaches us that life, to attain its 

true end, must be brought into harmony with those laws 

of moral order which are the expression of the life of 

God. 

v. 

In order now to bring intelligently into comparison some 
of the features of those two great historic periods of dra- 
matic energy, the Periclean and the Elizabethan , it becomes 



Ancient Greek and Modern Elizabethan Drama. 7 

necessary further briefly to point out that certain special 
elements must be present in human life to produce genuine 
tragic conditions and situations. Tragic action is created 
by the combined intellectual, political and moral activities 
of a people. Tragic action implies a somewhat advanced 
stage of civilization and moral development in a race. 
There can be no real drama without some consciousness of 
moral obligation. Dramatic action arises out of the fact 
that man, as a self-conscious, self-determining being, finds 
himself in constant and direct relation with other beings 
and objects in the system in which he is placed. His 
actions are thus in causal relation to the organized system 
of social order in which he lives. This condition of things 
implies a conflict. In every drama there must be a collision 
of moral forces and wills. Man, in conflict with his 
environment, brings to pass tragic conditions and situa- 
tions. He stands in relation to other wills and forces 
which restrict his freedom, and this creates for him moral 
duties and obligations. And this relation in which he 
stands to his environment is complex and many-sided in its 
nature. Man is related to God, to his family, to society, 
to the State, and to himself. The varying interests of 
these diverse relationships bring to pass a conflict of 
duties. It is this conflict of relationships, and the moral 
obligations springing out of them, which produces tragic 
conditions and situations in life. But while conflict is nec- 
essary to call tragic elements into play every conflict in life 
is not dramatic. In actual life action does not always 
necessarily manifest itself externally. There is the silent 
activity of speculative and religious thought, which in the 
highest sense may be called action, though it never 
expresses itself in deed. This is why some races, such as 
the Hebrews, have, properly speaking, no dramatic litera- 



8 University Magazine. 

ture. The higher energies of Hebrew life were spent in 
religions contemplation, and the conflict was an inner con- 
flict. This expressed itself in didactic and lyrical poetry, 
in which the Hebrew literature is marvelously rich. The 
same is true of the literature of other Oriental races. It 
is only very late in their history that anything of the nature 
of a drama appears in the Hindoo or Chinese literature. 
Iyike the Hebrews, their energies were spent in religious or 
philosophical speculation. 

In the Greek race, however, we find all the conditions 
and elements present in their life for the highest develop- 
ment of the tragic drama. Greek life and thought devel- 
oped along the line of the individual. With the Greek, 
man himself was the measure of all things. He felt him- 
self to be in possession of himself. His life was not domi- 
nated by absolutism in any form. And looking at life from 
this point of view he found himself possessed with a many- 
sided relationship. The moral, social, religious and politi- 
cal laws of the Greek came out of his own life. In the 
Greek civilization we have thus a condition of affairs most 
favorable for that form of conflict in human life which 
expresses itself in outward action. And the Periclean age in 
the life of Greece was the flowering time of its intellectual, 
social, political and moral activities. It was an age of mar- 
velous energy and achievement along the whole line of 
human endeavor. And so we have in Greece during- the 
Periclean age the highest and grandest dramatic develop- 
ment, the most sublime conceptions of tragic art. The 
moral energy and activity in the life of Greece expressed 
itself grandly through the tragic muse. In the "great 
Dionysiac theater" the fundamental springs of human 
action and moral character were expressed and interpreted 
by the "tragic tread of immortal fames ^schylus, Sopho- 
cles, Euripides." 



Ancient Greek and Modern Elizabethan Drama. 9 

VI. 

No similar favorable condition for the production of 
tragic drama in its highest perfection occurred until the 
sixteenth century of the Christian era. The Elizabethan 
age was the flowering time in the development of the Anglo- 
Saxon race. The steady growth of knowledge, the gen- 
eral dissemination of new and higher learning, coupled 
with the epoch-making astronomical and geographical dis- 
coveries of the time, gave men a marvelously broader and 
deeper view of nature and of human life. Man himself 
became once more the center of interest and observation. 
The energizing life and quickened thought of that won- 
derful period swept away all mechanical barriers to human 
progress, and wrought the deliverance of man from the 
bondage of absolutism and unreasoning submission to 
mediaeval dogmatism. The true worth of the individual 
was once more realized. The wonderful possibilities and 
capabilities of human nature became manifest. The ado- 
lescent and exuberant life of the English people, thus 
awakened to the fullness of national self-consciousness, 
expressed itself in vigorous outward movement, in heroic 
and adventurous action. The national mind of Merry 
England, stirred to the center by the victorious efforts which 
had successfully repelled the mighty Armada of haughty 
Spain, and by the thrilling adventures and daring deeds of 
Englishmen everywhere, on land and sea, could no longer 
be satisfied with tame morality plays or the introspective 
literature of the cloister. The Englishman of that day 
longed to see those heroes moving visibly before him, to 
hear them speaking, to have represented and interpreted to 
him the full meaning of that new and more manifold life 
to which the nation as a unity had aroused itself. In a 



io University Magazine. 

word, the genuine spirit of a drama had descended upon 
old England as it had descended, upon Hellas two thousand 
years before. The intense activity of the people, the col- 
lision of forces and relations called into play by fuller and 
more complex views of life, created an intense desire for the 
idealization of human action in genuine art. This dra- 
matic temper' of the Elizabethan age and the enthusiastic 
confidence in the large destinies opened before the English 
race may be impressively illustrated by words borrowed 
from a poet a generation later. John Milton, in his elo- 
quent and noble plea for the unrestricted liberty of the 
human mind, raises his dramatic pecan for the mighty 
achievements of the past, and in a grand burst of inspira- 
tion, in which he describes the new vigor and alertness of 
his country's spirit, utters the prophetic words : ' ' Methinks 
I see in my mind a noble and puissant nation rousing her- 
self like a strong man after sleep and shaking her invinci- 
ble locks. Methinks I see her as an eagle viewing her 
mighty youth and kindling her undazzled eyes at the full 
midday beam, purging and unsealing her long-abused sight 
at the fountain itself of heavenly radiance." 

An age of which such energetic words could be written, 
an age throbbing and pulsating in every part with intense 
vigor of life, expressing itself in outward deed, called 
naturally not for meditative mystics, but for the portrayers 
and interpreters of life in outward action. The true life of 
such an age in the nature of things could only find legiti- 
mate expression in the drama. And so out of the activity 
of the Elizabethan age is produced a "goodly company" 
of the highest order of dramatic poets. In the "myriad- 
minded" Shakspere truly "a heart in unison with his 
time and country" and the "soul of the age" in which 
he lived, and in those lesser but still brilliant lights, who 



Ancient Greek and Modern Elizabethan Drama. 



ii 



Soiius-like will ever blaze in the firmament of art: Mar- 
lowe with his "mighty line," "O rare" Ben Jonson, and 
Webster, who with a master hand has sounded the depths 
of human woe and suffering — in these wonderful delineators 
of human character dramatic art reached the high-water 
mark of its excellence and power. 

VII. 

Our study of the drama would thus seem to reveal the 
somewhat surprising fact that in the whole range of human 
history in only two races, and during only a comparatively 
short period in the development of each of these, has there 
been called into action the forces and conditions in human 
life for the production of the highest forms of tragic art. 
A period of about sixty years in Greek history and one of 
about fifty years in English history sufficed for the complete 
creation of the greatest works of literary art the world has 
ever produced. The Peri clean age in Greece (480 B. C. — 
410 B. C.)and the Elizabethan age in England (1580 A. D. — 
1630 A. D.) stand out as characteristically and distinctly 
dramatic over all other historic periods. They eclipse the 
productions of all other ages and races. 

VIII. 

We are now in a position to make a brief comparison of 
some of the features which these two great dramatic periods 
present to us. The nature of the drama is such that it 
"shews the very age and body of the time, his form and 
pressure," and thus gives us a permanent photograph of 
the actual moral life and activity of a given age. 

Macaulay says "That feelings and opinions which pervade 
the whole dramatic literature of a generation are feelings 



12 University Magazine. 

and opinions of which the men of that generation gen- 
erally partook." A close study of the dramas of these two 
periods will therefore reveal to us the ethical conceptions 
and general views of life held by them respectively, and 
enable us to compare them. As the geologist finds a differ- 
ent expression of life in the fossil forms of the permian in 
comparing them with the eocene period of geological 
formation, so the student of the drama discovers an analo- 
gous difference in the expression of the human life of the 
Periclean age when comparing it to the Elizabethan. The 
Greek drama is the product of the life of Greece in the 
fourth century B. C. It thus reflects the life of a race which, 
up to that time, had developed in its own way uninfluenced 
by contact or intercourse with other forms of civilization. 
The whole life of classic Greece — moral, religious, and 
intellectual — was in the fullest sense "native and to the 
manner born." For this reason the Greek drama is lim- 
ited in its view of human life. It is perfect and unique 
in artistic form. It is sublime in dramatic energy and 
grandeur. The mind and motives of the characters on 
which the ethical interest fastens are laid open by the Greek 
tragedians with impressive minuteness, yet on account of 
the limited psychological experiences of the Greek con- 
sciousness their drama is distinctly lacking in range and 
breadth. The conceptions of the Greeks were local. They 
idolized the outward form of things, and, as Coleridge says, 
Greek drama is "statuesque." It is perfect in outward 
form and grace. It is lacking in inner feeling and fullness 
of life. In Greek tragedy, too, the proper development of 
character was checked by the limited nature of the subject- 
matter upon which the poet had to work in developing his 
play. The heroic legends of Greece were woven into the 
texture of the national life. By consecrated usage the poet 



Ancient Greek and Modern Elizabethan Drama. 13 

had to adopt these as best he might to the ethical ideals of 
the people. This rendered difficult the free delineation of 
character. 

Passing now over a period of two thousand years to the 
Elizabethan drama, we find ourselves in the midst of dif- 
ferent conditions of life. Although thoroughly national 
in its expression, the Elizabethan drama is at the same 
time universal and cosmopolitan. The Elizabethan age 
was the meeting point of various streams of civilization 
and trends of thought. Its consciousness was Christian, 
and Christian civilization itself is intensely complex in 
its character. It brings man into relation with the infinite 
and universal. The Elizabethan drama thus gives expres- 
sion to this infinitely enlarged, varied and complex view of 
human life. It is entirely unlimited in its scope. It is 
shut up in no traditional metes and bounds. It is hedged 
in by no dogmatic standards. The Elizabethan dramatists 
picture life in its unity and in its boundless variety, in its 
individuality and in its universality. They range at will 
for subject-matter over the whole vast field of human his- 
tory and human life. They portray life just as it is in its 
living activity and freedom. As we read those wonderful 
masterpieces of Elizabethan tragedy, such as the Jew of 
Malta, Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, Macbeth, King L,ear or 
the Duchess of Malfi, they seem to throb with the living 
vigor of life even from the pages of the cold paper. The 
characters in them stand out before us as living, breathing, 
speaking realities. In the gamut of that great dramatic 
scale all the passions and feelings, all the joys and sorrows 
of human life are sounded from the highest to the lowest. 
The dramatic poets of that wonderful era were in the fullest 
sense "of Nature's family." The words of Ben Jonson 
may be applied to the whole of that goodly company : 



14 University Magazine. 

" Nature herself was proud of their designs, 
And joyed to wear the dressing of their lines." 

In the expressive words of Emerson, "They gave to the 
science of mind a new and larger subject than had ever 
existed, and planted the standard of humanity some fur- 
longs forward into chaos." 

IX. 

The present age is in many respects not unlike the Eliza- 
bethan. It has many features analogous to it. It is a 
time of great material progress. The conquests made by 
man in the nineteenth century over the powers and barriers 
of nature are amazing to contemplate. It is also a time 
of great intellectual activity. The age is one of "change 
and transition. ' ' The race is passing on to the formation of 
a new and higher form of consciousness. The great doc- 
trine of evolution in science, coupled with the law of con- 
servation of energy in physics, has gradually revolution- 
ized the thought of the century in a similar degree to that 
which the thought of the sixteenth century was revolu- 
tionized by the discoveries of Newton, Keplar, and Coper- 
nicus. Speculative thought has also been revolutionized 
by the discoveries of Kant and Hegel, as the thinking of 
the earlier period was changed by Descartes, Leibnitz, and 
Locke. It is thus a time of unlimited intellectual freedom. 
The motto adopted by the ancient Greeks in their fearless 
quest for truth, "Follow the argument whithersoever it 
leads," is really also the motto of the present age. No 
dogma, however ancient, hinders man in his search for 
knowledge. There is thus on many sides a breaking away 
from old traditions and a formation of new points of view 
regarding fundamental theories of nature and of life. All 
this implies conflict and collision of various forces in our 



Ancient Greek and Modem Elizabethan Drama. 15 

modern life. All the conditions for the production of a 
high order of dramatic art would therefore seem to be pres- 
ent. Yet in the present age no dramas of any importance 
have been written. No great tragedy worthy of the name 
has been produced by our nineteenth century civilization. 
'One reason for this is that our age is less exuberant in the 
vigor of its life than the Elizabethan age. It is less imagi- 
native and more prosaic. It has lost the freshness and 
naive curiosity of youth. It is too self-conscious. That 
peculiar stage in the development of our civilization in 
which the drama really flourishes has been passed by. The 
soil is now unproductive. That particular stage seems 
to be when the life of a race is first awakening to full con- 
sciousness. It is doubtful if another such period of dra- 
matic energy as the Elizabethan age will ever again appear. 
Another reason for the poverty of nineteenth century 
dramatic talent is the dissipation of dramatic energy through 
other channels. Public opinion on all questions is fully 
voiced through the modern newspaper. Theories of life 
receive adequate treatment and expression from the Sun- 
day pulpit. Above all, the modern novel has largely taken 
the place of the drama in our life. This is pre-eminently 
the age of fiction. This age above all others has excelled 
in the production of really great works of this order. Seri- 
ous fiction is closely allied to tragedy, and so our great 
novelists are to us as the tragic poets were to the Periclean 
and Elizabethan ages. Frederick Towers. 



DIES IRAE. 

Oh, Day of Wrath whereof no mortal knows, 
Nor angel nor archangel of high heaven ! 
Day when eternity's stillness shall be riven, 
And through the starry archipelagoes 
And rayless reaches, like the wave that flows 
From quaking continents, on shall be driven 
The trumpet-blast, — and never onward, even 
To speak on space's shores that time must close ! 
When will it break? When Nature's springs shall fail, 
And stars go out, and all humanity 
In the even-tide of years to slumber bend? 
Or will it rise when man has reached the scale 
Of loftiest mortal being? Oh, my friend, 
'Tis one to us ! — soon, soon 'twill dawn for you and me ! 

Henry Jerome Stockard. 



SAI,EM FEMALE ACADEMY. 

"Once upon a time," as the story-books say, there stood 
on the east side of the Salem Square a two-story stone 
building, covered with light yellow stucco marked off in 
blocks. The second floor of this "Gemein Haus," or Con- 
gregation House, was occupied by the Salem Congregation 
of the Unitas Fratrum, or Moravians, as they have been 
commonly called since the renewal of the Church, A. D. 
1722, by natives of Moravia, while the minister resided on 
the first floor. Here, also, the two south rooms were occu- 
pied by the day school for girls of the little town, and so 









5*4 #1 




j * i __ ' ■■ .J ■■■ /■■■<. i 







SALEM FEMALE ACADEMY. 



Salem Female Academy. 17 

comparatively superior were their advantages that strangers 
passing through the town often expressed the wish that 
their daughters might share these privileges. The Unitas 
Fratrum ever took the greatest interest in the education' of 
children, and in 1500, only forty- three years after its organi- 
zation, had four hundred parish schools in Bohemia and 
Moravia in addition to several higher institutions, which 
were attended by young people outside the Unity, and not 
a few young nobles. When the Anti-Reformation plunged 
Bohemia into the deepest Roman Catholic darkness Come- 
nius, a child of the Unity and of its schools, went forth 
into Western Europe and became so great an apostle of 
education that the recent three hundredth anniversary of 
his birth received a world-wide celebration. After its renewal 
the Church continued its educational 
work, and the Salem fathers were not slow 
to perceive when a large field for Chris- 
tian usefulness was opened to them; so 
on October 31, 1802, the ruling Church 
Board called Rev. Samuel Kramsh, pastor 
of Hope, N. C, to be the principal of the 
new boarding school for girls, now widely 
rev.samoel s. kramsh, and honorably known as the Salem Female 

First Principal Salem , 

Female Academy. Academy. 

On a vacant lot just south of the "Gemein Haus" the 
corner-stone of the new building was laid on October 6, 
1803, less than thirty-eight years having passed since the 
first house in Salem was erected. Before the building- 
could be finished four girls came on horseback to enter the 
school, and were accommodated in the "Gemein Haus"; 
soon four more came, and with two "Daughters of Congre- 
gation," as the Register quaintly puts it, formed the first 
room company, in charge of two teachers. July 16, 1805, 
3 




1 8 University Magazine. 

the new building was solemnly consecrated. At one o'clock 
a procession formed in the chapel of the "Gemein Haus, " 
consisting of the boarders and town girls dressed all in 
white, preceded by the ministers and followed by their 
teachers, and being dismissed by a choir of trombones from 
their temporary abode, they proceeded to their new school 
home, where a second choir of trombones welcomed them, 
and where the dedicatory services and other exercises were 
held. After the usual evening service of the congregation 
the company assembled once more before the house to sing 
hymns of prayer and praise. The life of those days was very 
simple, but the loving remembrance which the "Daugh- 
ters in the Boarding School in Salem" carried with them 
into their later years is proof enough that it was pleasant 
life as well. Mr. Kramsh was something of a botanist and 
gave each girl her own little garden to which she might 
transplant the ferns and flowers found in their many ram- 
bles, and quite a rivalry sometimes existed as to which 
should have the prettiest display. In one of these rambles 
through the woods where Winston now stands the girls sur- 
prised two little fawns, caught one of them in an apron and 
took it home, where it immediately became a great pet. 

In 1806, Rev. Abraham Steiner took charge of the 
school, and the next year the first certificate of scholarship 
was issued. The school constantly increased in numbers, 
and very soon it became necessary for the principal and his 
faculty to leave the school building for one near by until 
the present "Principal's House" was built in 1810. In 
1816, Mr. Steiner's health failed and he resigned his charge 
to Rev. Gotthold Benjamin Reichel. 

During Mr. Reichel's administration some important 
alterations were made in the dining-room. Heretofore the 
girls sat upon benches on either side of the table, and at 



Salem Female Academy. 



19 




the head the teacher occupied a stool. The table was 
spread with coarse tow-linen cloth, home-made, and the 
girls ate from pewter plates with pewter spoons, steel knives 

and forks, and drank their tea 
from bowls without handles. 
About that time, however, a 
lady visitor criticised the appoint- 
ments so sharply that cotton ta- 
ble-cloths and china plates and 
mugs were purchased. Now only 
a few of the pewter plates remain 
cherished among the curios in 
the museum, and the dining-hall 
arouses only pleasant comment 
from the visitor who may be 
brave enough to encounter the 
bishop reichel. g aze f several hundred pairs of 

eyes. In the rooms, too, the greatest changes have taken 
place. Once upon the neatest of freshly sanded floors stood 
a long table, and along either side sat girls between twelve 
and fifteen years of age (the latter age terminated their stay), 
clothed in simple calico dresses, usually the work of their 
own fair fingers, studying by the light of tallow candles 
so placed as to allow one to each quartette of girls; now in 
the cheery, carpeted study parlors the girls cluster about 
the small tables studying still, but under the brilliant gas 
jet or steady electric light, while set aside, awaiting a lei- 
sure moment, stand sofa and rocking-chairs. 

In 1824 the first addition to the building was made, con- 
sisting of a chapel on the second floor, and on the first what 
was later known as "the town girls' room." This chapel 
was the first appropriated wholly to the school, and was con- 
secrated on September 24, which day was annually cele- 



20 University Magazine. 

bra ted in the "Chapel Festival" for many years by ser- 
vices of song and prayer, while after the midday dinner all 
the pupils dressed in white, and headed by the principal, 
took a long walk all over the town. The girls wore no 
hats out of doors in those early days, but white caps of 
bobinet tied under the chin, with the fullest of ruchings 
about the face — a wonderfully pretty head-dress, though so 
different from the dignified, collegiate, becoming "cap and 
gown" of our modern seniors. The long summer vaca- 
tion was a thing unknown. At first the girls would come 
on horseback, perhaps several at a time, escorted by father 
or brother, who, after entering his charge in the Academy, 
would sell his superfluous horses, and side-saddles would be 
hung away until the young ladies had completed their edu- 
cation. Soon handsome family coaches began to appear, 
bringing the new pupil with her trunk, reappearing when 
her school-days were ended ; but rarely did any one go home 
for a vacation. The two weeks' summer rest was spent 
quietly at the Academy, each room company by turn hav- 
ing a day's picnic in the woods, and at the end of the short 
vacation returning cheerfully to work. 

December 20, 1833, Mr. Reichel died, 
and was succeeded in 1834 by Rev. John 
Christian Jacobson. The increasing num- 
bers rendered more room imperative, and 
the second chapel was built in 1835, the 
first one being taken for a dormitory and 
after many years of varying service is 
again in use as a sleeping hall. The sec- 
ond opened from a landing of the stair- 
EV ' J j°^obson! stian way leading to the upper floor, and in 

Fourth Principal Sa- ... . . , .1 

lem Female Academy, addition to its services was dear to the 
girls' hearts as the scene of the elaborate "putz" or deco- 
ration arranged there every Christmas for the enjoyment.of 





Salem Female Academy. 2i 

the school. Still the pressure for room did not cease, and 
little by little they encroached on the "Gemein Haus" 
until in 1841 a new church chapel and parsonage were 
erected and the entire building and premises turned over 
to the school. 

In 1844, Mr. Jacobson accepted a call 
elsewhere, and Rev. Charles Adolphus 
Bleck took his place, to be succeeded in 
1848 by Rev. Emil Adolphus de Schwei- 
nitz. Both these held terms of quiet 
prosperity, but the seventh principal, 
Rev. Robert de Schweinitz, who took 
charge in 1853, presided during twelve 
anxious, stirring years, including- the time Rev. Robert de 

° J ' ° Schweinitz, 

of the civil war. In the years just pre- seventh principal of 

Salem Female 

ceding the great conflict girls flocked Academy, 

toward the Academy, for their parents felt assured that so 
they at least would be in safety, and nobly was their trust 
repaid, since not for a single day was the usual routine dis- 
turbed, though toward the close of the war Stoneman's 
Brigade encamped south of the town. Very interesting 
and very amusing stories are told by the gentleman who 
was steward for many years of the struggles to provide 
proper food for the girls during the war, and of the encoun- 
ter with the soldiers when they came through, but lack of 
space forbids this repetition. In 1854 it was decided to 
pull down the old "Gemein Haus" and rebuild, and on 
the 9th of August the corner-stone of the new Academy 
was laid, and in due course of time the house was finished 
and occupied. Main Hall, as it is called since the multi- 
plication of buildings demands individual cognomens, is an 
imposing five-story edifice of one hundred feet front, with 
two large wings in the rear, and a large portico with mas- 
sive Doric windows in front; the chapel in the south wing 



22 



University Magazine. 



was the immediate successor of that built by Mr. Jacobson. 
These two buildings were soon crowded to their utmost 
capacity, there being at one time two hundred and thirty 
boarders, besides teachers and day-scholars. 

In 1865, Rev. M. E. Grunert became principal, and the 
following year the Academy was regularly incorporated as 
a college. With the close of the war came a renewed rush 
to the school, the Register for 1866 showing the largest list 
of new names on record, but with the seventies and the 
utter prostration of the South, the numbers went down, 
down, down! In 1873 the old building, now South Hall, 
was remodeled into a twin sister of Main Hall, excepting 
the portico. 

Rev. J. Theophilus Zorn became the ninth principal in 
1877. He instituted many modern improvements in the 
internal arrangements, and as prosperity returned to the 
South, the sisters, daughters and granddaughters of for- 
mer pupils turned their faces toward old 
Salem. Some claim for the Academy 
the proud title of the Vassar of the South, 
but thinking of the generations that have 
grown up from childhood to womanhood 
within her walls to go forth to bless thou- 
sands of happy homes, is it not a ten- 
derer, richer name to 
call it "The Home 

Rt. Rev. Edward Rond- 

thax.br._d. d., s c hool of the South " ? 

Tenth Principal Salem 

Female Academy. file following princi- 

pals continued the improvements begun 
by Mr. Zorn and broadened their field, 
Rev. Edward Rond thaler being in charge 
from 1884 to 1888, and Rev. John 

tt /~m 11 r 000 4. i-t i. Rev. John H. Cxewell 

H. Clewell from 1888 to the present Ele 4 nth and present 

i.' Principal Salem Female 

lime. Academy. 





Salem Female Academy. 



23 




A Salem Girl. 



Let us take a stroll through the Academy to-day; the 
bell has just rung for the long mid-session recess, and all 
is bustle and confusion among more than three hundred 
and fifty members of the school. The prin- 
cipal tidal wave carries us into the dining- 
hall, where the girls possess themselves of 
the great squares of ginger-bread, which 
happens to constitute the lunch to-day, 
with the skill that comes of practice, the 
appetite that follows two hours of school 
and the vision of three hours more before 
dinner time. There is a peculiar noise 
below us as they begin to scatter, and we find that the 
more active are refreshing their minds with a few minutes' 
exercise in the gymnasium. The bell rings again and we 
follow them to their class-rooms, not to Main Hall, for 
that is given now almost 
entirely to study parlors 
and dormitories, but to 
South Hall, Annex Hall, 
Park Hall and Society 
Hall, for since the two 
original houses grew too 
small the three latter were 
erected, Society Hall 
within the past year. 
Here we pass practicing- 
rooms, there in the li- 
brary the girls are work- a corner of the dormitory. 
ing earnestly with the reference books, while one or two, 
with a free hour, are reading the papers and story-books dis- 
played there. Here a group are puzzling their brains over 
the last lesson in stenography; there the cooking class is 




24 University Magazine. 

concocting savory dishes, and again, Latin, mathematics — 
what not? — reign supreme, and scarce a wistful glance 
betrays a thought of the run in the pleasure ground when 
work is done. Soon the bustle of Commencement will be 
here, and as our Alma Mater looks upon her alumncB — 
representatives of her army of 10,000 old pupils — throng- 
ing the chapel in their annual reunion, she will heartily 
re-echo old Rip's inimitable toast: "Here's to your good 
health and your family's; may you live long and prosper! " 

Adelaide L. Fries. 



SOME EXPERIENCES AT A GERMAN 
UNIVERSITY. 

I. SETTLING DOWN TO WORK. 

A dreary Sunday, drizzling and disagreeable as London 
only can make it, gave me such an attack of the blues that 
I gave up my proposed stay there and judged it wiser to 
hasten to my work at Bonn. A few gold coins were got- 
ten by means of a letter of credit ; a ticket to Cologne was 
purchased and I set out to catch the night boat for Calais. 
There were few passengers, so I found no difficulty in secur- 
ing a compartment on the through train from Calais to 
Cologne, and might have gotten a comfortable night's rest 
but for the strangeness of everything around me and the 
nervous feeling which took possession of me when I reflected 
that I was alone, unknown, without the power of under- 
standing what was said to me or of making myself under- 
stood, and with only a few shillings in my pocket. So I sat 
up and kept my eyes open, prepared for any emergency. 



Some Experiences at a Germaii University. 25 

Now, keeping my eyes open was a mistake, and led to my 
first misfortune. While peering out into the inky black- 
ness of the night a passing cinder entered my unhappy 
optic and the trouble began. I wrestled with that cinder 
for an hour. All plans that I had ever heard of were tried 
in vain. At last, when stopping at some station, I sig- 
naled to a passing guard, and by much gesticulation 
appealed to him for help. He poked a tobacco-stained 
finger under the lid, causing exquisite pain, grunted, said 
something remarkably like swearing and gave up the job. 
It was two days before that cinder concluded to come out, 
having given me no peace meanwhile. I was beginning 
to nod when the train came to a halt out in the darkness, 
and the engine gave a prolonged whistle. After a short 
interval this was answered by a faint fish-horn. These salu- 
tations were kept up for several minutes and then we slowly 
drew into a station with large lighted waiting-rooms. I 
afterwards found this was the usual mode of procedure in 
coming into a French town. The fish-horn is operated by 
a switchman and gives notice that the track is clear. There 
was a great slamming of doors, and most of the people 
seemed to leave the train. Presently a guard came, opened 
my door and said something. It sounded nice, but whether 
it was an inquiry after my health or whether he was merely 
passing the compliments of the season I cannot say. I 
simply bowed and smiled. Then he made another remark 
and motioned to me to get out. "He thinks this is my 
stopping place. I must tell him where I am going," 
thought I. "A Cologne, ' ' said I, very proud of my French. 
Still he was not satisfied, and gestured and cavorted about 
in great style. I sat in silent grandeur, apprehensive, and 
yet determined, and, like Poe's raven, repeated my refrain, 
"A Cologne." Then he disappeared, but only to return 
4 



26 University Magazine. 

with a very much uniformed gentleman with a long sword 
and looking very fierce. This gentleman made some empha- 
sized remarks to me. I replied as before, "A Cologne." 
A small crowd began to gather around the open door of 
my compartment and all began to talk at once. Presently 
the hero with the sword seized my bag and started off. 
Valor gave way to prudence, and I followed, conquered and 
dejected. We went into a large room in the station where 
were many more uniformed individuals. When one of 
these motioned to me to open my bag it dawned upon me 
that I was in the custom-house on the borders of Germany 
and that all this fuss had been made over, the inspection of 
my satchel. The ceremony was soon over and I found my 
way back to my train and remained there peaceful and 
undisturbed in the enjoyment of my cinder until Cologne 
was reached. 

Bonn is only some twenty miles from Cologne. In fact, 
the grand Dome or Cathedral of Cologne can easily be seen 
from the Kreuzberg and other hills above Bonn. There are 
two ways of going to Bonn, and in my student days after- 
wards the trip was often made. The steam-boats on the 
Rhine make frequent trips, and a railroad follows either 
bank of the broad river and express trains cover the dis- 
tance in short time. On my first trip I took the rail and 
was rejoiced to reach my journey's end and to find myself 
in a comfortable room at the old inn Zum Goldenen Stern. 

At the table cfhote dinner I found myself in the midst 
of a decorous company of professors and students. I eagerly 
scanned the faces to see if I could pick out one of the pro- 
fessors who had been a friend and companion of my father. 
But I could understand little of what was said or going on 
around me and had no means of making inquiries. I was 
afterwards told that the professor I sought still boarded there 



Some Experiences at a German University. 27 

as in my father's day, but had not returned from his holi- 
day outing. The commissionaire of the hotel was my 
great friend. He spoke English, and I really hated to leave 
him. He gave me full advice about securing a permanent 
boarding place, about calling on some to whom I had let- 
ters, and even on the subject of feeing the servants, himself 
included. I would gladly have given him a good fee were 
it only to hear some one speaking in a language I could 
understand. 

It would not do to give way to this feeling too much, how- 
ever, so I seized every opportunity of making others speak 
German to me and practicing on them my broken phrases. 
Soon the words began to separate for me and I could at least 
catch the drift of what was said. 

I did a good deal of walking in those first few days. I 
found the University buildings widely scattered ; old pal- 
aces being used for them or new buildings put up wherever 
convenient ground could be secured. A mile's walk lay 
between some of them. A boarding place convenient to my 
place of work had to be secured. All over the town notices 
appeared in the windows, '•''Mbblirte Zimmern zu vermie- 
then. ' ' The only trouble lay in making a selection between 
the many possible locations. Finally my choice fell on a 
small house, with a little garden having a few fruit trees 
and an arbor in it in which one could sit and eat cakes and 
drink coffee or beer and smoke on the long summer even- 
ings. A pleasant sitting-room with a tiny sleeping cham- 
ber were secured at a very reasonable rate, and, beyond all 
other attractions, there was an American student in the 
house with whom I would be able to talk. Here, accord- 
ing to German fashion, I got my morning coffee. My 
remaining meals were taken at restaurants in the town. I 
soon became acquainted with my landlord and his wife and 



28 University Magazine. 

the kindest, friendliest of relations sprang up between us. 
He was a litterateur of some repute and a correspondent for 
a syndicate of newspapers. The other American and 
myself soon found that he pumped us of our American 
experiences for the benefit of his newspapers, so we con- 
spired to stuff him, and I have no doubt the readers of his 
articles were regaled with some of the most remarkable 
descriptions of life in the wild and woolly West ever pub- 
lished. We received frequent acts of kindness from the 
family, little gifts at Christmas and on birthdays, a kind 
of gentle adoption characteristic of Germany. 

Strangers together in a strange land, the American and 
myself became close friends. He was a medical student 
and had a year's start of me in knowledge of the land and 
language. He told me a passport was necessary for matricu- 
lation in the University. I had none, but determined to 
use the letters given me to some of the professors. When 
I called upon one of them I found him very affable and 
genial, and luckily speaking English. He gave me a let- 
ter to be used as I saw fit, a sort of general certificate of 
character. That is, I supposed it was something of the 
kind, for to this day that letter has never been deciphered. 
I held it in all possible ways and lights, upside down, side- 
ways, by daylight and by lamp. I may have discovered 
the meaning of six words. I may have been mistaken in 
all, still it worked like a charm. I called on the professor 
of chemistry and presented this letter. He looked at it 
long, and then with a dejected air handed it back to me. 
"Well, he is a great friend to me, but his writing is 
fiendish. At any rate I am glad to meet you, sir," etc. I 
handed it to the official who was to register me and who 
demanded my passport. He regarded it earnestly upside 
down. Then he straightened his glasses and reversed the 



Some Experiences at a German University. 29 

letter. It was then solemnly carried over into a corner and 
two pairs of glasses glared upon it. During this process 
it was slowly revolved, after the fashion of a zoetrope, two 
wise bald heads were shaken, many gutturals were grunted 
at it, and then it was restored to my keeping and the gen- 
tleman registered me without further queries. The letter 
is invaluable. I have it still. It may secure for my chil- 
dren admission to the University of Bonn. 

I registered in a great big volume, giving name, age, 
rank, profession, religion, general health and impecuniosity 
of every one connected with me, from my grandparents to 
myself. Then I told them where I had studied, what I 
wanted to study and why I wanted to study it, and further 
that I was a particularly well-behaved fellow. After this 
contribution to history was finished I was told to come 
again another day, and by no means to forget to bring with 
me a certain amount of golden shekels. In fact, I was 
given to understand that it was quite unnecessary for me to 
come unless I brought the said golden shekels. 

I came at the appointed time, bringing my coin with me. 
I was shown into a large room and took my seat along with 
some fifty other young men seated on anxious benches 
around the wall. There were several tables in the room, 
around which were gathered elderly gentlemen, evidently 
members of the Faculty. Soon a pleasant-spoken little 
man arose and began to harangue us. I have heard that 
they were words of wisdom as to our physical, moral and 
intellectual course at the University, but not one word did 
I catch at the time. After the address each one of us, in 
turn, marched up to the speaker, who was the Rector or 
President of the University, and shook his hand. Bach was 
next introduced to the Dean of his Faculty seated at one 
of the tables, according as he was philosophical, theologi- 



30 University Magazine. 

cal or law student. Our fees were paid, and each received 
his Anmerkungsbuch, ready for the signatures of his pro- 
fessors. I had selected from the list of lectures for the ses- 
sion those I wished to attend and entered them in my 
Anmerkungsbuch, together with the hours they would 
occupy. When I went to the first lecture under such pro- 
fessor I got his signature and the date, and this was all the 
notice taken of me by some of them during the half-year. 
When I left I presented the book once more for their sig- 
natures. My first lecture was on physics. It seems that 
lectures begin quarter of an hour after the appointed time. 
Of this I was ignorant, so I came at the hour the first time 
and waited fifteen minutes, but it was the only time I 
showed such eagerness. The last minute was early enough 
for me afterwards. Promptly at 10:15 a. m. the distin- 
guished Clausius came to his desk, faced the assembled 
audience and began his lecture. So distinctly did he speak 
and so well did he lecture that I was able to get good notes 
from the very first morning. In chemistry it was different. 
The professor spoke so rapidly and the words so ran together 
that it was several weeks before I found out what he was 
talking about. In the laboratory my desk was next to the 
assistant, and all through my course I had the benefit of 
his constant care and help. The professors in charge of 
the laboratory assigned my work and occasionally passed 
through the room and asked me how I was getting on, but, 
of course, with so many under them, could give little per- 
sonal attention to any particular one. 

One of the most interesting figures in the laboratory was 
the large, military-looking Hausdiener, Kolf. He had many 
duties to attend to, taking our orders for chemicals and 
making our purchase at the stores, bringing us luncheon, 
if we chose to spend the entire day in the laboratory, mak- 



Some Experiences at a German University. 31 

ing combustions for us and seeing to the heating and clean- 
ing of the many rooms. Above him was the Hansmeister 
and below him were other servants. He was a strong, origi- 
nal character, and had picked up a considerable knowledge 
of practical chemistry. We became quite friendly, and he 
confided to me his hope and ambition of one day emigrat- 
ing to America. 

My closest friend among the German students was one of 
the laboratory assistants, and the beginning of our inti- 
macy was somewhat singular. There was a large room in 
the laboratory in which dangerous or disagreeable experi- 
ments were carried out. One afternoon I was sent in there 
to do some work and found part of the room occupied by 
a young, spectacled fellow who was too busy to notice my 
entrance. I went whistling about my work, and soon young 
A. came up to me and said something very earnestly. I 
could not understand one word he said, so he soon began 
to gesticulate and point out his apparatus with a lot of pan- 
tomime of whose meaning I could form no idea. Seeing 
this was useless, he went and brought some one who could 
explain to me that A. was engaged in making prussic acid, 
and wished to warn me that should his apparatus break I 
was to run for the door for dear life. Thus our acquaint- 
ance began. We had desperate struggles in understanding 
one another at first, but many a pleasant walk did we have 
along the banks of the Rhine or over the hills towards 
Godesberg. Delightful to remember, too, are the meals we 
enjoyed together in the shaded gardens of the inns along 
the Rhine. 

The Germans are eminently sociable. Sitting lonely 
and friendless at the table denote in a big restaurant on my 
first Sunday, I was approached by a young student who 
very courteously asked me to join him and his companions 



32 University Magazine. 

in some trip they contemplated. The purity of his Ger- 
man and the slow, distinct utterance enabled me to under- 
stand him, while a week afterwards I was still unable to 
understand my friend A. Such friendly offers were not 
infrequent. They seemed to be destitute of that shell or 
outer covering in which the genuine Briton shuts himself 
up to fend off all humanity. The extreme politeness and 
etiquette of the Germans towards one another also sur- 
prised me. They were the largest, the handsomest and the 
most polite men I ever met, and this is particularly true of 
the Germans of the Saxon type. 

As I had come for work and had no time for play I did 
not join any of the various societies, which were divided 
into four grades, Vereins, Verbindungen, Burschenschaften 
and Corps. The last two were color-bearers and were dis- 
tinguished by their vari-colored caps of many shapes. 
Many of my American friends did belong to these socie- 
ties, and through them and others I had some glimpses of 
their life, which will form the subject of another article. 
These glimpses did not attract me. 

And so my life at a German University began, and I set- 
tled down to work. The enthusiasm, the spirit of inde- 
pendent work, the broadening of study, of methods, of 
views and of life itself could not fail to greatly influence 
all of after-life. 



HOW JOHN WARREN WON SUCCESS. 

i 'You promise me then, love?" 

She answered not one word, but threw her arms around 
his neck and gave him that assurance which was better 
than any words she could have uttered. 

John Warren was to leave the next morning to seek his 
fortune in far away Australia, like many another of his 
time, driven by the hard hand of poverty. 

They had been brought up together, he and May Owen, 
intended for each other from the time they were sweet- 
hearts at school. Her father had been a sailor, but had 
died when she was only a baby, leaving her mother but a 
small income. 

Mr. Warren, senior, was a merchant, and while alive had 
always had a plenty, but dying about a month before our 
story begins, it had been found that he had left scarcely 
enough to support his family. John must start at the bot- 
tom to gain a fortune, for he had too much ambition to be 
satisfied barely to make both ends meet. 

Everybody knew the Old North State was no place to 
allow a man to do more than his father had done before 
him; so John must go to Australia, the land of gold that 
had just been discovered, they said, and his mother had 
consented with many a hidden tear. 

John did not expect to find the gold on trees, but he did 
expect to find it in the ground, whence it could be gotten 
by industry and perseverance, and these he was willing to 
give. 

On this last afternoon he called for May to take a stroll. 
The old folks smiled as they saw them go out together. 

5 



34 University Magazine. 

They took their way toward the shore, and there he had asked 
her to wait for him until he should return, able to make 
her his wife. 

She had given him his answer, and they had spent those 
precious moments whose sweetness only true lovers know. 
And now, as the sun went down in a bank of clouds, like 
their happiness into sorrow, to rise again into more beautiful 
day, they slowly turned homeward. 

John's steamer was to leave at nine the next morning, 
but long before that time he was at the pier with his 
mother, Mrs. Owen and May. 

"All aboard!" shouts the captain, and all is a rush 
for the gangway. John tell his mother aud Mrs. Owen, 
sorrowfully, good-bye, and now he takes May's hand, and, 
as if by a sudden impulse, presses his lips to hers. 

With a bound he is on deck, and the little act is lost amid 
the crowd and taken no notice of, except by the mothers. 
The steamer moves from the pier amid a waving of handker- 
chiefs, and our little party turns away with heavy hearts. 

John stood at the rail and watched the group on the wharf 
until they became indistinguishable from the crowd around. 
Then he turned and went into his cabin to meditate on the 
great step of life he was taking. I will not say he was not 
homesick, but the die was cast, and he did not regret it. 
Time is a great physician, and gradually he took courage 
and would think only of the day when he would return 
and claim his own again. 

It was just fifteen days since he had left his native State, 
and in two days they expected to sight the Cape of Good 
Hope. It had been calm all day — that great sign of a 
coming storm — and the old tars said that Mother Carey's 
chickens were following in the wake of the ship. 



How John Warren Won Success. 35 

About ten o'clock the watch reported a stiff nor'easter 
springing up rapidly. It blew in this way for over an hour, 
the clouds gathering thick and fast till all the heavens were 
dark. The rain came in sheets; it cut the faces of the 
watch like whips of steel, until they were obliged to seek 
shelter from its fury. The wind whistled through the rig- 
ging, great black waves flung themselves against the 
good ship's sides and swept her decks, and the inky dark- 
ness made it impossible to distinguish anything a boat's 
length ahead. 

"A collision would be terrible to-night," said the cap- 
tain to the mate; "order the passengers out and tell them 
not to be frightened, but to put on the life-preservers; we 
must prepare for the worst." 

The mate carried out his orders, and soon most of the 
passengers were congregated in the mess-room. The timid 
were white with fear, and brave men looked grave. Out- 
side the tempest howled like loosened demons, but all was 
very quiet within; the men spoke in whispers, the women 
were silent. 

Suddenly the wind and rain ceased, and at the same 
moment a fierce red light, like the eye of some sea mon- 
ster, loomed above the deck, and the great black hulk of the 
western bound mail steamer was upon them. 

Quicker than thought it seemed to disappear, to appear 
again; then came the crash, and down went the gallant ship 
to rise no more. Crew and passengers had rushed on deck 
just in time to be washed off by the waves that rose above 
her. Many sank with her, but, thanks to Providence and 
the captain's forethought, the greater part were saved and 
taken up by the collider's boats. 

But what of our hero all this time? When the ships 
struck he was standing near the rail, and the shock of the 



36 University Magazine. 

blow threw him overboard, and the next thing he knew he 
was coming to the surface with his mouth full of salt water. 
But he was a fine swimmer and managed to keep afloat 
until picked up by the boat. 

The captain of the mail steamer agreed to land the ship- 
wrecked passengers at Cape Town, from whence John was 
transferred to an Australian vessel, and within a day or 
two found himself at Melbourne with even the little money 
he had brought from America gone, and no earthly belong- 
ings save the clothes he stood in. But he was young and 
strong, and the thought of May gave courage to his heart. 

He had been promised a place as shipping clerk by one 
of the mining companies, and he had been directed to 
report at their office upon his arrival at Melbourne. He 
easily found the place, and was met by a coarse-looking 
fellow, who asked him very brusquely what he would have; 
that he had no time to waste with beggars. John politely 
informed him that he would like to see the superintendent, 
and upon being told that he had the honor of holding that 
position, John stated to him that his name was Warren, and 
that he had been directed to apply to him for a position; 
that he had had letters for him, but had lost them in ship- 
wreck. 

At this point the superintendent burst into a loud guffaw 
and said he had received instructions about such a man, 
but was also officially informed that this same Warren had 
been drowned, washed ashore and buried at the Cape; but 
since he was such a smart scoundrel to get up such a nice 
little plot he would give him a pick to go up the country 
to the mine, as he was in need of more hands. 

John was in rags, and he saw he had to take his choice 
between this offer and starvation, for it was not likely that 
he could get another place; so he accepted, determined to 



How John Warren Won Success. 37 

surmount all difficulties and to prove himself worthy of 
May's love. He was sent to the agency's store-house, where 
he got food and a place to sleep, with a large number of 
other new hands. 

They were carried to the mine the next day, and John's 
work began in earnest. He was required to go down into 
the mine at six and saw the daylight no more till six again. 
He had coarse food and slept under a temporary shed with 
about thirty others. For this he got only small pay, but 
he saved up day by day instead of gambling or buying 
drink with the other miners. The work was hard, the 
heavy air oppressed him and the tools blistered his hands. 
His companions, tough and rude fellows, shunned him and 
called him a tenderfoot, and jeered at his refinement and 
evidences of gentle breeding. Often he almost gave up in 
despair, and was on the point of doing as they did and 
drowning all care in drink; but he would think of May 
and take heart again. 

So a year and a half went by, when, one night as he was 
lying half awake thinking of how long it would be before 
he would leave this miserable place and this combat with 
despair, he heard a whisper near him: 

"Jim, we'll be rich by this time to-morrow." 

Rising cautiously on his elbow, John saw that one of the 
miners near him, a man noted for his desperate character, 
had rolled over in his bunk and was talking to his mate. 

"Are you sure he sleeps with his door unlocked ? " he 
continued. 

The man gave an answer which John could not hear, 
but these words were enough to reveal their plot. A few 
days before they had struck a large vein of ore, and the 
dust had been stored in the room of the superintendent, 
who had come to oversee the mine and would remain a day 
longer. 



38 University Magazine. 

The next morning John told him what he had heard, 
and that he thought an attempt would be made to rob him 
that night. But the superintendent only sneered and said 
that he had better not tell the men themselves so. But John 
kept himself awake that night. 

It was nearly midnight when he saw the two men he sus- 
pected get up and sneak out, and as the door closed upon 
them he sprang from his bed and followed them silently. 
The three men crossed the little wood that intervened 
between the men's cabin and the superintendent's. Once, 
as a twig crackled beneath John's foot, the others turned 
and peered into the darkness behind them, but the shadow 
of the trees protected him. Now they pause before the 
door of the hut and speak a few words in whispers. John 
is just behind them. One of them, cautiously opening the 
unlocked door, disappears into the dimly lighted interior, and 
as his comrade would follow him a well-directed blow fells 
him to the earth. The fall and muttered groan awake 
the superintendent — there is a cry and the sound of a strug- 
gle within the hut. Springing over the prostrate body, 
John throws himself upon the struggling forms fighting 
desperately and seizes from the villain's hand the uplifted 
knife, which, in another moment, would have descended 
into the superintendent's heart. 

"And you did it all for me?" said May, closing her ten- 
der little hands over the ones that had grown so brown and 
strong in their two years of toil. "Working with those 
dreadful pick-axes and then risking your life for that hor- 
rid man who was so unkind to you? Oh, John, if you 
had been killed!" and her brown eyes grew soft with tears. 

But I wasn't, you see, dear, and thank God I was able to 
save a fellow-being's life, and you mustn't revile the super- 



General Pettigrew. 39 

intendent, for he gave me the chance to buy shares in the 
mine, and so the means to come back to you so soon 
instead of the long years it might have taken." 

"Yes, I won't think harshly of him," said May softly; 
"oh, John, it is so beautiful to think you are back again, 
and here in this very spot by the sea. It was here we said 
good-bye; do you remember?" 

"Can I ever forget? Was it not the memory of that 
promise that guided and shielded my life? May, do you 
remember it, and are you ready to fulfill it now?" 

And again May gave no answer — in words. 

Geo. B. Wills, '95. 



GENERAL PETTIGREW. 

Messrs. Editors: — In order to show that I did not 
exaggerate when, in the May, 1893, number of the Uni- 
versity Magazine, I estimated General Pettigrew as a 
man of extraordinary genius and promise, please allow me 
to quote, with the writer's consent, from a letter recently 
received from the biographer of Commodore Maury, his 
daughter, Mrs. Diana Fontaine Maury Corbin: 

"My father greatly admired General Pettigrew. He said to me one day 
during the war, ' That young man is a born leader of men. If au3*thing 
were to happen to General Lee I believe he is the man to fill his place. ' ' ' 

Commodore Maury was a man of clear and accurate 
judgment. He was intimately acquainted with General 
Pettigrew. He had been thrown with the great men of 
his time. This expression of his opinion, that General 
Pettigrew was worthy to succeed the most able military 
man of our civil war, is very lofty praise. Was he right? 



4<d University Magazine. 

Who knows? At the age of thirty-five Lee was a Captain 
of recognized talent, who had not seen a fight; Grant, 
although he had fought well in Mexico, had retired from 
the army, and Stonewall Jackson, a college professor, so 
awkward as to be called by the students "Fool Tom Jack- 
son." If Washington had died at the same age, he -would 
have been remembered as a wealthy planter, who had a 
gallant, but short, experience in the French war. Few 
heroes of history have proven their capacity for great com- 
mands until after thirty-five years of age. 

Yours truly, 

Kemp P. Battle. 



PROGRESS OF SCIENCE. 

THE ELECTRIC FURNACE. 

Great advance is now being made in science by the means 
of the electric furnace, especially in metallurgy. The 
French chemist, Moissan, has reported some interesting 
experiments in this line. 

The construction of the electric furnace is very simple. 
It consists of two electrodes, which project into a closed 
box made of some refractory material. In some of his 
experiments Moissan used "quick" lime. Others often 
use graphetic carbon. Some of these furnaces act like the 
arc lamp, the electric arc giving the heat; others are com- 
parable to the incandescent light. 

The heat of the electric furnace is the greatest we know 
of. Gold, silver, copper, iron and manganese, metals 
which are volatilized by the oxy-hydrogen blow-pipe only 



Progress of Science. 41 

with difficulty, are volatilized by the electric furnace with 
great ease and rapidity. Platinum, which is not vaporized 
by the heat of the oxy-hydrogen blow-pipe, is easily vapor- 
ized in the heat of the electric furnace. 

Lime and magnesia, two most stable bodies, are quickly 
fused and vaporized, while the carbon of coke is converted 
into graphite, and there is a. probability of its being vapor- 
ized. In fact, the most stable compounds of mineral chem- 
istry disappear in the electric furnace either by disassocia- 
tion or by volatilization. 

Metals which are reduced from their compounds only 
with great difficulty by the ordinary means are quickly 
reduced in the electric furnace in a very pure state. 

Many accepted ideas as to the behavior of metals and as 
to chemical reaction will have to be revised in the light 
thrown upon them by experiments with the electric furnace. 

Thomas Clarke, '96. 



BOOK NOTICES. 

Amiel's Journal. Translated by Mrs. Humphrey Ward. 
2 vols., 18-mo., pp. 719, $1.50. New York: Macmillan 
& Co. 

Psychology does not concern itself with classes of men 
or grades of talent; it has an all-human interest in man. 
And it is this all-human interest in life on the part of 
psychology that has enlarged and enriched our literature 
during the recent years. Our attention has been brought 
to that which is human in men, and we are surprised to find 
ourselves so much a brother to the unknown, and often 
despised. 

A product of this psychological movement is Amiel's 
Journal. The Journal is a record of an inner life. Amiel 
was a youth of promise. He was well educated. Five 
years of his mature life were given to study in the German 
universities. He returned home and was made Professor 
of ^Esthetics and French Literature in the Academy, of 
Geneva. Thus started, his friends expected a large, even 
brilliant, career. But they were disappointed. The lectures 
were quiet and dry, and nothing of account was published. 
Amiel suggested that the administrators of his estate use 
their discretion as to publishing extracts from a journal he 
had kept. The result of this is the book we have. Amiel 
died in 1881, the Journal was published in 1882. It has 
taken its place as one of the great books of the world. 

This journal appeals to three classes: 

(a). To students of the inner life; 

(b). To literary critics; 

(c). To skeptics. 

The skeptic, the man whose life in its deeper needs 
refuses to find rest in any of the historical creeds, will see 
in Amiel a fellow-spirit. But he will see also that Amiel 
never lost his reverence for even the simplest form of truth. 
His life was a feverish search for that truth that could call 
out all the powers of trust and worship of his soul. 



Book Notices. 43 

The literary critic will find pleasure in the style, the 
clearness, and the analyses of the Journal. But this Jour- 
nal appeals permanently to the first class, to students of 
the inner life. How shall we understand such a life? The 
theories are numerous. 

M. Renan says: "In these two volumes of Pensies, with- 
out any sacrifice of truth to artistic effect, we have both 
the perfect mirror of a modern mind of the best type, 
matured by the best modern culture, and also a striking 
picture of the sufferings which beset the sterility of genius. " 

M. Scherer says: "The man who during his life-time 
was incapable of giving us any deliberate or conscious 
work worthy of his powers has now left us, after his death, 
a book which will not die; for the secret of Amiel's 
malady is sublime and the expression of it wonderful." 

Mrs. Ward, in her introduction, says: "It is a pitiful story. 
Amiel might have been saved from despair by love and 
marriage, by paternity, by strenuous and successful literary 
production; and this mental habit of his, this tyranny of 
ideal conceptions, helped by the natural accompaniment of 
such a tyranny, a critical sense of abnormal acuteness, 
stood between him and everything healing and restoring." 

Amiel said to himself: "Let the living live; and you 
gather together your thoughts, leave behind you a legacy 
of feeling and ideas; you will be most useful so." 

The Human Mystery in Hamlet : An Attempt to Say an 
Unsaid Word, with Suggestive Parallelisms from the Elder 
Poets. By Martin W. Cooke, A. M., President of the New 
York State Bar Association. 16-mo., pp. 135, $1.00. New 
York : Fords, Howard & Hulbert. 

The theories of Hamlet are almost as numerous as the 
critics of the play, with all possible shades of distinction. 
On the single question of the real or feigned insanity of 
Hamlet Shaksperian scholars have quarreled for centuries 
with no further prospect of agreement now than at the 
beginning. More ambitious than many another, the pres- 
ent writer, in this the latest attempt at the solution of the 
mystery of Hamlet, aims to reconcile all the varied con- 
jectures put forth by all the critics. 



44 University Magazine. 

"Hudson, speaking of the diversity of opinions in regard 
to 'Hamlet,' and admitting that there are facts in the delin- 
eation which, considered by themselves, would sustain any 
one of the varied views, but none of them reconcilable with 
all the facts taken together, says: 'All agree in thinking 
of Hamlet as an actual person.' "* This supposition one 
author regards as a fundamental error. Hamlet does not 
represent a person, but is the embodiment of the mental 
struggles of humanity at large. Shakspere "is not 
exhibiting Hamlet — a man — but using him as a mirror to 
reflect his great theme — Man."f "The office of the char- 
acter is to exhibit typical mental struggles. Hamlet is not 
a person, he is a type."! "Hamlet is made to exhibit 
mental agitation, the purpose and end of which is to show 
neither madness nor the struggles of the hero with the 
palpable obstacles to his action, but rather the conflict 
between his will and his passions, and thereby to illustrate 
that contention which, in the life of man in this world, is 
universal and ever active, which begins with his birth 
and ends only with his death. It is the spiritual tragedy 
of humanity — the strife between the higher forces of the 
being and the lower. The forces in conflict are shown 
as under law, however, and the final cause of the being and 
the struggles is not in this world. "§ 

If this be the true theory, the reader sees himself reflected, 
and "herein is the secret of the universal interest in this 
play. The simple spectator finds a response to his own 
struggles. For such a view the play was designed. The 
critic's eye may find what he is looking for (as the believer 
in any creed may find seeming support to his doctrine in 
the Bible), but he may, at the same time, fall far short of 
Shakspere's thought. "|j 

All the theories, then, are right, and none. In so far as 
each represents a phase of humanity just to that extent is 
it a true characterization of the play. 

Mr. Cooke argues his opinion with much force and 
ability. Evidently thoroughly at home in his Hamlet, we 
could wish that he had worked out the whole play with the 
minuteness which he has bestowed on the first act. We 



*p. 36. fp- 38. tP- 21- IV- 23- IIP- 35- 



Book Notices. 45 

cannot accept his theory in its entirety, but none the less 
his presentation of it is of great interest, and will justify 
a careful perusal from all thoughtful students of the Master 
of Literature. 

In Section IV the author draws a most instructive 
parallel between Hamlet and the Blectra of Sophocles on 
the one hand and the iBneid of Virgil on the other. That 
Shakspere had knowledge of Sophocles' play seems beyond 
doubt — the plot is almost identical. That he drew inspi- 
ration from the iEneid also is, at least to the writer of this 
notice, a new discovery; but the points of similarity, as 
pointed out by Mr. Cooke, between Hamlet and iEneas are 
to say the least remarkable. 

The Choice of Books. By Frederic Harrison. 18-mo., 
pp. 163, 50 cents. New York: Macmillan & Co. 

This charming little volume is intended to serve as a 
guide to the right choice and proper use of books. Mr. 
Harrison, in an earnest manner, at all times interesting 
and instructive, warns against " the misuse of books, the 
debilitating waste of brain in aimless, promiscuous, vapid 
reading. ' ' 

In the choice of books he inclines to the classic and 
standard works of well-known authors. li JVon mulla, sed 
multiim" is his motto; and he insists upon a thorough 
reading of those books representative of every great type of 
thought and every dominant phase of human nature. Our 
reading, he maintains, should be conducted along the lines 
of a sound education, aiming "to perfect the whole nature 
and character." Read, then, the "grand old masters," 
for the masterpieces of the world are for us, "the master 
instruments of a solid education." The essay is enlivened 
by shrewd criticism of the great writers of prose and poetry, 
both ancient and modern, and the vigor of his style gives 
point and force to all the writer says. He shows wide 
research, thoughtful study and great critical acumen, and 
his work is a real contribution to literature, besides being 
of great practical value as an intelligent guide to the world's 
best books. Reprinted now, in this convenient form, the 
volume will doubtless be more widely read. 



46 University Magazine. 

The Novel: What It Is. By F. Marion Crawford. 
18-mo., pp. 108, 75 cents. New York: Macmillan & Co. 

Mr. Crawford here answers his own question, "What is 
a novel?" We could not desire a better authority; for if 
the author of "Mr. Isaac," "Doctor Claudius," "A 
Roman Singer," and the Saracinesca novels does not know 
what a novel is, we are indeed without guide or teacher. 
Mr. Crawford is eminently practical. To him a novel is a 
marketable commodity, belonging to the class of "intel- 
lectual artistic luxuries." In the manner of telling it 
shall appeal to the intellect, shall satisfy the requirements 
of art, and be of no use to a man when he is at work. As 
the "novel with a purpose " professes to be an "intellectual 
moral lesson," not an intellectual artistic luxury, it is a 
fraud on the purchaser, who ought to be able to recover the 
sum he has wasted in the self-styled novel. 

The question of "art for art" or "art for the public" is 
answered by the phrase, "marketable commodity." But 
how about "realism" ? It is a good thing- that the Anglo- 
Saxon novelist tempers the wind of his realism to the 
innocence of that ubiquitous shorn lamb, whom the French 
call "the young person." The perfect novel must be clean 
and sweet, realistic, not photographic, truly human, trans- 
cendent in its idealism, all-embracing in its religion: but 
where is such a perfect novel? 

The novel is a modern invention, called for by the 
emotional phase introduced into life by the French Revolu- 
tion. But while it is easy to appeal to the emotions it is 
hard to appeal to the heart. The heart is the basis of all 
that is permanent and universal, and humanity, the 
novelist's master, bids him strike only at the heart. 

In a late article by Mr. F. Harrison in The Forum a 
gloomy view of the future of the novel is taken. Uniform 
education, love of comfort, a longing for equality, the 
growth of socialism in the highest meaning of the word, 
will, Mr. Harrison thinks, kill all imagination. Mr. Craw- 
ford asks, Are we tending to such a state? He allows that 
in Mr. Bellamy's ideal state novels would not sell; in fact, 
they would be incomprehensible; but he thinks a faith 
able to remove mountains at "cut rates" will be required 



Book Notices. 47 

to realize such a state, and that till then the novel will 
hold its own. The whole of Mr. Crawford's little book is 
of deep interest, and much therein is highly suggestive. 

Raleigh's New Fort in Virginia, 1585, by E. Gra- 
ham Daves, has been reprinted in pamphlet from the Maga- 
zine of American History for May -June, 1893. 

"God hath reserved the countries lying north of Florida 
to be reduced to Christian civility by the English nation. 
On Roanoke Island was established the first English colony; 
here was born the first white American ; here was celebrated 
the first Protestant rite within the present limits of the 
United States. . No spot in the country should be dearer 
or more sacred to us than that which was marked by the 
foot-prints of the English race in America. In this year of 
the great exhibition at Chicago, and in these days of en- 
thusiasm about Columbus and his explorations, it is espe- 
cially important not to lose sight of the fact that he did 
not discover the continent of North America, and that the 
United States owes nothing to Spanish civilization. A 
plan has been formed to purchase and preserve the ruins 
of this fort, and all who may feel an interest in the 
patriotic enterprise are requested to communicate with the 
writer," at 221 St. Paul street, Baltimore, Md. 



CURRENT COMMENT. 

Work has again begun in the school-room, and the various colleges 
and schools throughout the State have opened well this year. From all 
sides we hear of increased numbers, despite the great and prevalent finan- 
cial depression. 

The University, indeed, had the largest opening since 1875, with more 
than two hundred and fifty students present the first day and more than 
three hundred and fifty before two weeks had passed. Such an opening 
makes us believe that at least four hundred men will come here during this 
year. 

This goodly number tells of the growth of the University, for only 
three years ago we had but one hundred and ninety-eight men; in i89i-'92, 
two hundred and forty-six; in i892-'93, three hundred and seventeen, and 
in i893-'94 we will register over four hundred men. 

And the University has grown not in numbers alone. In equipment 
and scholarship the advance has been marked, keeping pace with the 
numerical growth, and the standard will be raised higher when preparatory 
schools will respond and fit men for such instruction. For this higher 
work extensive preparations have been made. The different laboratories 
have been enlarged and better furnished, and special libraries provided 
for seminary work, while several changes have been made in the literary 
departments. An able assistant has been secured in English and History, 
and, to meet a growing need, a course for teachers has been provided. 
The chair in Greek, in the absence of Dr. Alexander, is filled by an emi- 
nent scholar, who offers several new courses in Greek, 'and gives instruc- 
tion in Sanskrit for the first time in the history of the University. In the 
Latin department an instructor has been provided, and a course offered to 
teachers of Latin. 

Such, in outline, are the changes in the various departments. But, 
meantime, other and very material changes have been made. The build- 
ings were renovated recently, the dormitories greatly improved and a sys- 
tem of water-works put in, providing baths, closets, etc. 

With such an equipment the University is better prepared than ever 
before to realize her mission, which is to make a man all he is capable of 
being. And this fact has been recognized at home and abroad, so that 
we meet with men here from every quarter — from Minnesota to Texas and 
from New York to Florida. 

Great is her success, but we can make the University more nearly what 
she ought to be if we, as her sous, will but do our whole duty. 

This summer saw the first session of the summer school of geology, 
which had ten men in its two sections. We hope that it may prove the 



Current Comment. 49 

beginning of summer work in all the departments of the University. If 
we can but open our doors through the summer to the teachers of the 
State, to men and women of attainments and experience in knowledge, 
the cause of higher education among us will be greatly set forward. 

The Young Men's Christian Association is an important element 
in the life of the University. The student is an individual sui generis, 
and his religious character will be formed by influences growing up out of 
his environment. The Church is, of course, or should be, the prime factor 
in his development. Her science, her teachings, should impress his heart 
and guide his conduct. Well for him if he bathe his soul in her gracious 
atmosphere as often as possible. He should do some distinctive work for 
her and receive that discipline which she alone can give him. But (we 
repeat) with all this, social influences peculiar to the student's circum- 
stances will color his character, and so his religious progress in the Uni- 
versity will be best secured by using these circumstances. He is young 
with all a youth's demand for variety and freedom. His temptations 
assail him on the college ground and through college relationships. If 
the Young Men's Christian Association provides the evening retreat for 
song and prayer, if the brave young spirit whom he loves and admires as 
a brilliant scholar or wit or athlete is found there, speaking to the point 
on Christian experience or sending ' ' winged words ' ' to God in a warm 
supplication, does not that meet "a felt need," and will not teachers and 
parents at home and good pastors find that they can ask a blessing on such 
an association? A non-denominational institution like our State Univer- 
sity, a non-ecclesiastical body like our students, must then have a religious 
center and rallying-ground of their own or miss a continual inspiration 
and formative influence which is essential, if the3' would withstand the 
tide that threatens the sensitive elements of our spiritual life here. "A 
local habitation " as well as "a name " such an organization should have. 
The Chapel should have a second story, or rather the religious people of 
the State, the alumni and friends of the University, should provide a suita- 
able structure, like those striking Association buildings that adorn Yale 
and Cornell, which shall invite the student to God's service, while it sug- 
gests the beauty of holiness. Special courses of sermons, such as we have 
had, lectures on the testimony of the ancient monuments — now being bet- 
ter and better understood — to the sacred Scriptures, on the life of the 
Saviour, on the great hymns, on spiritual leaders and reformers, should be 
maintained. We have many noble aids to devotion now; let us consecrate 
and define the agencies that make for Christian activity and that will raise 
still higher our spiritual ideals. It is for our students themselves to begin 
this good work, to make the Christian Association what it should be. 
They should never permit themselves to go backward from that standard 
once set with lofty and beautiful enthusiasm by George Worth and his 
confreres. 



AMONG THE MAGAZINES. 

The Review of Reviews for September is an interesting number. There 
are five special articles : ' ' The Silver Situation in Colorado, ' ' by Edward W. 
Bemis; "The Silver Question," by Prof. Von Hoist, of the University of 
Chicago; "Character Sketch of Lady Henr}' Somerset," by W. T. Stead; 
"Engineer Ferris and His Wheel," by Carl Snyder; "The Miracle of the 
Maid of Orleans." 

The article on the Ferris Wheel is especially interesting, as the writer 
takes the ground that the wheel is the distinguishing feature of the World's 
Fair in the same wa} r as was the Eiffel Tower of the Paris Exhibition. 

The articles on the silver question are from different points of view, 
Prof. Von Hoist taking a decided stand for monometallism, while Mr. 
Bemis pleads for the Colorado miner. Progress of the World is devoted 
chiefly to the monetary question, though there is a clear explanation of 
the Siamese difficulty. Upon the whole, it is quite a readable number. 

An article in the August number on Leland Stanford and his University 
is so good that an extract may be pardoned: "But Leland Stanford invested 
in himself, and the distinction marks sharply two very different breeds of 
so-called successful and self-made men in this country. Young Stanford 
took his money and went to Albany to make a lawyer of himself. After 
three years he had spent all his money, but he was a lawyer. * * * 

"Everj 7 man who has ever made a real success has valued himself far 
above his possessions, and has been willing to invest freely in everything 
obtainable that could add to his power and resources as a man. A pitia- 
ble sight, truly, is that of a young man clinging timidly to a little prop- 
erty, fearful of losing it, eager to increase it, and unwilling to take enough 
stock in himself to invest his paltry dollars in an education, in travel, or 
in those things that would give him power either to command money or 
to be useful and happy without it. 

"Personal success requires individual development, and the young man 
who is too mean to value his own culture and preparation for life more 
highly than money that would buj' him advantages never makes a useful 
citizen or finds a satisfactory career. Spending money on one's self and 
investing money in one's self are often very different things." 

The Cosmopolitan for September is devoted principally to the White 
City and its wonders. One can find an article to his taste whether his 
hobby be architecture, manufactures, electricity, mineralogy, sociology or 
art. 



Among the Magazines. 51 

The numerous illustrations are good, as they always are in this periodi- 
cal. The article on Foreign Buildings, accompanied \>y illustrations of 
some of the more impressive ones, is very readable. The paper on Mines 
and Metallurgy, by F. J. V. Skiff, Chief of Department, makes special 
mention of the North Carolina gems. There is an installment of Howell's 
" Traveler from Altruria," and a story or two. Since the price of this 
magazine has been reduced one-half (to $1.50 per year) the circulation 
will certainly much increase. 

Mr. Walter Besant, in "A First Impression," says: "Then, again, the 
poetry of the thing! Were these buildings, every one, to the unprofes- 
sional eye, a miracle of beauty, thus arranged so as to produce this mar- 
velous effect of beauty by one master brain, or by many ? For never 
before, in any age, in any country, has there been so wonderful an arrange- 
ment of lovely buildings as at Chicago in this present year of grace! 

"The Hanging Gardens of Babylon, which some of us may remember 
as belonging to a previous existence, were fine. There were some very 
fine things in Rome, especially when Nero was Emperor and architect, 
but the common people saw little of his palace. There was rather a nice 
little show in London thirty years ago, and another, not without its points, 
in Philadelphia, seventeen years ago. But nowhere, at any time, has there 
been presented to the world any group of buildings so entirely beautiful 
in themselves and in their arrangement as this group in Chicago which 
they call the World's Fair." 

The Scribner of the month is, to the general reader, scarcely so inter- 
esting as usual. More articles are purely literary. Few deal also with 
subjects purely American. Fiction is abundant, but hardly up to the mark 
of Scribner' 1 s stories. Alexander Corgill writes of Isaak Walton, and a 
chapter from Mr. Lang's "Letter's to Dead Authors" is published. This 
one is to Samuel Pepys, Esq., and is an addition to the old edition. The 
article by Austin Dobsou on Samuel Richardson is a pleasant account of 
the revival of interest in eighteenth century literature. The other articles 
are well written. Among the more interesting are "The Tides of the Bay 
of Fundy," by Gustav Kobbe, and "The Machinist," by Fred. J. Miller 
in a series of papers on "Occupations of Men." 

Those who pick up the Atlantic for September seeking for fiction will 
be disappointed. Unless they can appreciate the installment of Charles 
Egbert Craddock's rather commonplace serial, "His Vanished Star, " their 
desires must go unsatisfied. However, the number is good enough in 
other respects to more than atone for the scarcity of romance. Henry A. 
Clapp writes an appreciative sketch of the work and ability of Edwin 
Booth, telling much of him as an actor, though but little as a man. In 
these days of fanciful theorizing in regard to the currency question an 



52 University Magazine. 

article like that of J. B. McMaster's is refreshing. His subject is " Wild- 
cat Banking in the Teens." Those who cannot understand why the 
farmer wishes something better than his lot, and is not contented with his 
condition, should read the article on the "Isolation of Life on Prairie 
Farms," by E. V. Smalley. Perhaps the most aggressive article is that 
by Francis A. Walker in reply to Professor Shaler on technical instruc- 
tion. General Walker takes issue with the conclusion that a technical 
school can reach its highest point of usefulness only in connection with 
a great university, and argues vigorously for his side of the case. He 
takes Professor Shaler's arguments to prove the proposition that the 
technical school can not be most useful in connection with a university. 
There are other articles and some verse. The book reviews are carefully 
done. 



COLLEGE RECORD. 

APPOINTMENTS MADE AT COMMENCEMENT, 1893. 

Edwin Anderson Alderman, Ph. B. (Univ. N. C), 1882, Professor of 
English and History in State Normal and Industrial School, to be Pro- 
fessor of the History and Philosophy of Teaching. 

Herbert Cushing Tolman, A. B. (Yale), 1888, Ph. D., 1890, Professor of 
Greek in the University of Wisconsin, to be Professor of Sanskrit, Acting 
Professor of Greek. 

Collier Cobb, A. B. (Harvard), 1889, Assistant Professor of Geology and 
Mineralogy, to be Professor of Geology and Mineralogy. 

Charles Baskerville, 1892, to be Instructor in Chemistry for i893-'94. 

T. R. Foust, 1892, to be Instructor in Drawing and Engineering for 
i893-'94. 

J. T. Pugh, 1893, to be Instructor in Latin for i893~'94. 

HONORAE.Y DEGREES CONFERRED— COMMENCEMENT, 1893. 

Doctor of Laws {LL. D.). — Thomas C. Fuller, Judge United States 
Court of Claims; James C. MacRae, Justice North Carolina Supreme 
Court; Armistead Burwell, Justice North Carolina Supreme Court; Eben 
Alexander, Minister to Greece, Roumania and Servia. 

Doctor of Letters (Litt. D.).— Charles D. Mclver (1881), President 
State Normal and Industrial School for Women. 

Doctor of Divinity (D. D.). — Rev. Gabriel Johnston, of Canada. 

DEGREES CONFERRED IN COURSE. 

Bachelor -of Arts {A. B.).—S. F. Austin, J. M. Cheek, R. M. Davis, 
J. A. Jones, A. H. Koonce, J. T. Pugh, E. M. Wilson. 

Bachelor of Philosophy {Ph. B.). — J. C. Biggs, Perrin Busbee, F. C. 
Harding, E. A. Moye, Jr., H. E. Rondthaler, W. B. Snow, V. E. Whit- 
lock, E. P. Willard, W. P. Wooten. 

Bachelor of Science {S. B.). — A. S. Barnard, A. J. Edwards, H. R. Fer- 
guson. 

Bachelor of Letters {Litt. B.). — A. B. Andrews, Jr., A. H. McFadyen, 
Z. I. Walser. 

Bachelor of Engineering {B. E.). — Michael Hoke. 

Bachelor of Law {LL. B.).—U. A. McKethan. 

Doctor of Philosophy {Ph. D.).—J. E. Fogartie, A. B., A. M. 

MEDALS AND PRIZES. 

Mangum Medal, J. C. Biggs; Representative Medal, J. E. Ingle; Essay- 
ist's Medal, John M. Cheek; Greek Prize, T. D. Warren; Worth Prize, 
J. M. Cheek; History Prize, F. L. Wilcox. 



54 University Magazine. 

SPECIAL CERTIFICATES. 

Mathematics.—}. A. Jones, V. E. Whitlock, W. P. Wooten. 
Latin— -T. J. Pugli. 

Greek.— R. M. Davis, T. J. Pugh, W. B. Suow. 
French— V. E. Whitlock. 

UNDERGRADUATE HONORS. 

Junior Class. — H. H. Home, great honor; T. J. Wilson, honor. 
Sophomore Class. — F. L. Carr, great honor; J. E. Alexander, T. D. 
Warren, honor. 
Freshman Class. — J. C. Eller, honor. 

The first session of the summer school of geology was held between 
June 9th and July 23d. The total tumber of students was ten. 

During The summer extensive improvements have been made iu and 
about the college. The two old buildings, known as the "Old East" and 
"Old West," have been entirely renovated. A complete set of water- 
works has been established, thus supplying a long-felt necessity. All the 
recitation-rooms have been supplied with new seats, furnished with sup- 
ports for writing. The gymnasium has been completed and many other 
improvements made. Truly the University is on the road to success. 

The Committee of Inspection, consisting of Dr. R. H. Lewis, chair- 
man, Dr. P. L. Murphy and Mr. John W. Fries, came up on September 
21st to inspect the water-works. They brought with them Mr. Knox, an 
expert sanitary engineer, who examined the works and reported favorably. 
Everything is in good working order and affords satisfaction to all. 

Charees Baskervii.ee, 1892, Instructor iu Chemistry, spent the sum- 
mer in Germany in the study of chemistry and geology. 

C. H. White has been appointed assistant in the physical laboratory. 

W. R. Kenan, Jr., has been appointed assistant in the chemical labora- 
tory. 

H. M. Thompson, 1895, and C. H. White, 1893, have been appointed to 
fill vacancies on the board of Magazine editors. 

Mr. Hunter LEE Harris, 1889, was drowned in Lower Little River 
on July 13th while at work on the State Geological Survey. In his death 
the University loses one of her most promising sons, societ}' an ornament, 
Christianity a noble exemplar. A sketch of his life will be prepared for 
an early issue of the Magazine. 

Mr. John A. Maxwele, soou after returning home for the summer 
vacation, was taken sick and lingered but a few days, when God saw fit 
to take him from us. Mr. Maxwell was a member of the Freshman Class 
and took a good stand in it. 



College. Record. 55 

We LOSE of our last year's foot-ball team Hoke, Biggs, Devin and 
Gibbs. These are all excellent players and gave much strength to our 
team last year. We have, however, many new men who are very promis- 
ing. Some have had experience in the game at other institutions and all 
have the proper brawn and enthusiasm to fill our gaps and probably to 
displace some of our former team. An experienced trainer has been 
secured and a very attractive schedule of games arranged for this fall. 
The enthusiasm and manly spirit of the men, coupled with the rigid 
training, will make this year's team well able to uphold the high reputa- 
tion won last 3'ear. 

Dr. Thomas Hume delivered at Chicago this vacation, before the 
National Summer School of Methods, a course of twenty-two lectures, one 
series on Shakspere's Method of Treating English History and another on 
Nineteenth Century Poetry, with special discussion of Tennyson as the 
Representative Poet of the Age. These lectures were attended by 
interested audiences during the mornings of the last two weeks in July. 
The Chicago dailies refer in very complimentary terms to some of his 
work. 

The Standard, one of the leading religious weeklies, has this to say: 
"The lecture of the morning on Shakspere was instructive, eloquent, 
sprightly, full of interest throughout and interspersed with illustrations 
from the text. Dr. Hume has evidently loved and lived with the great 
dramatist." 

The Chicago correspondent of the New York Examiner, who, under 
the signature A. K. P., is recognized as an authority in theology and 
literature, writes, "The Chicago Ministers' Conference is under obligations 
to its visitors for contributions of marked interest to its summer pro- 
gramme," and after tributes to Professor Bickmore, of New York, and 
Dr. Gordon, of Boston, continues: "Another visitor, and one whom we 
shall be heartily glad to see and hear again, was Dr. Thomas Hume, of the 
University of North Carolina. Dr. Hume read to us a delightful paper 
on the 'Moral Teaching of Shakspere,' supplementing his manuscript, 
as he read, with felicitous extemporaneous comments, and making the 
more effectual^, because indirectly, a plea for imaginative literature as 
an aid to pulpit teaching, as over against the dependence upon pure 
didacticism." 

Dr. Hume lectured also on Shakspere and the Wars of the Roses at the 
Greenbrier White Sulphur Springs. 

The entertainment given in Gerrard Hall on Thursday evening, 
September 28th, was the first of such diversions during the present college 
year. It is all too seldom that we in Chapel Hill are privileged to listen 
to a "programme musical and literary," as this one was styled, and we 
welcome every such opportunity to cultivate the sesthetic element in our 



56 University Magazine. 

somewhat one-sided lives. A good-sized audience listened attentively to 
the trio of Virginia ladies; not, however, without some disappointment as 
regards the musical part of the programme. Mrs. Mattie Betts Thomas, 
"soprano soloist," has a handsome face and figure and a charming man- 
ner on the stage, but her voice is too light for the concert-hall, how- 
ever dainty it ma} r be in the drawing-room. Her medium tones are 
almost evanescent, and the lower ones seem almost harsh by contrast. 
Her substitution of the familiar "Suanee River" for the last number was 
most happy, as she was heard there to best advantage. A similar substi- 
tution of some ballads in place of her other two numbers would have been 
much to her advantage. The accompanist, Mrs. Alexander Green, per- 
formed her part conscientiously, though in a somewhat jerky fashion. 

By far the greatest honor was carried off by the reader, Miss Frances 
Leigh Starr, a young lady of marked self-possession, excellent facial 
expression, and thorough sympathy with the spirit of her selections. She 
occasionally spoke too rapidly to be consistent with distinct enunciation, 
and so, once or twice, a good point was barely appreciated by the audi- 
ence. She held their attention, however, successfully, was recalled after 
each selection and responded each time in a way that was eminently sat- . 
isfactory. We hope to hear them all again. 

PHILOLOGICAL CLUB. 

The first regular meeting of the college year was held Friday P. M., 
September 29th, 1893, Prof. Harrington in the chair. Prof. Tolman offered 
a criticism of a rendering by Bohtlingk of a passage in the Khandogya 
Upanishad, where (I, 5, 1) there is a positive blunder through a violation 
of a well-known Sanskrit idiom. In this connection this Upanishad was 
described, Bohtlingk's edition commended in general and criticised in mi- 
nor points, and the fact that there is no good English translation deplored. 

Prof. Tolman also presented a paper discussing the use of the Sanskrit 
particle SV with the imperative, suggesting that the right significance of 
it under those circumstances had not yet been seen by translators, and 
showing its commonest use to be that of softening the force of the bald 
imperative, and that thus it may often be rendered, "Be so good as to," 
etc. Similar uses in other languages were compared. 

Dr. Hume called attention to the development of the German Comita- 
tus (Tacitus, Ger. 12-14) in the English feudal baron, as seen in the 
Saxon poem, the battle of Maldron, and even in Shakspere's Heniy IV. 

Prof. Harrington gave the results of an investigation of Cicero's treat- 
ment of the Dactylic Hexameter verse, showing that the fragments of 
his poetical writings in that measure show a remarkable development in 
poetic form as compared with his immediate predecessors, or even with 
his contemporaries. 

After informal mention and discussion of recent books the Club 
adjourned. 



College Record. 57 



RESOLUTIONS OF RESPECT. 



Hall of Philanthropic Society, Sept. 15, 1893. 

Whereas, It has pleased God in His Allwise Providence to remove 
from our midst our late fellow-member, John A. Maxwell; be it therefore 

Resolved, That in his death our Society has lost a most devoted mem- 
ber and the University a most promising student. Be it also 

Resolved, That the Philanthropic Society, of which he was a member, 
extend its deepest sympathy to the bereaved family and friends. Be it 
further 

Resolved, That these resolutions be spread upon a page of the minutes 
dedicated to his memory and a copy of them be sent to the afflicted fatuity, 
to the University Magazine, and also to the State press. 



Whereas, Divine Providence has seen fit to remove from among us 
our great and honored fellow-member, Hunter L. Harris; therefore be it 
Resolved, That in his death the Philanthropic Society loses a faithful 
member and the University a sincere friend; and also be it 

Resolved, That we hereby tender to the bereaved family our sincerest 
sympathy. Further be it 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the afflicted 
family, to the State press, to the University Magazine, and that they 
be spread on a page of the minutes dedicated to his memory. 

Harry Howell, 
R. B. Miller, 
F. It. Carr, 

Committee. 



ALUMNI NOTES. 

1893. Perrin Busbee and W. B. Snow are reading law in Raleigh. Mike 
Hoke is studying medicine at the University of Virginia. F. C. Harding 
is now Librarian of the University. A. H. McFayden is back in Chapel 
Hill for graduate work in geology. E. M. Wilson is at Haverford College, 
Pa., studying English. E. P. Willard is teaching in Cape Fear Military 
Academy, Wilmington. J. C. Biggs and J. A. Jones are teaching in Vir- 
ginia. A. B. Andrews has returned to the University to study law. H. E. 
Rondthaler is assistant in Salem Male Academy, and is preparing to enter 



58 University Magazine. 

the theological school of the Moravian Church at Bethlehem, Pa. W. P. 
Wooten will teach in the Graded Schools of Wilson one year, when he 
expects to enter West Point. John M. Cheek is president of Mars Hill 
College. J. T. Pugh is Instructor in Latin in the University. H. R. Fer- 
guson is a lawyer. E. A. Moye is studying medicine at the University of 
Pennsylvania. 

The following members of '93 Law have passed their examinations 
before the Supreme Court: William A. Devin, Thornwell Lanier, G. E. But- 
ler, William Hubbard, L. J. Moore, J. S. B. Stevens, H. S. Ward, D. L. 
Russell, H. A. Foushee, H. H. Covington, A. L. Brooks, J. W. Fergu- 
son, M. L. Holcombe, Alexander Lassiter, J. A. Wellons, W. L. Baird, all 
of North Carolina; J. B. Parkinson, of Florida; W. P. Blair, of Pennsyl- 
vania, and J. H. Martin, of Washington, D. C. 

A. W. Long, 1884, English Master in the Lawrenceville School, New 
Jersey, and James Lee Love, 1884, Instructor in Mathematics in the Law- 
rence Scientific School, Harvard University, spent some time in Chapel 
Hill this summer. 

Claudius Dockery, 1887, late Vice Consul at Rio de Janeiro has returned 
to the University to study law. 

W. J. Battle, 1888, has resigned his position in the Latin department of 
Chicago University to accept the Greek chair in the University of Texas. 
In his new position Dr. Battle will be head of the department. 

Logan D. Howell, 1889, has become Superintendent of the Goldsboro 
Graded Schools. 

MARRIAGES. 

Marion Butler, 1885, Vice-President of the National Farmers' Alliance, 
was married to Miss Florence Faison, daughter of Captain E. L. Faison, 
1854, at Elliott, N. C, on Thursday, the 31st of August. 

P. B. Manning, 1886, was married to Miss Kate Taylor, daughter of 
Colonel John D. Taylor, 1853, at Wilmington, N. C, August 16th. 

Stephen B. Weeks, 1886, was married on July 28th to Miss Sadie Leach, 
of Randolph. The bride is a granddaughter of Judge Willie P. Mangum, 
1815, in honor of whom the Willie P. Mangum Medal is so named. 

At Meridian, Miss., on the 14th of September, B. M. Gatling, a 
member of the class of 1892, was married to Miss Leuora Crudup, daughter 
of William Crudup, Esq. 

David Schenck, Jr. (i884-'85), was married to Miss Lula Peyton, grand- 
daughter of Robert G. Linday, 1836, at Greensboro, N. C, September 
14th. 

Professor Henry V. Wilson, Ph. D., was married to Miss Edith Theresa 
Stickney, of Boston, Mass., on Saturday, the 10th of June, 1893. 



UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



FACULTY. 

George Tayloe Winston, LL. D., President, and Professor of Political and 
Social Science. 

Kemp Plummer Battle-, LL. D., Professor of History. 

Francis Preston Venable, Ph. D., Professor of General and Analytical 
Chemistry. 

*Joseph Austin Holmes, B. 8., Professor of Geology and Mineralogy. 

Joshua Walker Gore, C. E., Professor of Natural Philosophy. 

John Manning, LL. D., Professor of Law. 

Thomas Home, D. D., LL. D., Professor of the English Language and Litera- 
ture. 

Walter Dallam Toy, M. A., Professor of Modern Languages. 

tEBEN Alexander, Ph. D., Professor of the Greek Language and Literature. 

William Cain, C. E., Professor of Mathematics and Engineering. 

Richard Henry Whitehead, M. D., Professor of Anatomy, Physiology and 
Materia Medica. 

Henry Horace Williams, A. M., B. D., Professor of Mental and Moral Sci- 
ence. 

Henry Van Peters Wilson, Ph. D., Professor of Biology. 

Karl Pomeroy Harrington, A. M., Professor of the Latin Language and 
Literature. 

JCollier Cobb, A. B., Professor of Geology and Mineralogy. 

Edwin Anderson Alderman, Ph. B. , Professor of the History and Philoso- 
phy of Education. 

Herbert Cushing Tolman, Ph. D., Professor of Sanskrit, Acting Professor 
of Greek. 



INSTRUCTORS AND ASSISTANTS. 

Charles Baskerville, B. Sc, Instructor in Chemistry. 

Thomas Roswell Fotjst, B. E., Instructor in Mathematics and Drawing. 

James Thomas Pugh, A. B., Instructor in Latin. 

Charles H. White, Assistant in Physical Laboratory. 

William Rand Kenan, Jr., Assistant in Chemical Laboratory. 

. , Assistant in Geological Laboratory, 



OFFICERS. 



J. W. Gore, Secretary and Registrar. 

E. A. Alderman, Librarian. 

F. C. Harding, Student Librarian. 
W. T. Patterson, Bursar. 



♦State Geologist, on leave of absence from the University. 
fMinister to Greece, Roumania and Servia. 
JHead of the department. 



TO ADVERTISERS. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA 

UNIVERSITY MACAZINE 

HAS THE LARGEST SUBSCRIPTION LIST OF ANY 
COLLEGE MAGAZINE IN THE UNITEO STATES, 
AND EVERY EFFORT IS BEING MADE TO IN- 
CREASE THE CIRCULATION. 



ON AND AFTER JANUARY f, 1894, 
OUR ADVERTISING RATES WILL BE ADVANCED 
TO 



$10 PER PAGE. 
$5 PER HALF PACE. 
S3 Hi QUARTER PACE. 



FOR EACH ISSUE. 



NO RENEWALS OR NEW CONTRACTS WILL BE 
TAKEN AT THE OLD RATE AFTER JAN. 1st. 1894. 



All the boys who worked for the Magazine prizeB offered in April 
have been largely rewarded for their work. 

The first prize of free board and tuition at the University of 
North Carolina for one year was awarded to Ralph II. Graves, of 
Chapel Hill, N. C, who sent in one hundred and seveji subscribers. 

The second prize of free tuition at the University for one year 
was given to Percy Whitaker, of Raleigh, for forty names. 

The boys who failed in securing a prize did not have their labor in 
vain, for they were all paid a commission of twenty-five cents on every 
dollar subscription they secured. We want earnest, active boys to 
work for us now. Write for particulars, enclosing stamp for reply, and 
sending testimonial^ as to character and iitnesB for such work. 

Address THE UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE, . 

Chapel Hilt.. N. C. 



Vol. XIII. 



NOVEMBER, 1893. 



No. 2. 



NORTH 
CAROLINA 
UNIVERSITY 



AAGAZINE 




fCopyrigl t. 1893, by Collier Cobb, for the Dialectic andjPhilanthropic Societies. 

PRICE 25 CENTS. 



NORTH CAROLINA 

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE, 

(Founded in 1844). 

CONTENTS FOR NOVEMBER, 1893. 
The I?ev. Aldert Smedes -- - Frontispiece. 

PAGE. 

Journalism as a. Pkofession foe Young Men, Amos Parker Wilder- 59 

The Legend of Evil. A Poem. Rudyard Kipling . _ .. ti?> 

Some Experiences at a German University. II. German Dueling- 05 

The Rev. Aldert Smedes, D. D., Founder of $t. Mary's School-- 70 

Estimate of Dr. Smedes. Kemp P. Battle, ' 49 ...... 

Longing. A Poem. Henri/ A. Grady.'' 96 1 

Conscience Money- : .. - - -. . . y? 

Gloster; or, a Question of Authorship. Herman H. Home, '95 

Progress of Science. Carborundum. W. A". Allen, '94 . 

Book Notices- t _... . . 

Stories of the South — Chinese Nights' Entertainments. 

Amdng the Magazines. Holland M. Thompson, '95--. ----- 100 

Current Comment. Cam'ett EUis, ' 94 • - - 105 

. ■"•■>: Record. Iked. L. Cany, '95 - 108 

Winston on Dr. Price — Mitchell Scientific Soeii 
S h a kspe re Club — Al uran i Notes — Marriages — Dea t h s . 



The University Magazine is published even- month during the col- 
lege year by the Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies. 

The aim of the Magazine is, first of all, to preserve the best under- 
graduate work of our University, and to be the expression of the 
strongest and soberest thought of the University in all its departments. 
It will contain in each number an article of the more serious sort, by 
alumnus of -the University or other prominent thinker, besides 
poems, critical reviews, essays, careful book notices, and editorials on 
topics of general interest- 
Contributions are solicited from both students an , and such 
as are available will find a place in the Magazine. 

The Magazine is for sale by the booksellers of the State generally. If 
may be had at Sever' s in Cambridge, Mass., and at Brentano's, New 
York. Single copies cost twenty-five cents ; the subscription price is 
one dollar and fifty cents per year. Address, 

THE UNIVERSITY M AGAZINE, 

CHAPEL HILL, N. C. 

Entered tit the Chapel Mill Pott-offi.ee as second-r.lasx mail matter. 




•-' C && z^A J^'-y^e^^r* 



NORTH CAROLINA 

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE 

Old Series, Vol. XXVI. No. 2— NOVEMBER, 1893. New Series, Vol. XIII. 



JOURNALISM AS A PROFESSION FOR 
YOUNG MEN. 

The days of Bohemianism in newspaperdom have about 
gone by. Those brilliant fellows who tossed off clever 
quips from Grub street, London, and their feeble imitators 
in New York of twenty years ago, burning the candle at 
both ends, cultivating generosity at the expense of thrift 
and often honesty; good fellows to everybody except them- 
selves, hard drinkers and brief sleepers they, poor fellows, 
are now most of them dead and buried by popular subscrip- 
tion, or living on the bounty of their friends. It was a 
gay, attractive world and many a tilt of wit did the denizens 
of Bohemia indulge in. They had some lofty sentiments 
too. Johnson, when told that a snob aristocrat had spoken 
contemptuously of him as one who lived in a garret, sent 
back the bitter and cutting fling, "Tell him his soul lives 
in a garret." 

But the successful newspaper workers of to-day are a 
different order of men. Strange to say' they are not 
necessarily men of literary ability. The man of my college 
class who has achieved most marked success in journalism, 
one of those who now make the "Sun" shine, never to 
my knowledge wrote a line for publication in college days. 



60 University Magazine. 

The life is exacting, and will not admit of a man doing 
good work with his brain and at the same time playing 
havoc with his body. "Wheel-horses" best describes the 
men who get out these big issues of to-day. * * * 

Journalism is essentially a young man's business — one 
of the features not altogether cheering, though perhaps no 
more discouraging in prospect than in the ministry. The 
hours are long and wearing, activity and freshingness are 
constantly demanded — and the result is that gray hairs are 
the exception in city offices. A young man must ever 
keep this in mind — he must save his pennies while they 
are his; and if chance does not favor him in securing an 
interest in some metropolitan daily he should keep his eye 
on the goal of ownership of some less pretentious journal, 
one offering scope for no less useful and a much more 
comfortable life. New York is full of newspaper men who 
would gladly exchange their lot, glittering in some respects, 
for the supreme ownership and control of some modest 
weekly paper, in which capacity one may be his own master 
and face old age without a fear. Uncertainty of tenure is 
the bane of salaried journalism. Great journals are, as a 
rule, owned by estates or by capitalists who more than 
likely have some moneyed interests to be protected and 
advanced by their papers, and who themselves know nothing 
of the newspaper business. The editor and workers on the 
paper are hired much as the presiding deities of a horse-car 
are engaged to do so much work for so much pay. At 
every change of control these faithful servants, irrespective 
of their ability or efficiency, are in danger of being turned 
out on the cold world. 

While, to a certain extent, well-trained men readily 
command new positions, it is because of this liability to 
vicissitudes that so many good men in the business are 



Journalism as a Profession for Young Men. 61 

betaking themselves to journalism in small cities and towns. 
This is a fortunate tendency for provincial dailies and 
weeklies; and if I should direct the attention of half a 
dozen, or even one earnest young man of your University — 
desirous of serving well his generation, of doing something 
for his fellows, of purifying and making more intelligent 
and mighty a splendid force — to the possibilities of the 
ownership and editorship of a small daily or a vigorously 
edited weekly in this great commonwealth, my writing 
shall not be in vain. It is a busy life demanded of such a 
one, but full of rewards of the kind that satisfy. 

The preparation must be thorough and varied. Such an 
editor must be more than a writer of wise sayings; he must 
be a mechanic and business manager as well. He must be 
competent to manage his concern from the compositor's 
desk to the editorial columns. He must be an editor after 
Greeley's own heart. No better provincial editor can be 
imagined than a man who has made the most of his 
college course, and added to it a thorough apprenticeship 
as printer and journalist. Such men are the exception in 
North and South. He may make his paper as far-reaching 
in its influence, as prosperous as he can; and not even the 
law is a better stepping-stone to political preferment. 
There are a dozen men in Congress to-day, seated there by 
the papers they own, and none of them metropolitan 
journals. 

In senior years one is so apt to think, in unpardonable 
and altogether refreshing egotism, that only the biggest 
field, a large city, is commensurate with one's powers and 
ambitions. I have no sympathy with that idea. No town 
is too small or unpretentious to furnish room for the exer- 
cise of all the ability, genius, desire to startle or improve 
one's fellows, that can reside in a man — certainly until he 



62 University Magazine. 

is forty years of age. Such a community is ready, even 
anxious, to hear what a man with ideas has to say, to put 
itself under the influences which he may be able to initiate. 
Why rush off to a large city where thousands know more 
than he does, and where he must fight for even a hearing? 
The "New South ! " — its claims have riveted the attention 
of the world! Its resources develop each day in marvelous 
profusion, and even the most daring prophet hesitates to 
cast bounds for its splendid future! Capital continues to 
pour into this Aladdin-like land in shining streams. Immi- 
gration is directed this way. The mule and the cotton- 
press are no longer to monopolize the energies of this great 
people. Movements financial, movements social, are mak- 
ing themselves mightily felt on every side. You are taking 
good heed that no drops of the windfall of material pros- 
perity shall be lost. Not alone, however, along this line 
are you active. The churches are expanding their powers, 
and pledging anew the land and the people thereof to God. 
Such institutions as this University attest a deep-seated 
purpose to permeate and bless the new civilization with 
culture and with noble, aspiring impulses. In the law, in 
medicine, in the commercial world, educated men of the 
"New South" are girding up their loins to bring forward 
and keep their commonwealth on the line of the most 
advanced thought and action. Shall the press be forgotten? 
Is it enough that papers are published and the news 
chronicled, and no effort made to attain excellence? * * * 
To you, young men — the picked youth of the chosen 
homes of this section of the South — it is given to take the 
mighty engine of the press, than which there is no more 
potent influence to-day on the lives and thoughts of men, 
and make it what you choose. You may lead if you will! 
The realms of science, art, statecraft, morals, religion are 



The Legend of Evil. 63 

yours to enjoy, and in the enjoyment to better your fellows 
and advance the nation and kingdom of God. From all 
the colleges of the land there is an increasing contingent 
of men on commencement day who pass by the other pro- 
fessions and engage in journalism. The result is already 
manifesting more intelligence, more earnestness, more con- 
science in the compilation of American newspapers. May 
it be that from this historic seat of learning, so beautifully 
situated in the heart of a glorious country, so rich in 
memories, so inspiring in environment, so calculated by its 
quietude and classic and uplifting atmosphere to call out 
the best in a man and to help him to be something, do 
something before the end comes; that journalists, as well 
as lawyers and preachers and teachers, may be trained up 
here, and dedicate to a noble craft all the powers that lie 
within them! You may succeed there. The world needs 
you! Amos Parker Wilder. 



THE LEGEND OF EVIL. 

This is the sorrowful story 
Told when the twilight fails 

And the monkeys walk together, 
Holding each other's tails. 

' ' Our fathers lived in the forest, 
Foolish people were they; 
They went down to the cornland 
To teach the farmers to play. 

"Our fathers frisked in the millet, 
Our fathers skipped in the wheat, 
Our fathers hung in the branches, 
Our fathers danced in the street. 



64 University Magazine. 

"Then came the terrible farmers, 
Nothing of play they knew; 
Only they caught our fathers 
And set them to labor too! 

"Set them to work in the cornland, 
With ploughs and sickles and flails, 
Put them in mud-walled prisons, 
And cut off their beautiful tails! 

' ' Now we can watch our fathers, 
Sullen and bowed and old, 
Stooping over the millet, 
Stirring the silly mould. 

"Driving a foolish furrow, 
Mending a muddy yoke, 
Sleeping in mud-walled prisons, 
Steeping their food in smoke. 

"We may not speak to our fathers, 
For if the farmers knew, 
They would come up to the forest 
And set us to labor too. ' ' 

Rudyard Kipling. 



SOME EXPERIENCES AT A GERMAN 
UNIVERSITY. 

II. GERMAN DUELING. 

I do not propose to go into any lengthy description of 
German duels in general, nor to undertake mucli of a dis- 
cussion of them. The large number of American youths 
studying in Germany and their frequent accounts of life 
there, sent to the home papers, have freed us from the old 
notion that these duels are a thing of the past — a piece of 
barbarism long since outgrown. My purpose is to give a 
simple account of refined civilization or equally refined 
brutality. Let me say, however, that we must not pass 
judgment upon them until we consider the different circum- 
stances under which they are placed. 

The Germans live in a land that has a history, and, 
being an imaginative, poetical people, they are very fond 
of bringing back the old legendary times in processions, 
ceremonies and pageantries of all kinds. Even a staid 
American is somewhat carried away into dreamland, and 
comes to think of those rough days of the robber knights 
as the "good old times" and the times of poetry and 
romance. These duels are the direct successors of the 
knightly tournaments, and the laws which govern them 
smack mightily of the stiffness and ceremonious courtesy 
of the Middle Ages. They, too, are fought for woman's 
love, and for glory as well as for wounded honor. Again, 
Germany is situated right in the midst of other powerful 
nations, one or two of which may break into hostilities at 
a moment's warning. She must sleep in her armor, then, 
and be ever ready to invade or repel invasion. Every citi- 



66 University Magazine. 

zen must be a soldier and able to undergo a soldier's hard- 
ships. There is no question but that these duels teach 
three very valuable soldierly qualities — steadiness of nerve, 
skillful use of the sword, and heroic endurance of physical 
pain. One of the most stringent rules is that no outcry 
shall be made. A man may faint from loss of blood, or 
become unconscious under the doctor's hands whilst having 
his deep gashes washed, cleansed with carbolic acid and 
sewn up, but he dare not utter a groan. All of which are 
very valuable qualities, but I question if the price paid be 
not too high. 

It was at the University of Gottingen, during the sum- 
mer session, some dozen years ago. The summer had 
been unusually warm, and almost the only cool spot in the 
University laboratory was one little room which a small 
party of us were allowed to reserve to ourselves. Of course 
this community of property drew us somewhat nearer 
together than usual, and we formed a jolly set — four Ameri- 
cans and two Germans. Properly speaking, I should say 
one German, for the other, a so-called corps-student or 
member of one of the higher student societies, was too 
much taken up with the duties and pleasures connected 
with his club to spend much of his time at work with us. 
He was a nice fellow, though; bright, good-natured, and 
gentlemanly, with an easy, jolly manner, which had clearly 
won for him his professor's heart. There was no telling 
how many others, perhaps equally valuable, but certainly 
more easily given hearts — his big brown eyes and jaunty 
air had won him among the ladies of the town. In stature 
he was short, but well and strongly built, and he was 
reputed to be the best fencer in his corps. He was the 
hero of the duels which I shall describe. Not that these 
were his only duels. He was rich; had been at the Uni- 



Some Experiences at a German University. 67 

versity a long time and wore proudly his ribbon for duels 
fought. He had fought so many, in fact, that, like an old 
veteran, he had been permitted to retire from the lists and 
rest on his laurels. 

As the weather grew warmer, and every one became 
lazier, we noticed that our corps-stndent seemed busier 
than ever, and more indefatigable in flying about the dusty 
streets — doing everything, in fact, except attending to his 
laboratory work. 

" What is the matter? " we asked the other German. 

u Oh, he is chief officer of his corps now, and has to see 
to all the feasts and duels. ' ' 

The duels were fought at that time every Saturday and 
Tuesday; sometimes lasting all day, and scarcely ever 
numbering less than three or four. 

It was a warm, dusty Saturday afternoon, shortly after- 
ward, that I accepted the invitation of a friend and accom- 
panied him to see the dueling-ground. 

"Only three duels to-day," he said, "and it won't weary 
you to sit it out. It will be lots of fun." 

"Not much fun," I thought, "but I would like to see 
how some of those terrible gashes are given." 

The dueling-house was only a few minutes distant from 
the gate of the town. No attempt at secrecy was made. 
A long, straggling line of students could be seen making 
their way toward it, and about the building, which stood 
beside the high road, all was bustle; servants carrying 
water, towels, beer, eatables, and swords to be sharpened, 
and students passing in and out. Inside we found the 
usual gathering of students and the confusion of clinking- 
glasses, of laughing and talking, and every now and then 
the peculiar hiss of swords when some anxious principal 
or second was testing his weapon, or practicing cuts and 
parries. 2 



68 University Magazine. 

Securing our seats in the low gallery, running around 
the hall, and ordering our coffee and beer, we were soon 
ready for the "fun." We did not have long to wait. One 
of the two sofas placed in the center of the hall for the 
two combatants was already occupied by a queer-looking 
figure when we came in. It was a man, apparently, but 
so padded and wrapped that he more nearly resembled one 
of those nondescript animals — an oil-clothed visitor under 
the Falls of Niagara, or a submarine diver. Leg-paddings, 
body-paddings, breast-paddings — all of heavy, stuffed 
leather; neck- wraps of silk; goggles of steel, and a crown- 
pad of leather — all dirty and black with blood from many 
a battle. Such was his make-up. The opponent of this 
figure soon appeared, adorned with equally dirty paddings. 
The gauntlets were drawn on their arms, and the glisten- 
ing swords were placed in their hands. Rather a come- 
down from the gorgeous steel and gold armor of the old- 
time knights, but, looked at in the light of the nineteenth 
century common sense, equally serviceable and decidedly 
cheaper. Then there were ceremonies, as in the old days — 
a kind of dumb show of bows and lowered sword points. 
The words of command were given, and the hissing and 
ringing of swords commenced. There was no especial 
interest attaching to this duel, as no one seemed to care 
about it, and in a few minutes the conflict was determined 
and over. One man, after swallowing a large amount of 
his own blood, was led off, disfigured for life, and the next 
three-quarters of an hour or so were devoted to sewing up 
his gashes. The doctor sewed very rapidly and worked 
hard, but could not get through any sooner. Meanwhile 
the poor fellow had to undergo all of his pain without a 
murmur, and his bloody, gashed face, turned to us, was 
terrible in its paleness. 



Some Experiences at a German University. 69 

Some way or other I didn't want any more beer — got 
tired of it, I suppose. But for unwillingness to acknowl- 
edge to my friend that I had had enough for one evening, 
I should have left. 

Daring the first duel I had noticed my acquaintance of 
the laboratory carefully selecting his rapier from a heap of 
them lying in one of the corners. These rapiers, or 
" scklagers" as they called them, are long, narrow blades 
of steel sharpened to a razor-like sharpness and fastened in 
basket hilts. He seemed hard to suit — tried many of them 
with imaginary cuts and passes at an imaginary opponent, 
had some of them more firmly fastened to their handles 
by a workman standing near, and only after many trials 
fixed upon one which suited in every respect. 

From the conversation of those around me I found that 
the next two duels were to be part of a contest between 
two antagonistic corps of the University, fought for glory 
rather than for wounded honor, yet not without some feel- 
ing of dislike. 

My acquaintance, as the best fighter of his corps, had 
been appointed their first representative, yet I was assured 
by the knowing ones that he stood no chance against his 
opponent. It was expected, however, from the reputation 
of the fighters that there would be a fine display of skill 
and by no means a walk-over for the red-cap, or Hanover- 
aner, who opposed my acquaintance. And they were not 
disappointed in their expectations. 

My friend in the green- colored cap was led off by his 
seconds to his appointed place. The green cap which he 
ordinarily wore was the badge of his society; now he had 
only the small round pad of leather fastened just over the 
front of his head. The seconds went through the dumb 
show of bows and lowered sword points, and then all stood 
silent and in readiness. 



70 University Magazine. 

"Are you ready?" came from one of the seconds, and I 
was startled by an outcry from my friend, the Bremenser, 
as he sprang within striking distance of his opponent. 

"He is going to begin before the word is given," I said. 
But no; he stood perfectly still, waiting for the remaining 
words of command. His outcry was intended to intimi- 
date the stiff and silent Hanoveraner, but had clearly failed 
of its purpose. 

The word of command followed very quickly, and then 
came a whirring and whizzing of swords to which the first 
had been mere child's play. I could not begin to follow 
the strokes or see their effect. The constant parries gave 
out sharp clashes and glittering flashes of fire, and the glit- 
ter of the blades of steel was in itself dazzling. Some 
one had apparently been able to follow them, for soon the 
cry of " Halt! " was heard, and the seconds rushed in and 
knocked apart the swords of their principals. No blood 
had been drawn, but the schlagers had been badly bent. 
With some difficulty they were removed from the cramped 
hands of the fighters and new ones given them. The word 
was then quickly given again, and the clashing of steel 
commenced once more. 

The Bremenser fought so bravely that I was beginning 
to hope that he might possibly win, notwithstanding the 
odds against him. A moment or so, however, and then 
there came a more brilliant feint and stroke from the Han- 
overaner, one whose course even my untrained eye could 
follow. I saw the sharp point touch behind the Bremen- 
ser's ear, and a large tuft of hair flew to the other side of 
the room. "Halt!" was immediately called, and the doc- 
tor stepped up and, after a little feeling with his big, fat 
finger, issued a fiat that a dangerous wound had been given 
and the duel must cease. The Bremenser pleaded in vain 



Some Experiences at a German University. yi 

to be allowed to fight on, but was led off, very angry, to 
have the wound dressed. The pain of the dressing quickly 
subdued him, however, and he was pale and quiet enough 
when it was over. 

One more duel closed the afternoon's entertainment. 
The result was even more easily predicted than in the for- 
mer case. It was duel number two in the contest between 
the Bremensers and the Hanoveraners, and to my eye was 
simple butchery. The poor Bremeuser stood bravely up 
and tried, but was hacked most fearfully by his opponent. 
Cut after cut was given, none serious enough to stop the 
duel, but each starting a fresh stream of blood down the 
poor fellow's face. He was almost choked and gasping 
with blood, but still the doctor let them go on until a stroke 
sent a stream into his eyes, and he was allowed to stop 
when he could no longer see to fight. 

I had had enough now; was, in fact, thoroughly dis- 
gusted, and made a firm resolve never to be enticed into 
such a show again. Fortunately the duels were over for 
that afternoon, and I bid my friends good-bye. 

During the next few days we saw very little of our friend 
in the laboratory. For greater ease of reference I will call 
him Gebhard, and this false name is the only part of the 
whole story that is not actual fact. He was not kept from 
the laboratory by his wound, because the duelists glory 
in showing themselves to all the world immediately after 
their fights, and in walking the streets, however weak they 
may be from loss of blood. In fact, we frequently met 
young Gebhard on the streets, and he seemed always bright 
and smiling, but very bus) 7 . The time for excursions and 
drinking-bouts was at hand and he, as chief of his corps, 
had to make the most of the arrangements for them. 



72 University Magazine. 

The contest between his corps, the Bremensers, and the 
Hanoveraners was not yet done, however. There remained 
still a series of duels to be fought, and one of his duties 
was to make the necessary arrangements for this; to pick 
out who should fight for the corps ; appoint the time, and 
see to all the other matters connected with it. In this 
series there was one duel in which two first-year men, or 
so-called "foxes," were pitted against one another. Now 
the older members of a corps always watch very carefully 
over the interests and welfare of their foxes. They train 
them very carefully in sword-practice, and see to it that 
they are under no disadvantage when fighting. Gebhard 
had chosen to be the second of his fox, and took upon 
himself the care and defense of all his rights. 

It is needless to follow all the duels in their course, or 
even this one of the foxes on which the main interest turns. 
They fought, as in other cases, bled, and were led away. 
During the fight of the foxes "Halt!" was called for a 
bent blade or a cut given, and Gebhard, as second, rushed 
in, striking aside his principal's sword. The other fox's 
second, for some reason, failed to do the same for his prin- 
cipal, and the Hanoveraner's unchecked sword cut deeply 
into the unprotected cheek of the Bremenser. 

"This was done on purpose!" was the indignant cry of 
young Gebhard ; an assertion which almost any high- 
spirited man would have made, and yet a foolhardy one, 
because it implied dishonorable practices in the C07ps^ 
representative, and hence was a Beleidigung or insult to 
the entire corps, which could only be wiped out by death. 
The Hanoveraners retired to their corner, where a whis- 
pered conversation was carried on for a few moments, then 
one of them stepping forward presented his card to Geb- 
hard with a challenge for a duel with pistols — then another, 



Some Experiences at a German University. 73 

and another, and another, until five had given him their 
fatal challenges. 

There was no loop-hole for escape left him. If wounded 
in one duel — time was of no importance to them — they 
could wait until he was strong enough to hold his pistol 
again, and then he must fight the next on the list. The 
time was short. The five were all to come off in about a 
week's time after the giving of the challenge. We in the 
laboratory knew nothing of all this. In fact, it was kept 
a secret from all except the members of the two corps, 
since, perhaps, even the sleepy-headed authorities might 
be moved to interfere should they get wind of the matter. 
Nor were we led to suspect anything from any change in 
Gebhard's manner. He did not come to the laboratory 
during those last few days, but was as cheery and bright 
and jolly as ever when we met him, and his brown eyes 
twinkled with all their old light of merriment and high 
spirits. By no word or action did he let it be seen that he 
was a doomed man, whose very hours were numbered, and 
who knew that with all his health and strength he could 
not hope for more than one week of the world's happy 
summer sunshine. 

I happened to be the first in the laboratory on one of 
those bright summer mornings and was whistling at my 
work when the old Hausdiener came in and, with a terror- 
stricken face, said, "Herr Gebhard is dead!" 

" Dead! " Why, I had seen him only a few days before 
and there was no sign of death then; but the words had 
come with terrible distinctness and there was no mistaking 
them. The very suddenness of the change from the bright- 
ness and happiness of physical existence to death and the 
loss of it all made me weak and speechless. 



74 University Magazine. 

"He was shot through the body yesterday afternoon," 
continued the servant, "and I must pack away all his 
things now." 

Of course the only subject of conversation, as one by 
one the students came to their work, was this fatal deed. 
Soon another report reached us that Gebhard was not dead, 
but lying at death's door; and then in an hour or two we 
learned the whole story. The duels had taken place the 
afternoon before. In the first Gebhard had wounded his 
antagonist in the leg and had himself escaped unhurt; in 
the second he had been struck, shot through the body, 
and had fallen unconscious; had been carried to the hos- 
pital, and lay there still unconscious. 

One, two, three days passed, during which an anxious 
father and brother watched for each faintest sign of return- 
ing consciousness, and then the end came. 

We all gathered before the hospital on the evening 
appointed for the funeral, little knots of students stand- 
ing apart, as in all such gatherings of German students, 
the different colored caps taking up different positions. 
Drawn up beside the gate stood the draped hearse and the 
horses, with their long plumes and long black cloths. We 
did not have to wait very long. The beautiful casket, cov- 
ered with wreaths and flowers, was brought out and placed 
upon the hearse. The father and brother, with the Lu- 
theran pastor in his long black gown, came next, and then 
followed, two by two, the long line of students — first, the 
green caps of his own corps; then the white caps, and so 
on till the line stretched for many squares through the 
winding streets. 

The poor old father could bear it no longer when we all 
stood around the open grave in the cemetery. One look 
at the narrow chest which held him who was so bright 



Some Experiences at a German University. 75 

and full of life a few days before, and his whole form shook 
with the bitter grief which could not be restrained. The 
wreaths and ribbons, with the crossed-s words and brightly 
embroidered drinking cap in their midst, the sorrow of his 
companions, the earnest tones of the preacher, all did not 
suffice to soothe his anguish at losing his bright, loving 
boy. 

As the first clods fell from the hand of his brother, with a 
sullen thud on the planks below, it was easy to read in his 
stern, set face the intensity of the purposed revenge; and 
the preacher's words of condemnation for the wickedness of 
dueling fell on heedless ears. Before the week was over 
all talk of young Gebhard's death had ceased; other duels 
had been fought, and still more were on the tapis, and 
rumor had it that the man who killed Gebhard had been 
allowed to go with some slight, insignificant penalty. 

Is this a single instance, and an unfair one to judge all 
German duels by? A few weeks afterwards, when vaca- 
tion had come, I was passing through another university 
town where I had once studied, and the first news that 
greeted me was that an old acquaintance had just fallen, 
cut absolutely in two in a sabre duel. Deaths from these 
duels are not so infrequent as. we are accustomed to believe, 
and they cannot be allowed much longer in a land that 
claims to be civilized. 



THE REV. ALDERT SMEDES, D. D., FOUNDER 
OF ST. MARY'S SCHOOL, RALEIGH. 

Rev. Aldert Smedes, D. D., the founder of St. Mary's 
School, Raleigh, N. C, held its rectorship for thirty-six 
years, dropping the reins of government not till the very 
day before his sudden and lamented death. Singularly 
endowed, both in the faculties and qualities of his heart 
and mind, and also in voice, mien and person, with natural 
gifts fitting him for his work, he was further qualified for 
it by the desirable moulding influences of refined social 
culture, education at the most famous seats of American 
learning, a professional training for the law as well as the 
ministry, extensive foreign and domestic travel, and varied 
pastoral experience. Yet into the career upon which he 
entered in his thirty-second year as the Rector of a Church 
School for girls, and for which his remarkable aptitude was 
evinced by his great, immediate and uninterrupted success, 
he was guided by providential leadings rather than his own 
choice. A bronchial ailment, which disqualified him dur- 
ing several years for ministerial duty, was the immediate 
occasion of his resigning the rectorship of a church in New 
York and his coming to North Carolina to establish St. 
Mary's School. His admirable fitness, however, for the 
calling to which he thus devoted himself was at once 
seen. Unfailing cheerfulness, wit and humor perennially 
overflowing, fatherly affectionateness of spirit and manner, 
quick sympathy with another's joy or grief, a heart and 
hand ever open for melting charity, a lofty yet gracious 
courtesy of carriage towards all, with marked deference and 



The Rev. Alder t Smedes, D. D. yj 

chivalrous grace of address towards women, competent 
knowledge of men and affairs, first-rate executive ability, 
great force and influence of extempore speech, a burning 
and quenchless zeal in his holy calling — who, that knew the 
late Rector of St. Mary's, will not bear witness that these 
were his salient gifts and traits? Who can wonder that 
his scholars all loved him, that his name became a "house- 
hold word" in a thousand Southern homes, and that the 
Church in all the region from Virginia to Texas, for whose 
daughters he labored that they might be "as corner-stones 
polished after the similitude of a palace," mourns his loss 
and embalms his memory? 

Dr. Smedes was born on the 20th of April, 1810, in the 
city of New York, where for many years his father, the 
late Abraham Kiersted Smedes, was a commission merchant. 
He pursued his academic and professional studies at Colum- 
bia College, New York, Transylvania University, Ken- 
tucky, and the General Theological Seminary of the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church, New York. He married Sarah 
Pierce, daughter of the late Rev. Thomas Lyell, D. D., 
Rector of Christ Church, New York, and granddaughter 
of the Rev. Abraham Beach, D. D., who was one of the 
assistant ministers of Trinity Church, New York, in the 
early part of this century. Before accepting the rector- 
ship of St. Mary's School, Raleigh, N. C, Dr. Smedes 
had been for several years assistant minister of Christ 
Church, New York City, and afterwards Rector of St. 
George's Church, Schenectady, N. Y. He died in Raleigh, 
N. C, on the 25th of April, 1877. His remains are interred 
in Oakwood Cemetery near that city. 



78 University Magazine. 



AN ESTIMATE OF THE CHARACTER AND WORK OF REV. ALDERT 
SMEDES, D. D. , PREPARED AT THE REQUEST OF THE EDITORS 
OF THE NORTH CAROLINA UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE, BY ONE WHO 
WAS INTIMATE WITH HIM. 

I greatly loved and admired Dr. Sraedes. I may say that 
my acquaintance extended from his opening his school in 
1842 until his death, thirty-five years. My oldest sister, 
who was my constant companion, was one of the two first 
pupils who entered the doors of St. Mary's. Another 
sister and my wife were under his charge at a later date. 
I have from time to time talked freely about the school 
with hundreds of other pupils of all shades of character 
and diversities of environment, from the naturally amiable 
to the most sharply critical, from society belles to damsels 
content with lesser ambitions; from matrons surrounded by 
multitudinous olive branches to those pearls of great price, 
' ' old maids. ' ' Moreover during the last twenty-three years 
of his life I enjoyed constant and intimate social and busi- 
ness intercourse with him. 

With these opportunities for forming a just estimate of 
the man and his work I give it as my carefully formed 
opinion that he was one of the best, wisest, most useful 
men I ever knew. 

I admit that this estimate will appear somewhat exag- 
gerated to those who were not thrown familiarly with him 
as I was. Some probably think that successful principals 
of female schools must have a kind of femininity of character, 
and that a man of first-rate abilities would be out of place 
in such a position. They are certainly mistaken in both 
these points. The greatest minds of the world would find 
ample scope in the conduct of institutions designed for 
training in the best modes the mothers of the people. 



The Rev. Aldert Smedes, D. D. 79 

As the life of Dr. Smedes was mainly spent in executive 
duties he had no time to become a deeply learned scholar. 
He was, however, a very "well-read" man. He had a 
generous linguistic and literary training, and few of his 
brethren excelled him in general culture. The Univer- 
sity of North Carolina recognized this in conferring on him 
the degree of D. D. in 1854. 

He was a devout Christian, sincerely attached to the 
Protestant Episcopal Church. His opinions were those 
held by men like Bishop Atkinson. He was what we call 
an "old-fashioned High Churchman." But he was not at 
all intolerant. He did not criticise or sneer at those who 
differed from him, no matter how widely. 

His sermons were always interesting and instructive, 
sometimes eloquent. On account of a throat affection, 
which in early life gave him trouble, it was his habit to 
begin with tones almost inaudible. His voice, however, 
soon gained strength and was so managed as to command 
the full attention of his auditors. His delivery was easy 
and graceful. In reading the Bible he particularly excelled. 
With reverent and deep feeling, with due attention to 
enunciation and emphasis, he brought out the meaning 
of the Holy Word so that all were obliged to listen, and 
listening, to understand. 

While he was not a great preacher, he was an unexcelled 
teacher. I have heard ladies of large experience in schools, 
Sunday and secular, say that he had very rare gifts for 
imparting knowledge and training the mind. The mem- 
bers of his Bible classes were especially enthusiastic in his 
praise. 

While he was strong in the class-room, his chief power 
was in executive work. He managed the affairs of the 
school with extraordinary tact, sagacity, energy and pru- 



80 University Magazine. 

dence. Having accurate insight into human nature, his 
mistakes in the selection of teachers were of the rarest. 
The tongue of scandal found no opportunity for its sharp- 
ness in the history of St. Mary's. 

It might have been a cause of complaint that so many 
of his pupils of other denominations were led to join the 
Episcopal Church while at St. Mary's, if he had not with 
perfect candor announced beforehand that public worship 
and religious teaching would be on the lines of the Book 
of Common Prayer. Such was the general confidence in 
him and his management, and in the home-like, Christian 
character of St. Mary's, that very many parents preferred 
to risk the departure of their daughters from their own 
faith rather than forego the universally recognized benefits 
of its training. 

His manner to the young was tender and fatherly, and 
instantly won their confidence and love. The stormiest 
tempers, which had resisted the persuasions and threats of 
others, were calmed by his singular kindness of look and 
tone, joined with gentle and wise words, behind which 
there was evident a reserve of firmness and strength. He 
was gracious to all, because he had a sympathizing heart, 
elastic enough to hold all God's creatures. But behind his 
smooth and gentle manner there was rock-like firmness of 
principle, the truest courage and the loftiest purpose. He 
had "the hand of steel in the velvet glove." 

His benevolence was carried into action. He gave as 
largely in proportion to his means as any man within my 
knowledge. He endeavored to keep his charities secret, 
but it was impossible to conceal from his friends that they 
were abundant to the verge of danger to his financial status. 
Numerous girls were educated free of tuition, and not a 
few free of board. Struggling poverty was aided by gifts, 



The Rev. Alder t Smedes, D. D. 81 

by loans of money, by indorsements in bank, some of 
which resulted in loss to him. During the civil war many 
who had fled from their homes found a refuge at St. Mary's, 
entailing an expense only partially compensated for. Dur- 
ing this period and in the earlier years thereafter the receipts 
of the school were not equal to the expenditures. 

This princely generosity by Dr. Smedes could not have 
been met if the income from his calling had not been sup- 
plemented by the income from fortunate, or rather saga- 
cious, investments in the Northwest. This brings me to 
another of his traits. He was an exceedingly prudent man 
of business — a long-headed, well-balanced man. It required 
very able management to carry an institution like St. Mary's 
through the war difficulties of scarcity of supplies, rapid 
deterioration of the currency and deficiency of transporta- 
tion. I know few men, I know no other clergyman, who 
could have accomplished this great financial feat as success- 
fully as he did. ■ 

Dr. Smedes identified himself with the people of the 
South, and especially of North Carolina. Many Northern 
men, who performed ecclesiastical, educational or other 
work in our State, showed unmistakably that their hearts 
were in their old homes. He was a conspicuous exception. 
He spent his vacations, not among the luxuries, intellectual 
and physical, of the great city which was so long the abode 
of his family, but in traveling among the discomforts of 
our thinly settled Southern lands, visiting his old pupils 
and extending the sphere of patronage of his school. The 
remarkable equipoise of his character was shown in this, 
that in the most troublous times, when passion was high 
and unreasoning, when men of Northern birth were watched 
with eyes eager to detect leanings against the South, he 
retained the confidence and respect of all classes, without 



82 University Magazine. 

stooping to disarm suspicion by extravagant expressions 
of hatred of the Union or devotion to the Confederacy. It 
was well understood, however, that his sympathies were 
with the land of his adoption. Three of his sons served 
gallantly in the Southern army, two of whom, Edward and 
Ives, found bloody graves. These and other poignant afflic- 
tions he bore with the serene fortitude of a Christian, obey- 
ing the injunctions of the Apostle not to sorrow as those who 
have no hope of a future life. 

What were the characteristics of his school, of this St. 
Mary's, whose name is a household word in nearly five 
thousand of the most cultured families of America? 

The chief aim of Dr. Smedes was to train his pupils to 
be refined, lady-like, Christian women. There was a suffi- 
ciency of book-learning and of what are called "accom- 
plishments." There were, perhaps, other schools claiming 
equal, if not superior, reputation in these respects. But 
in the greater matters of gentleness, sweet manners, mod- 
esty, of freedom from "loudness," from affectation of cul- 
ture, from arrogant assumption of superiority, in the still 
greater matters of reverence for superiors, of faithfulness 
to duty, of benevolence and piety, in fine of all the Chris- 
tian graces, the St. Mary girls were unexcelled, if not pre- 
eminent. It is impossible to estimate the elevating influ- 
ences flowing from this great educational institution, which, 
in the fifty years ending in 1892, had charge of four thou- 
sand seven hundred and fifty pupils. 

In social intercourse Dr. Smedes was exceedingly agreea- 
ble. He had seen much of the world, had observed all 
sides of human nature, and had a happy faculty of present- 
ing vividly its humorous phases. He was fond of eliciting 
from those who had not had opportunity of education their 
views, often shrewd, sometimes amusing, of subjects of 



The Rev. Aldert Smedes, D. D. 83 

interest. I heard him throw a company into convulsions 
of laughter by repeating a conversation of his with his 
hired colored wood-cutter, a very grave and faithful man 
named Edmund: "Edmund, you have been married four 
times, have you not?" "Yes, Boss; the Lord took away 
the first three wives I had." "And, Edmund, you have 
got along smoothly with all of them, have you not?" 
"Yes, Boss; me and my wives never had no disputes." 
"Well, Edmund, I wish you would tell me how you got 
along with them so well. No man in the world needs 
more than I to know how to manage women." Edmund 
leaned on his axe and sententiously gave his recipe : ' ' Well, 
sir, if you does like I do, you won't never have no trouble 
wid 'em; / humors " > em,' n What better advice could be 
given ? 

The good Doctor did not own slaves, I think, but he 
treated his hirelings with such kindness and was such a 
good judge of character that he retained the same ser- 
vants for years. His factotum for a decade or more prior 
to the close of the war was a tall, fine-looking mulatto 
named Moses, a slave of one of North Carolina's noblest, 
General Samuel F. Patterson, of Caldwell county. Moses 
admired his employer so much that he copied his manner 
and mode of speech, with ludicrous success. I heard Gen- 
eral O. O. Howard, of Sherman's army, tell of an inter- 
view with the Doctor, when, on the surrender of Raleigh, 
he rode up to the door of St. Mary's: 

"Doctor Smedes stepped out and in his courtly manner 
invited me to enter the house, at the same time requesting 
that I would issue an order for the protection of the prop- 
erty. I gave the order and proceeded to accept the invita- 
tion, whereupon the Doctor, not noticing my orderly, said, 
'The boy will hold your horse.' I cast my eyes around for 
4 



84 University Magazine. 

the lad, when, to my surprise, I discovered that ' the boy ' 
was a dignified, handsome, elderly man, very much resem- 
bling the good Doctor in every respect, except in color." 
I will add that Moses concluded that it was more like a free 
man to quit service and manage for himself, and that his 
rapid deterioration after leaving St. Mary's was pathetically 
noticeable. 

For many years Dr. Smedes had robust health and 
strength. I noticed no signs of decay, the only evidence 
of old age being the rapid whitening of hair and beard. 
Shortly before his death he began to have occasional spells 
of fainting. I saw him while kneeling at the chancel of 
Christ Church, Raleigh, without a struggle sink to the 
floor in total unconsciousness. We carried him into the 
vestry-room and laid him on a sofa, pale and apparently 
lifeless. He soon revived, and with a smile said, "Is not 
this an absurd state of things, for a man in good health to 
lose his senses as I did?" He was mistaken as to the 
seriousness of his attacks. They were evidences of a deep- 
seated trouble which, in a few months, carried him to his 
grave. 

It is a cause of the deepest thankfulness that one of his 
able sons has had the ability and the inclination to carry 
on the work of this great educator, and that St. Mary's has 
not lost her place among the foremost schools of the United 
States. 

In conclusion, I fortify my estimate of this great and good 
man by quoting from a sermon by Right Reverend Joseph 
Blount Cheshire, Assistant Bishop of North Carolina: "Dr. 
Smedes represented to my mind the best results, not only 
of the social, but of the intellectual, culture of a day when 
general intellectual culture, as distinguished from special 
technical training, was perhaps more common in the higher 



The Rev. Aldert Swedes, D. D. 85 

classes of men than it is to-day. * * ■ * He lived the 
Christian life, and the life in him had the quality of all 
true life that it quickened life in others. * * * Dr. 
Smedes had the enthusiasm of his noble calling, and with 
hirn teaching was taking the child-mind and the character 
and bringing it into sympathetic contact with his own per- 
sonality, to impart to it the best of his own intellectual and 
spiritual possessions." 

I give also the opinion of a man whose wisdom is acknowl- 
edged by all, who weighed his words with care and never 
flattered the living or the dead, Bishop Thomas Atkinson. 
It may be found in his address to the Episcopal Convention 
of 1877: "I take this occasion to express publicly, as my 
deliberate judgment, that Dr. Smedes accomplished more 
for the advancement of the Church in this Diocese, and for 
the promotion of the best interests of society within its 
limits, than any other man who ever lived in it. * * * 
He knew not only how to teach, but to govern and make 
himself honored as well as loved, and to constrain his 
pupils to feel that the years spent under his care were at 
the same time the happiest and most useful of their lives. 
He has gone to his reward, but his work remains, and will 
remain from generation to generation." 

I repeat that, counting the thousands who were directly 
under his influence, and the still greater number who will 
be influenced for good by them, Dr. Smedes was one of the 
greatest benefactors of mankind within my knowledge. 

Kemp P. Battle. 



LONGING. 

The moaning wind the pallid vapor lifts, 

The leaden veil, spread o'er the gloomy sky, 

Breaks on the breeze in dreary folds and drifts, 
And o'er the dome reluctant skimmers fly. 

The storm has passed, but in the heavens the strife 
Of fierce contention works with hurried breath, 

As when in agony the parting Life 

Leaves its distortions on the face of Death. 

But what care I of joy or peace or gloom ! 

A stream of brooding sadness ever creeps 
Into my spirits' dreams o'er yonder tomb, 

Where innocence in blighted beauty sleeps. 

A Life has gone, and by that silent shore, 

Where angels guide the life-boat on the wave, 

His tender soul is safe forevermore, 

Beyond the realm of Death, beyond the grave. 

Ye birds in passing breathe a song of rest, 

And soothe the drooping willow while it weeps! 

Ye cedars moving o'er his hallowed breast, 
Guard lovingly the spot where Roscoe sleeps! 

H. A. G. 

Chapel Hill, N. C, April 28, 1893. 



CONSCIENCE MONEY. 

The following anonymous letter was found among the 
"Swain Collection" recently acquired by the University. 
It eloquently and pathetically shows the evils of a guilty 
conscience. There is no date to it, but the price of turkeys, 
fifty cents each, shows that it was written over fifty years 
ago. The crime of which it is an acknowledgment, viz., 
obtaining a "night supper" at the expense of a professor, 
was not regarded as "stealing," but only as "taking" in 
the old days, as we learn from a poetic description of 
Chapel Hill ways, written about 1845, by a student who 
has since become distinguished — 

"Where demand and supply, your all-conquering law, 
Robs barrels and hen-roosts from Pinkook to Haw." 

Piukook was a road-crossing about two miles north-west 
of Durham. There is a story, which was once considered 
very funny, that President Caldwell, whose University 
name was Bolus, contracted from diabolus, hid himself in 
the darkness near his coop, and soon recognized two students 
prowling about it. One reached to the perch and handed 
down a gobbler to his companion, saying, "Here is Old 
Bolus. ' ' He similarly delivered the gobbler's mate, remark- 
ing, "And here is Mrs. Bolus." The Doctor, who was 
wonderfully swift of foot, burst upon them so rapidly that 
in the precipitate flight the prey was dropped. The next 
day he invited the nocturnal marauders to dinner. On 
the table were two turkeys smoking and juicy. The Doctor 
courteously and smilingly asked, "Gentlemen, will you 
take a slice of Old Bolus or of Mrs. Bolus? " The punish- 
ment was worse than expulsion and no further was inflicted. 



88 University Magazine. 

We are glad to say that the student conscience of today 
would not tolerate such appropriation of the goods of 
individuals. We are not so sure, however, that letters may 
not be hereafter received by President Winston and Bursar 
Patterson, showing remorse for acts towards property of 
the University, not remotely dissimilar to that of the 
penitent devourer of purloined fowl, whose contrite words 
we now publish: 

Dear Sir: — Inclosed I send you one dollar as the price of two turkeys 
which I and another individual stole from you and eat, while members of 
the University. 

At the time of the transaction I and my fellows laughed at it, and called 
it taking, but a short acquaintance with the world shows me that such 
taking is what common sense and honest men call stealing. And I now 
see and feel that connection with a literary institution neither excuses nor 
authorizes the violation of principles on which all society is based. 

I must beg your pardon for this communication being anonymous — so 
keenly do I feel the moral turpitude of the act for which I wish to make 
restitution I cannot let you know who I am, and therefore I have used 
such precautions both in writing and in mailing this letter as I think will 
effectual^ conceal every clue to its author. 

With great respect and esteem, I am, 



Yours etc., 



Hon. D. L. Swain. 



GEOSTER; OR, A QUESTION OF AUTHORSHIP. 

The main subject of this paper is the conception of the 
Duke of Gloster in Third Part of Henry VI. compared 
with the Duke of Gloster, later the King, in Richard III. 
If a similar characterization is found, the conclusion natu- 
rally follows, so far as this point is concerned, that, if 
Shakspere wrote Third Part of Henry VI., he also wrote 
Richard III. It may add to the interest of our discussion 



Gloster; or, A Question of Authorship. 89 

to recall the fact that Lowell, in his "Latest Essays," has 
brought out several arguments to refute the Shaksperian 
authorship of Richard III. 

Lowell's first objection is that in Richard III. we have 
not that incomparable force and delicacy of poetic expression 
which is never long hidden. But Richard, the Duke of 
Gloster, is a man of superhuman courage, not a man of 
culture. He is, too, the man of the play. He and his 
influence pervade it. Manifestly he is not the personage 
whom subtlety of poetic expression would suit, and there 
is no character in the play it would suit; the play is com- 
plete in itself without any such character. 

Secondly, how shall we meet his objection that we do 
not find a whole character pervaded with humor? We 
should reply that we do not laugh at the death-bed. Though 
it is only a step from the sublime to the ridiculous, yet we 
may well see the dramatic difficulty in working a clown or 
a Falstaff into such tragic scenes. True, there is a clown 
in Hamlet, but how pathetic and touching the grave scene 
with the skulls, and every tragedy couldn't be such a 
"tragedy of thought" as that one. Here all the wily 
trickery of the clown is conceived in Richard's side- 
remarks on himself: 

"I do the wrong and first begin to brawl. 

*•*#*■*''* 
* * * I clothe ray naked villainy 
With odd old ends stolen forth of Holy Writ, 
And seem a saint when most I play a devil." 

This grimness of humor befits such a character. 

Thirdly, there is not enough patriotism in it, says our 
Mr. Lowell. Richard III. is not a tragedy of patriotism 
intended to be directly portrayed. It is a tragedy of self, 
of ambition, of terror. We affirm that national spirit is 



90 University Magazine. 

aroused in it by the reaction of the mind from selfishness. 
And then, too, there is some patriotism if we observe care- 
fully. 

The play embraces the rise and fall of the Yorkish 
usurper. Henry VII. ascends the throne as "the cham- 
pion of justice. " This was a highly popular subject to Eliza- 
bethan audiences. Richard's conqueror was Elizabeth's 
grandfather. Speeches are made by Richmond and Richard 
to their soldiers before the battle of Bosworth, just as Henry 
V. addressed his men before the walls of Horfieur. It is 
true we have not here that energy and promptness in exe- 
cution, that vigor and rapidity that make us always hail 
with delight the young Prince Hal. Yet there are simi- 
larities in the speeches. Hal says: 

"Cry for Harry, England and St. George." 

Richmond says: 

"God and St. George, Richmond and victory." 

Richard's speech is more fiery and impetuous: 

"Our ancient word of courage, fair St. George, 
Inspire us with the spleen of fiery dragons. 
Upon them! victory sits on our helms." 

We do not expect to find that burning patriotism here in 
a tragedy of selfish narrowness which is characteristic of 
Henry V., the magnetic soldier, the plain but lofty mind. 

Again, Mr. Lowell objects to what he terms the ludi- 
crous procession of ghosts. As he says, " In nothing is 
Shakspere more singular and pre-eminent than in his man- 
agement of the supernatural." In Hamlet only one ghost 
appears to incite him to action, because only one man 
closely related to him was murdered, and that man was his 
father. And for the same reason in Julius Caesar only one 



Glosler; or, A Question of Authorship. 91 

ghost appears to Brutus at night in the camp at Sardis and 
during the day at Philippi. , In Richard III. eleven ghosts 
appear to Richard in his dreams on the eve of battle. But 
he had been in league with all the Dowers of hell and is 

O J. 

represented by the dramatist as having murdered or had 
murdered the person of each ghost. These were Prince 
Edward, son of Henry VI. ; Clarence, his brother; Rivers, 
Grey, Vaughan, Hastings; the two young princes, his 
nephews; Queen Anne, his wife, and Buckingham. The 
very monotony of the continued apparitions is pathetic 
and intensely awe-inspiring. Let him who prefers having 
one ghost here choose from the number the one most 
wronged. Such a choice would be difficult, besides doing 
an injustice to the other spirits in not allowing them to 
appear. And there would also be a dramatic inconsistency 
in having Richard remember only one of his many crimes, 
in all of which he was equally guilty. Shakspere has met 
this difficulty by bringing in all the ghosts. 

His dramatic genius might have concentrated all these 
agonies of conscience in one scene, but we cannot see how 
it would have done so better than it has, despite Mr. 
Lowell. 

Again, the objection is raised that the beginning of the 
play is unusual and unnatural, being a soliloquy by Gloster. 
But is not Gloster an unusual and unnatural man? Hven 
in the beginning of the play the dramatist would bring to 
our minds the moral loneliness of this being: 

" Richard that loves Richard, that is, I am I." 

These are not all the points made by Mr. Lowell, and 
hence there is room for further investigation. Let us score 
a point for the Shaksperian authorship of Richard III. 
Its weight lies in the characterization of Richard in the 
Third Part of Henry VI. and in Richard III. 
5 



92 University Magazine. 

As early as Act I, Scene 2, of the former play, we see a 
likeness in some traits of character to the later King. His 
father York had sworn that Henry VI. should reign quietly. 
Richard proves to him, however, that he will not be for- 
sworn in revolting and taking command of the kingdom. 
He says: 

"'An oath is of no moment being not took 
Before a true and lofty magistrate, 
That hath authority over him that swears; 
Henry had none, but did usurp the place; 
Then seeing 'twas he that made you to depose, 
Your oath, my lord, is vain and frivolous: 
Therefore, to arms ! ' ' 

The obligation of an oath is here eluded by what John- 
son calls despicable sophistry. A lawful magistrate alone 
had the power to exact an oath. Henry VI. was an usurper, 
being the grandson of Bolingbroke; hence an unlawful 
magistrate. In this light the plea made by Richard is 
rational and just; but we should remember that an oath 
derives no part of its force from the magistrate, and there- 
fore, morally at least, York would have been, and was, 
forsworn in revolting. 

Now compare a similar instance of his reasoning power, 
his cunning trickery of words, in Richard III. In the 
presence of her dead step-father, Henry VI., he wooes and 
wins Lady Anne, though she all the time believes him 
guilty of murdering her husband, Edward, at Tewkesbury! 

Again, in Act II, Scene 1, of the Third Part of Henry 
VI., we have a contrast between the disposition of Gloster 
and his brother Edward which suits well the later Richard 
III. A messenger announces the death of their father: 

"The noble Duke of York is slain, 
Your princely father and my loving lord." 

Edw. — O speak no more! for I have heard too much. 
Rich. — Say how he died, for I will hear all. 



Gloster; or, A Question of Authorship. 93 

[thirty years later.] 

"A horse! a horse! my kingdom for a horse," is only a 
magnified form of this savage fortitude and rash impetu- 
osity, just as Richard III. is a developed and magnified 
form of Richard of Gloster. 

Again, in Act II, Scene 4, of Henry VI., when Clifford 
of the Lancastrians is dying from wounds received in the 
battle at Towton, Richard taunts him, saying: 

"What! not an oath? nay then the world goes hard, 
When Clifford cannot spare his friends an oath; 
I know by that he's dead, and by my soul, 
If this right hand would buy two hours' life, 
That I, in all despite, might rail at him, 
This hand should chop it off; and with the issuing blood 
Stifle the villain, whose unstaunched thirst 
York and young Rutland could not satisfy." 

This speech combines that sardonic style, sarcastic humor 
and bloody-thoughtedness which are his later character- 
istics. 

Further in Henry VI. , Part III, Act V, Scene 6, after 
having killed with his own hand King Henry VI. in the 
Tower, according to the dramatist, who is more definite 
than history, he soliloquizes: 

"I have no brother, I am like no brother; 
And this word love, which graybeards call divine, 
Be resident in men like one another, 
And not in me; I am myself alone." 

This statement, "I am myself alone," seems in itself to 
be sufficient excuse for the lonely and unique character of 
Richard III. He continues his soliloquy in Henry VI. : 

"Clarence, beware; thou keepest me from the light; 
But I will sort a pitchy da3 r for thee, 
For I will buzz abroad such prophecies 
That Edward shall be fearful of his life: 
And then to purge his fear, I'll be thy death." 



94 University Magazine. 

Here Gloster unfolds his plans to us for the future. In 
Richard III. these things are actually done by him. There 
we are told by Clarence that Edward, 

" From the cross-row plucks the letter G, 
And says a wizard told him that by G 
His issue disinherited should be, 
And, for my name of George begins with G, 
It follows in his thoughts that I am he." 

In this second passage we plainly see the same master- 
hand of the first passage following out his original purpose 
in the development of Richard. 

We might be indulged in saying that on the next char- 
acter in importance after Richard, Margaret, depends the 
force of the representation of Richard, for she is manifestly 
his foil. It may give emphasis to the point of the unity 
of conception of character in Henry VI., Part Third, and 
Richard III., if she, too, has the same characterization in 
each play. 

In Act II, Scene 2, of the former play, Margaret says to 
Gloster: 

" But thou art neither like th)' sire nor dam; 
But like a foul, misshapen stigmatic, 
Marked by the destinies to be avoided 
As venom toads, or lizards' dreadful stings." 

This passage is full of that burning hate and vindictive 
scorn which is seen only in a greater degree in the later 
play. Let me quote from Act I, Scene 3, of Richard III., 
where the irate prophetess is warning the Duke of Bucking- 
ham against Richard: 

"O Buckingham, take heed of yonder dog! 
Ivook, when he fawns, he bites; and when he bites, 
His venom tooth will rankle to the death. 
Have not to do with him, beware of him; 
Sin, death and hell have set their marks on him, 
And all their ministers attend on him." 



Gloster; or, A Question of Authorship. 95 

In each of these short passages there are two distinctly 
similar thoughts: 1. The rankling poison of Richard. 
2. His distorted figure. In the latter passage Margaret 
is more denunciatory, more passionate, more thrilling. 
Our conception of the calmness of Richard, when under 
fire and when scheming deeply, maybe seen in his answer: 

"What doth she say, my lord of Buckingham? " 

As if he had been abstracted and lost in other thoughts 
during this display of fury. The latter passage, too, it is 
interesting to note, shows how Shakspere improves upon 
himself as he gets deeper into his subject. 

Now, if Shakspere conceived Gloster and Margaret, 
as it seems likely he did, why not give him the credit of 
the authorship of Richard III. ? 

As a matter of interest and experiment, I wish some of 
my readers, who have been with the great master long 
enough to feel his presence in the drama, as well as see it 
technically, would try to fancy to themselves, if Shaks- 
pere did not write Richard III., how he would have writ- 
ten a play on this subject. Here was a man represented 
in the chronicles as having no love, fear or mercy for any 
man — in fact, a being alone. It would have taken a 
Shakspere to have shown greater art than in just the 
representation given here. Then if we cannot see or feel 
how Shakspere could have improved upon this characteri- 
zation, it seems natural to conclude that Shakspere must 
have done this. 

It can easily be granted that Shakspere was under the 
influence of Marlowe at this period of his career, both in 
diction — as seen in Clarence's dream, in which there is 
such a piling up and embarrassment of wealth — and in 
style, which love to magnify one character. And it seems 



96 University Magazine. 

better that Shakspere had not yet passed beyond that influ- 
ence, when we remember how well that style was specially 
adapted to the man Richard. 

It would seem a much greater accomplishment for an 
author to adopt consistent circumstances to a clear-cut his- 
toric character than to produce a fictitious character — a 
mere creature of whatever circumstances the author could 
put forth. In Richard III. the circumstances of the play 
so well bring out and harmonize with the historic Richard 
that the copy is much better than the original. Hence, 
we have a master-hand at work here, and since "the style 
is the man," we recognize the man Shakspere by his style; 
and, to use Mr. Lowell's definition, "not style in its nar- 
row sense of mere verbal expression, for that may change 
and does change with the growth and training of the man, 
but in the sense of that something, more or less clearly 
definable, which is always and everywhere peculiar to the 
man, and either in kind or degree distinguishes him from 
all other men." Herman H. Horne, '95. 



PROGRESS OF SCIENCE. 

CARBORUNDUM. 

Mr. E. G. Acheson, of Monongahela, Pa., in trying to 
make the diamond by fusing a mixture of carbon and clay in 
an electric furnace, found, upon examination, that, instead 
of diamonds, he had small blue crystals of a compound of 
carbon and silicon. 

This new compound has a specific gravity of 3.22, and is 
blue, green, or white in color, according to the purity of 
the charge, which consists of carbon, sand and common 



Progress of Science. 97 

salt, the last of which is added only for a protection to the 
mass and to aid in fusing. But its prominent character- 
istics are its great hardness, infusibility and incombusti- 
bility. The most important of these, or that upon which 
its value at present depends, is its hardness, which is very 
nearly equal to that of the diamond. Owing to its great 
hardness, and to the fact that carbon is one of the constitu- 
ents, it was called carboritndtwt. 

It will, no doubt, find varied uses in the arts aud manu- 
factures, but perhaps no other use to which it can be put 
will equal that of an abrasive material, and this alone would 
be sufficient to class it as one of the most valuable of mate- 
rials used by the artisan, and will probably bring a better 
revenue to its discoverer than if he had made the diamond 
instead. The discoverer has given out sufficient informa- 
tion concerning its production to show that it can be put 
upon the market at as small cost as emery, and it is pre- 
ferred to emery since it is very much harder. By tests 
made in cutting glass, chilled iron, hard steel, etc., first 
with emery then with carborundum, there was found to be 
an average saving of labor of at least twenty-five per cent, 
by the use of the latter. Unless there can be found less 
expensive methods of preparing emery for market it will 
undoubtedly be driven out of use by this new compound. 

W. N. Allen. 



BOOK NOTICES. 

Stories of the South. 32-mo. , pp. 222, 75 cents. New 
York: Charles Scribner 1 s Sons. 

The Scribners have issued a series of dainty little volumes 
of short stories under the general title, ' ' Stories from Scrib- 
ner." These volumes contain some of the best short stories 
that have recently appeared in that magazine. The present 
volume, the third in the series, contains four stories: "No 
Haid Pawn," by Thomas Nelson Page; "Plow the Derby 
Was Won," by Harrison Robertson; "Aunt Fountain's 
Prisoner," by Joel Chandler Harris; "Tirar Y. Soult, " by 
Rebecca Harding Davis. Some are doubtless familiar with 
one or more of these stories, as two or three have been in 
book form before. The best is perhaps Mrs. Davis', though 
"Aunt Fountain's Prisoner" is well done. The negro 
dialect in Mr. Harris' story is as correct as it can be writ- 
ten, for no combination of printed characters can show 
exactly the pronunciation of the negro. The consonants 
which are generally represented as elided entirely have 
their influence on the word, though it may be slight. Mr. 
Harris has succeeded better than any one else in represent- 
ing the every-day speech of the race. The story is the old 
one of the wounded Federal staying in the South and mar- 
rving- the daughter of his host. Mr. Robertson's contribu- 
tion is a story of love and horses in Kentucky, and, of 
course, he brings the lovers together at last. This is per- 
haps the least meritorious of the collection from a literary 
stand-point. Mr. Page's story is well known. The book 
is certainty worth buying. 

Chinese Nights' Entertainments. Forty Stories told by 
Almond-eyed Folk, Actors in the Romance of "The Strayed 
Arrow," by Adele M. Fulde. Illustrated by Chinese 
artists. 8-vo. , $1.75. New York: G. P. Putnani> s Sons. 

The writer " is not aware that any of these stories have 
before been rendered into a European tongue." They were 
heard or overheard by her "as they were told in the Swatow 



Book Notices. 99 

vernacular, by persons who could not read." The illus- 
trations, exceedingly funny, were made, under the direc- 
tion of the author, by native artists in the school of the 
celebrated painter, Go Leug, and indeed they look it. The 
stories are charming, nevertheless, and seem to us to belong 
to Mr. F. Marion Crawford's class of "intellectual artistic 
luxuries," in which he places the novel. They are entirely 
unmoral, and will be welcomed by boys and girls who enjoy 
a story for its own sake, without having to swallow a big 
dose of goody-good and bady-bad, imitating this little dear 
who was so good that he died early, and avoiding the 
example of that naughty little boy who, in spite of all his 
badness, lived to a green old age. The stories show that 
human nature is very much the same the world over, alike 
in heathen lands and Christian. Many little things show, 
too, that stories which have come down to us from the 
Greeks are by no means peculiar to our own race, though 
in their oriental dress they are more attractive than with 
us. As, for instance, the story of " the artist who, in cross- 
ing a desert, when he could find no spring, painted a plum 
so skillfully that, whenever he looked at it, it made his 
mouth water, and thus prevented his feeling thirst." 

FOR REVIEW. 

Church and State in North Carolina. By Stephen 
Beauregard Weeks, Ph. D. 8-vo. , pp. 65, 50 cents. Bal- 
timore: The Johns Hopkins Press. 

A Centennial Address, Delivered by Invitation of the 
Committee on the Centennial Celebration of the Foun- 
dation of the City, October 18, 1892. By Kemp P. Bat- 
tle, IvL. D. , Professor of History in the University of North 
Carolina. 



AMONG THE MAGAZINES. 

HOLLAND M. THOMPSON. 

The most important papers in the Review of Reviews for October are 
" Irrigation of Arid America " and "The Civic Church." In the latter Mr. 
Stead certainly sustains his reputation as an advanced, if not always a safe, 
thinker. His idea is to combine into one body all who desire to benefit 
the condition of humanity. Differences of opinion on speculative points 
should not affect the union. An atheist who has the good of his fellow- 
man at heart would not be excluded. The number of those who work for 
the salvation of the world is too small to waste strength in guerrilla war- 
fare. The idea is socialistic. The Church should take upon itself not 
only religious duties, but political and social as well. There are enough 
good people to control elections, if they were only united. Hence the 
Church should appeal to all who desire the welfare of the municipality. 
Then the Church should take charge of all foundling hospitals, cases of 
cruelty to children, education, especially primary, provide reading-rooms 
and scholarships in colleges for adults, and furnish clean, decent places of 
amusement. These are only a few of the objects set forth. In fact, Mr. 
Stead's idea is that the Church should represent "the collective and cor- 
porate responsibility of all the citizens for the spiritual, moral and social 
welfare of the poorest and most neglected districts within their borders." 
Some of these ideas seem rather startling to orthodox minds. William E. 
Smythe's article on irrigation mentioned above is perhaps the most, 
remarkable feature of the magaziue. The author shows how some lauds 
of the Western States, worthless on account of lack of water, have become 
to be worth hundreds of dollars per acre, and all through scientific irriga- 
tion. It has been said that irrigation is not a substitute for rain, but that 
rain is a poor substitute for irrigation. The yield from irrigated land 
is greater than under the most favorable circumstances without a stead}' 
water supply, and that yield is certain. These two facts cause intensive 
farming and make the farmer independent. The fact that, under the new 
system, a man can make a better living on ten acres than he could under 
old conditions on two hundred, allows him to have neighbors, and there- 
fore to cultivate the social side of his nature. The decline of the agricultural 
sentiment and the growing discontent of the rural population can be laid 
chiefly to the loneliness of country life. 

"The bane of country life is its loneliness. Not only the young folks, 
but the old as well, keenly feel the dearth of human sympathy and 



Among the Magazines. 101 

companionship. * * * In the larger portion of our agricultural domain 
the average size of the farm is one hundred and sixty acres. If these farms 
were reduced in size to ten acres, which is the average iu certain portions 
of irrigated America, sixteen families would occupy the space now held \>y 
one. Neighbors would then be sixteen times as numerous and the possi- 
bilities of social enjoyment multiplied in that ratio. It is here that irriga- 
tion strikes its first blow at the bareness and hardness of prevailing condi- 
tions. The ten-acre farm brings the public library, the school, the church 
within easy reach of the men who till the soil. They not only enjoy all the 
advantages of country life, but the chief advantages of the life of the 
town." 

The October Cosmopolitan is rather disappointing. It is hardly up to 
the September number, which was a decided hit. About 211,000 copies 
were sold and orders for 50,000 more were received. All the articles in 
the present number are short and the subjects varied. The historical arti- 
cles are probably the most interesting part. "Old Newport" is well writ- 
ten and illustrated, as are all the rest. Price Collier writes of "Private 
Schools for Boys," taking as his types the Berkeley School in New York 
City and the Groton School in Massachusetts. He takes the ground that 
to such schools the higher preparatory education of boys must be left, since 
their very high tuition fees will allow the employment of teachers enough 
to properly prepare boys for Harvard or Yale. The "Traveler from Altru- 
ria " has finished his journey at last. F. Marion Crawford writes on "Rome, 
the Capital of a New Republic." He undertakes to show the status and 
character of the Pope and the position of the Catholics on the question of 
"assent and obedience." The words of the Pope are quoted in regard to 
the lack of power of the Holy See: 

"The temporal sovereignty is not absolutely requisite for the existence of 
the papacy, since several Popes were deprived of it during several centuries, 
but it is 'required' in order that the pontiff's independence may display 
itself freely, without obstacles, and be evident and apparent to the eyes of 
the world. It is the social form, so to say, of his guardianship and of his 
manifestation. It is necessary, not quoad esse, but quoad bene esse — not 
to existence, but to a right existence. The Pope who is not a sovereign 
is necessarily a subject, because (in the social existence of a monarchy) 
there is no mean between subject and sovereign. A Pope who is the subject 
of a given government is continually exposed to influences connected with 
political aims and interests." 

The Harper for October contains a number of good articles and is alto- 
gether a very readable number. Miss Woolson's novel, "Horace Chase," 
is concluded. "Our National Game Bird," by C. D. Lanier, with charm- 
ing pictures by A. B. Frost, has "Bob White " for a subject. It is a pleas- 



102 University Magazine. 

ant article, especially to lovers of hunting. We are told all about the 
bird, its habits, the pleasure it affords the sportsman. Says Mr. Lanier: 
"In the sportsman's code there is no crime so heinous as shooting a quail 
before he has taken wing." Decidedly the most interesting and enjoyable 
article, particularly to the college student, is Richard Harding Davis' 
"Undergraduate Life at Oxford." This is the second article concerning 
English life that Mr. Davis has written for this magazine. Mr. W. Hath- 
erell illustrates the series. This article deals particularly with the life of 
the undergraduates during the "eight's week," which is the period of their 
boat races. He describes their habits and characteristics with a sympa- 
thetic touch: 

"The day of an Oxford man is somewhat different from that of an 
American student. He rises at eight and goes to chapel, and from chapel 
to breakfast in his own room, where he gets a most substantial breakfast — I 
never saw such substantial breakfasts anywhere else — or, what is more 
likely, he breakfasts with some one else in some one else's rooms. So far 
as I could see no one ever lunched or dined or breakfasted alone. * * * 
After breakfast the undergraduate 'reads' a bit and then lunches with 
another man, and reads a little more, and then goes out on the river or to 
the cricket-field until dinner. The weather permits this out-of-door life 
all the year round, which is a blessing the Oxford man enjoys and which 
his snow-bound American cousin does not. * " ;f * After dinner the under- 
graduate reads with his tutor out of college or in his own rooms. He can- 
not leave the college after a certain early hour, and if he should stay out 
all night the consequences would be awful. This is, of course, quite as 
incomprehensible to an American as are the jagged iron spikes and broken 
glass which top the college walls. * * * I fear, from all that I could hear, 
that almost every college prison in Oxford has its secret exit and entrance, 
known only to the undergraduate. 

The Atlantic for October is much better suited to the tastes of one seek- 
ing for fiction than the preceding one. It begins with a story by Elizabeth 
Cavazza, entitled "The Man from Aidone." It is a love story of Sicily, 
which leaves the reader a little disappointed, since it is not concluded, but 
is left for him to finish according to his own taste. The "Isthmus and 
Sea Power," by A. T. Mahon, is a history of the Central American Isth- 
mus, showing the great importance of the Nicaragua Canal, and how it 
should be protected by America. 

"If the decision of the nation is that the weaker we are the more 
likely we are to have our own waj', there is little to be said. Drifting is 
perhaps as good a mode as any to reach that desired goal. If, on the other 
hand, we determine that our interest and dignit}' require that our rights 
should depend upon the will of no other state, but upon our own power 



Among- the Magazines. 103 

to enforce them, we must gird ourselves to admit that freedom of inter- 
oceanic transit depends on predominance in a maritime region — the Carib- 
bean Sea — through which pass all the approaches to the Isthmus. Control 
of a maritime region is insured primarih^ by a navy; secondly, by posi- 
tions, suitably chosen and spaced one from another, upon which as bases 
the navy rests, and from which it can exert its strength. At present the 
positions of the Caribbean Sea are held by foreign powers, nor may we, 
however disposed to acquisition, obtain them by means other than right- 
eous, but a distinct advance will have been made when public opinion is 
convinced that we need them, and should not exert our utmost ingenuity 
to dodge them when flung at our head." 

There is also an article of much interest to the classical student on the 
"Permanent Power of Greek Poetry," by Richard C. Jebb. 

There are several other interesting articles, besides the usual comments 
on books and the Contributors' Club. 

The Homiletic Review for October, Funk & Wagnalls, New York, 
publishers, merits special attention as the best representative of methods 
and style of preaching now issued. We have not space for a full exhibit 
of its rich bill of fare. Any young man under training for the business 
of effective popular speaking would do well to study its pages. Mutatis 
mutandis, Broadus's book on Preparation and Delivery of Sermons is the 
most practical text-book he could find, whether he is to be lawyer, 
preacher, lecturer, politician ; and the Homiletic Review would furnish 
the aptest illustrations and applications of Broadus's methods of teaching. 
The first article on The Minister's Literary Culture shows how the princes 
of the Church have been men of literary taste. Paul did not cram up 
Cleanthes for the sake of quoting him at Mars' Hill. Melancthon's crystal 
clearness of style and Erasmus's playful yet piercing humor were as 
necessary to the Reformation as Luther's energetic administration and 
sunny, music-loving spirit. John Wesley studied Homer and Spenser's 
Faerie Oueen, and one of his executors flung a Shakspere written all over 
with Wesley's notes into the fire. Spurgeon's reading was vast and varied. 
Robert Browning declared that his most congenial companions were 
amongst the preachers. For pleasure, for profit, for power, the minister 
must cultivate literature. Not for a shelf- full of mere professional books 
would the true spiritual guide of others give up Sam Weller and Colonel 
Newccrne. We knew a great divine who, like Burke, had always a ragged 
Virgil at his elbow, and the style of each was colored by his constant com- 
panion. Mr. Huxley says that in English literature we have the noblest 
models of literary excellence. Hand-books of illustrations die out in 
the using. Familiarity with sterling authors will supply a perennial 
stream of images and incidents. Ruskin and Emerson and George Eliot 



104 University Magazine. 

and Frederick Robertson must be added to Shakspere to impart ability of 
a general kind. The narrowing effect of one's profession or vocation can 
be resisted by such culture only. Special seminar} 7 studies, the scientific and 
utilitarian trend of education in man}' colleges, will result in making men 
hard and material and uninteresting, and absorption day by day in theology 
and psychology alone will lead the preacher to neglect his purely literary 
tastes. Ministers should be the visible link between the ideal world of 
literature as well as the unseen spiritual realm and the people at large, 
and with all their need of better training here. Dr. Patton, of Princeton, 
declares that taking one hundred lawyers, one hundred doctors and one 
hundred preachers, the intellectual level of the minister is many degrees 
higher than that of either of the others. It is not ephemeral reading that 
is recommended. Dine late and keep the newspapers out of the study 
until after dinner. Read the great books, study them as great works of 
art, and thus ennoble thought and style, and the preacher, who is the chief 
teacher of the masses, of the average child and man and woman, will be 
in a fair way to "become all things to all men, if so be that he may win 
some." We have thus summarized the leading article of the Review. 
Other papers throw.light on Scripture from late Babylonian and Persian 
discoveries. The most cultured and all-satisfying of present preachers, 
Alexander MacDaren, is represented by an exquisite discourse. One of 
the good sermons borrows the title of the Dutch novelist, Maarten's 
masterpiece, "God's Fools." Science, history, the Columbian Exposition, 
contribute to the department of illustrations of Bible truths. There is a 
Sociological Section in which the relation of the pulpit to labor and capi- 
tal, to the use of money, the temperance question, to mobs and lynchings, 
to public morals generall}', is handled. The Section on Voice Culture 
would be profitable to any speaker. Finally we were deeply interested in 
the very fine sermon by Rev. Dr. Henry W. Battle, who lately removed 
from Newberu to Petersburg, Va. It is a model for high spiritual appeals 
to young men, this clear-cut, crisp, truly eloquent oration on "Daniel 
purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself." It is a very 
trumpet-call to duty. We wonder not that "the people hear him gladly" 
in his new home. 

We have enjoyed this Review and commend it to all. 



CURRENT COMMENT. 

CASWEEE EIXIS. 

The wrecked bodies of so many college men, often leading to a per- 
verted life and early death, have at last awakened the thoughtful mind to 
the necessity of thorough physical culture to enable men to stand the 
great strain of continued mental labor during the very time when their 
physical manhood is being either made or ruined. Many, pale, delicate 
boys are sent to college, and if they do not develop according to the best 
methods their phj'sical manhood and build up a strong constitution while 
there, they will probably lead a sedentary life after leaving their Alma 
Mater and fill an earl} T grave — men wrecked and wasted. In this awaken- 
ing some have tried to cultivate the physical too far, to the neglect 
of the other equally important sides of life — the spiritual and mental. 
This slight effervescence which accompanies nearly all great reactions 
has caused many inconsiderate and uninformed friends of the Univer- 
sity a great deal of unnecessary trouble. The Faculty have acted wisely 
in having attendance on the light, general training in the gj'mnasium 
compulsory. This insures a healthful exercise for all, directed bj' an 
experienced instructor, and gentle enough for the most delicate, though 
vigorous enough for the strongest, while it gives grace to the boys along 
with the general development. For pastime and for special training our 
foot-ball, base-ball, tennis and track athletic teams afford ample opportu- 
nity. The best proof of the great efficiency of this department is the excep- 
tionally good health of our student-body, which is soi'ely tried and poorly 
provided for in another equally important line : namely, food. 

The complaint about board heard on ever}' side is not the mere cry of 
spoiled children or bragging chronic kickers. This trouble comes from 
the inexperience and incompetency of those who run the boarding-houses 
and hotels. Plent3 T of expensive food is ruined and utterly wasted in 
preparation, and especially is the mistake made of giving for supper 
the heaviest and most indigestible food known to man. It is not in the 
province of the Magazine to give culinary lectures ; but is our duty to 
suggest a remedy for this evil. Harvard College suffered from the same 
trouble until it was remedied by the formation of clubs. These clubs hire 
a competent steward and put the whole business under his care and the 
direction of a board composed of their own fellows. They divide the 
expenses equally. This plan enables the men to select their company and 
to have just what they desire. Very inferior board at Harvard was eight 



106 University Magazine. 

dollars per week until the Memorial Hall Dining Association was formed, 
which gave men perfectly satisfactory board for less than five dollars per 
week. This club now numbers eight hundred. The Foxcroft Club, formed 
later and having a membership of about one hundred, serve meals a la carte, 
and good board may be had here for three dollars per week. These prices 
are in a place where eggs and butter are thirty-five to fifty cents per 
pound, and many other things equally high. WI13' not form some clubs 
here and employ trained stewards to manage them ? 

The very tasty Alpha Tau Omega Club-house, now nearly completed, 
is quite an addition to our village. May this be but the beginning of a 
general move in that direction. This will answer the problem of accom- 
modating the increased number of students, besides making college-life 
more pleasant and home-like. The life at Cornell is very largely in fra- 
ternity lodges and great pride is taken in the beaut} T of these and in the 
excellent order observed by those to whom they belong. 

The writer of " Southern Foot-ball," in the Princetonian, prophesies 
that the University of North Carolina will win the Southern Champion- 
ship this fall. Judging from the writer's high estimate of the value of 
Mr. Spicer's training to the University of Virginia team and his evident 
partiality to that team, but sincere respect for our prowess, we might 
suppose that Mr. Spicer furnished the data for this article. Iu fact, we 
are this year wonderfully strong in the rush line. Every man is an expe- 
rienced and strong pla}-er. In some respects this surpasses last year's 
line, which "out-pla3'ed at every point " the best teams in the South. 
Behind the line we sorely miss Devin and Hoke. The new men are train- 
ing hard, however, and there is plenty of good material. Captain Barnard 
will put a team in the field that will reflect credit upon our University. 
Go it, boys; we are depending on you! 

The University is to be congratulated upon the prosperous condition 
of her Law Department. Dr. Manning took charge of this department 
in 1881, when the class numbered five. The number rapidly increased, 
and, to aid in the instruction, Judge (now Chief Justice) James E. Shep- 
herd was called to assist with the Summer Course. The continued growth 
of this department and the exceedingly pleasant relations existing between 
professors and students show how fully these two men have done their duty. 
There are now fifty-three law students, and this spring will increase the 
attendance. Though not at all strange it is notable that not a single 
man who passed the examinations here has ever failed before the Supreme 
Court, while several who failed to pass here have passed the Supreme 
Court examinations. 



Current Comment. 107 

The historical function of the University, and its present greatest 
function, is to supply the country with teachers. In 1376 a Chair for the. 
Study of Education was established in Edinburgh. Since that time in 
rapid succession similar chairs have been established in many of the great 
universities of the world. The University of North Carolina has recently 
established such a chair and placed in charge of it Professor Edwin A. 
Alderman. A large class of earnest, capable men has been formed. This 
chair as a university study proposes to study education from three points 
of view: as a history, a philosophy and an art. Its historical phase will 
necessitate inquiry into the ideals of manhood held by different nations 
and ages; the controlling religious and political forces; the educational 
plans of the wisest for the culture and development of their kind, and 
what plans have succeeded and lived, what have failed and why. Its 
philosophic phase will involve a study of the processes by which the mind 
gets ideas and reacts upon them. The education by authority and the 
education by experience and inquiry will be examined and the main 
results attained under each set forth. Its art phase will concern itself 
with the study of school systems, modern ideals and methods and the spe- 
cial educational needs of our own State. This chair seeks and proposes 
to make closer the articulation between the public schools and the Uni- 
versity, which is the brain and heart of any complete system of public 
education. Its main purpose is to see to it that young men preparing for 
the teacher's office here in North Carolina shall not only know the sub- 
ject-matter of knowledge, but what knowledge is of most value, the 
nature of the individual to be taught, and rational processes of present- 
ing the realities of knowledge to the learning mind. There is every rea- 
son why the influences from the work of this department should make 
for the elevation of our educational life. The profession of teaching has 
received just recognition, and there will grow, let us believe, throughout 
the State a higher and more rigid notion of the teacher's attainments and 
duties, and, therefore, a more effective system of public and private 
schools. 

The Carthaginians put to death their generals who returned defeated. 
The history of Carthage shows how unwise such a course is. Unbroken 
series of victories are not always possible. Defeat must come, and the 
wisest policy is to learn how to bear defeat with dignity and equanimity, 
and become the stronger and better from our failures. Our athletic teams 
are a part of our college-life. The best, the strongest, the most skillful, 
go forth to battle for the college colors. It is most unseemly, most 
unkind, to jeer and chaff our men when they come back defeated. This 
is their home and they have a right to expect comforting words and 
helpful hands here. In this way only can we truly help them to rise 
above defeat and wrest victory from the midst of disaster. Do not be so 
cowardly as to show your disappointment by jeering the vanquished. 



COLLEGE RECORD. 

FRED. L. CARR. 

A. C. ELLIS has been elected Washington's Birthday Orator. 

George Graham, '91, has been coaching the foot-ball team for some 
time. 

The TWELVE hundred medical volumes bequeathed to the University 
Library by the late Dr. Wood, Surgeon C. S. A., of Wilmington, N. C, are 
being arranged and catalogued. To accommodate them five new iron 
alcoves will be erected. 

W. D. Grimes, '97, C. F. McRae, '96, A. H. London, '96, and E. W. 
Myers, '95, were marshals at the State Fair in October. 

The German given in Gymnasium Hall, Wednesday night, October 
nth, by the University Germau Club, was voted a success by all. W. R. 
Robertson as leader gave much satisfaction. The floor managers were 
C. R. Turner and B. R. Dee. 

PROFESSOR Tolman delivered an interesting and instructive lecture on 
the "Rig-veda" or Hindoo Bible at the Episcopal Church, Sunday night, 
October 15th. 

October 12TH, University Day, was celebrated as the one hundredth 
anniversary of the laying of the corner-stone of the Old East Building. 
In the morning, instead of the usual address, Dr. Winston made a short 
talk before the student-body. In the afternoon was played the first foot- 
ball game of the season between the A. & M. College and the Universit}' 
second eleven. The game was called at 3:30, the first half lasting forty- 
five minutes, the second onty tweut}--five minutes by mutual consent. 
The features of the game were the rushing of Steele, Thomas and Dockery 
for the University and Hughes, Pritchard and McRae for A. & M. The 
score stood 22 to o in favor of the second eleven. The day ended with a 
reception in Gymnasium Hall given by President Winston to the Uni- 
versity students. 

THE DEATH OF REV. J. C. PRICE. 

In the chapel Thursday morning, October 26, immediately after prayers, 
President Winston announced to the students the death of Rev. J. C. Price, 
and spoke of his life, character and influence. He was well acquainted 
with Dr. Price, whom he regarded as the most talented and accomplished 



College Record. 109 

negro he ever knew. He was born a slave forty years ago in Elizabeth 
City. His father was black, a skillful mechanic. His mother was black, 
an ambitious woman, who worked and saved to educate her son. Dr. 
Price was a graduate of Lincoln University, Pennsylvania, and was a 
scholar in Latin, Greek and Hebrew. He held the degrees of A. B., A. M. 
and D. D. He was a finer orator than Fred. Douglass, with fewer oppor- 
tunities for oratorical culture. He gave promise of leadership in the 
times ahead when perplexing and possibly dangerous race problems will 
call for wise, prudent and powerful leaders. He had devoted himself to 
the elevation of his people by education, steadily refusing political power 
and preferment. Only once did he take part in a campaign . It was in 
behalf of prohibition. His speech in Raleigh in Metropolitan Hall was 
full of fire and eloquence, and commanded the enthusiastic admiration of 
white and black. He traveled in Europe and was entertained by English 
noblemen. His relations with the whites of our State were friendly and 
cordial. He understood the limitations that environ his people. He was 
wise and prudent. He was a gentleman. He would assume positions of 
inferiority, in deference to the feelings of others, even though he felt no 
inferiority in his own bosom. 

He recently lectured in New York to a large audience of highly culti- 
vated and aristocratic people. His address was an eloquent defense both 
of the negro and of his former master. He also recently lectured in 
Charlotte and advised his race to break the solid political ranks the}' had 
held since the war. 

His death leaves the race in North Carolina without a leader. It is a 
calamity to them, and it is not too much to call it a national loss. His 
life illustrates the power of talent, character and energy to rise from the 
humblest sphere to high position. 

MITCHELL SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY. 

The Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society held its first meeting for the 
term in the Chemical Lecture-room, Tuesday night, October 10th. Papers 
were read as follows: 

"On the Geographical Development of the Counties in Middle and 
Eastern North Carolina," by Professor J. A. Holmes, State Geologist, 
President of the Society. 

"The Electric Furnace in the Preparation of the Carbides," by Dr. 
F. P. Venable. 

SHAKSPERE CLUB. 

The first regular meeting of the Shakspere Club for the present term 
was held in the Physics Room, Thursda}' night, October 5th, Dr. Hume 
presiding. Several new members were proposed and accepted, and the 



no University Magazine. 

subject of the meeting was announcecd as "Shakspere's Treatment of 
English History." After a short comment by the president on the poli- 
tics of the great master the following papers were presented: 

" The Wars of the Roses," by T. B. Lee. He pointed out the fact that 
Shakspere gives the causes and the different stages of development of the 
wars, the plans of the campaigns, the various plots and counter-plots of 
the leaders, the final defeat of the Lancastrians, and the accession of 
Richard III. to the throne. 

"Warwick, the King-maker in History and the Drama," by E. E. 
Gillespie. Mr. Gillespie gave an account of the conflicts, defeats and 
final triumph of this influential baron. He showed that Shakspere in 
dealing with such subjects follows closely the facts of history. 

"The Character of Richard of Gloster in the Third Part of Henry VI. 
Compared with that of Richard III., as Bearing upon the Authorship of 
Richard III.," b}' H. Home. He showed that the Richard in Richard 
III. was the same character and carried out the plans of the Richard in 
Henr5 T VI. He reviewed Mr. Lowell's criticism of the pla3% and showed 
that Shakspere is the author of Richard III. 

Dr. Battle in an entertaining way explained the "Right of Sanctuary" 
existing in olden times, tracing its progress from the Hebrews to Greece 
and Rome and finally to England, where it was abolished in 1623. He 
showed that a similar custom was once in vogue in Virginia and the Caro- 
linas. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing term: Dr. Hume, 
President; Professor Tolman, Vice-President; T. S. Rollins, Secretary; 
H. Home, Assistant Secretary; James Sawyer, Treasurer. 

ALUMNI NOTES. 

A. Nixon (1881) has been elected County Superintendent of Lincoln 
count}'. 

David A. Hampton (1S82) is practicing medicine at Ennis, Texas. 

David Schenck (i884-'85) has been appointed Fourth Assistant Coun- 
selor of the Richmond & Danville Railroad. 

J. Bryan Grimes (i882-'85) was Chief Marshal at the State Fair. 

J. V. Lewis (1S91), who spentlastyear at Harvard, isspendingthe present 
session at Johns Hopkins studying petrography. After a year there Mr. 
Lewis will return to Harvard to do work for his doctor's degree. 

Charles G. Foust (1888) is now Superintendent of the Public Schools 
of Dublin — not the capital of the Emerald Isle, but a flourishing city of 
the Lone Star — Texas. We have not learned that our brother has acquired 
"Home Rule" for his personal benefit, but advise him to do so. It is not 
only "not good," but absolutely dangerous to be alone on the frontiers 
of civilization. 



College Record. in 

Jacob Battle, who left this Univesity in 1868, when it was temporarily- 
closed, for the University of Virginia, where he took a very high stand, 
graduating M. A., has been appointed by Governor Carr to the Judgeship 
of the Superior Court, vacated by the resignation of Judge Connor. Mr. 
Battle is a relative of the late Judge William H. Battle and grandson of 
Judge Joseph J. Daniel, both of our Supreme Court bench. He is known 
to be a lawyer of conspicuous learning and ability. He is law partner of 
the Hon. Benjamin Bunn, M. C. from the metropolitan district. 

George Lane Patrick (1886), who married the only daughter of that 
eminent teacher, Dr. Richard Henry Lewis, of Kiuston, of the Class of 
1852, is a civil engineer in Macon, Georgia. 

Solomon Cohen Weill (1886), who made a brilliant record as a stump 
speaker in the Presidential canvass, he being one of the Electors, has 
been appointed Assistant United States District Attorney of the Eastern 
District. 

Charles Brantley Aycock (1879), who was one of the Cleveland Electors 
for the State at Large, one of the very best stumpers in the South, has 
been commissioned as United States District Attorney for the Eastern 
District of North Carolina. 

Rev. James Daniel Miller (1SS1) has been recently ordained a minister 
in the Protestant Episcopal Church. When at the University Mr. Miller 
was known as a good scholar, with a clear head, but he paid not much 
attention to oratory. We predict for him a most useful career. By the 
by, Mr. Miller was the donor to the Historical Society of the murderous, 
blunderbuss-shaped brass pistol with bayonet attached, which was used by 
the pirates one hundred and fifty years ago, by Blackbeard perhaps. Mr. 
Miller's gentle manners preclude the idea that this atrocious weapon was 
a family relic. 

MARRIAGES. 

H. G. Wood (1889) was married to Miss Mary Phillips, daughter of 
Judge Phillips (1858), at Tarboro, N. C, September 26th. 

R. H. Davis (i875-'77) was married to Miss Annie Jones, daughter of 
Captain Pride Jones (1834), at Hillsboro, N. C, October 18th. 

DEATHS. 

H. W. Burgwyn (1838) died at his home in Charlotte county, Va., on 
Tuesday, October 10th. At the time of his death he was seventy-five 
years old, and throughout all his long life "had borne without reproach 
the sjrand old name of gentleman." 



ERRATA. 

In the North Carolina University Magazine for October, 
on the middle of page 4, for "channel" read "chancel." 

At bottom of same page, for "sense of perception" read 
"sense perception." 

On middle of page 5, for " Then tragedy " read "The 
tragedy." 

At top of page 10, for "spirit of a drama" read "spirit 
of drama." 

On middle of same page, for "viewing" read "mewing." 
At top of page n, for "Soiius" read "Sirius." 



UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



FACULTY. 

George Tayloe Winston, LL. D., President, and Professor of Political and 
Social Science. 

Kemp Plummer Battle, LL. D,> Professor of History. 

Francis Preston Venable, Ph. D., Professor of General and Analytical 
Chemistry. 

*Josepii Austtn Holmes, B. 8., Professor of Geology and Mineralogy. 

Joshua Walker Gore, C. E., Professor of Natural Philosophy. 

John Manning, LL. D.,' Professor of Law. 

Thomas Hume, D. D., LL. D., Professor of the English Language and Litera- 
ture. 

Walter Dallam Toy, M. A., Professor of Modern Languages. 

IEben Alexander, Ph. D., Professor of the Greek Language and Literature. 

William Gain, C. E., Professor of Mathematics and Engineering. 

Ricuarb Henry Whitehead, M. D.. Professor of Anatomy, Physiology and 
Materia Medica. 

Hen'rt Horace W.ilmams, A. M., B. D., Professor of Mental and Moral Sci- 
ence. 

Henry Van Peters Wilson, Ph. D., Professor of Biology. 

Karl PoMBttov Harrington, A. M., Professor of the Latin Language and 
Literature. 

jOollier Cobb, A. B., Professor of Geology and Mineralogy. 

Edwin Anderscn Alderman, Ph. B , Professor of the History and Philoso- 
phy of Education. 

Herbert Cusiiino Tot.man, Ph. D., Professor of Sanskrit, Acting Professor 
of Greek. 



INSTRUCTORS AND ASSISTANTS. 

Charles Baskerville, B. Sc, Instructor in Chemistry. 

Thomas Roswell Foust, B. E., Instructor in Mathematics and Drawing. 

James Thomas Pugh, A. B., Instructor in Latin. 

Chari.es H. White, Assistant in Physical Laboratory. 

William Rand Kenan, Jr., Assistant in Chemical Laboratory. 

Assistant in Geological Laboratory. 



OFFICERS. 

J. W. Gore, Secretary and Registrar, 

E. A. Alderman, Librariau. 

F. C. Harding, Student Librarian. 
W. T. Patterson, Bursar. 



*State Geologist, on leave of absence from the University. 
fMinister to Greece, Roumania and Servia. 
JlHead of the department. 






FOOT BALL SUPPLIES. 




OFFICIAL INTERCOLLEGIATE FOOT BALL. 



PRICE, $5.00. 

Adopted for the Second Year by the Inter- 
collegiate Association. 

FOOT v BALL v GUIDE. 

By Walter Camp. 10 Cents. 

FOOT BALL CATALOGUE FREE. 

A. G. SPALDING & BROS., 

Chicago. New York. Philadelphia. 



Vol. XIII. 



DECEMBER, 189& 



JMo. 3. 



NORTH 
CAROLINA 
UNIVERSITY 



AAGAZINE 




PRICE 23 CENTS. 



I 



NORTH CAROLINA 

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE, 

•;ded in ] 

CONTENTS' FOR DECEMBER, 1893. 

Hunter Lee Harris -. Frontispiece 

The Parliament op Religions. Wallace E. Rollins 

Retrospection. A Poem. Hunter Lee Harris, '89 - +_. 120 

Hunter Lee Harris. ./. A. JIo 

AY hat Inlet Did Amajv rtf 1584? John D. 

Davis -•_„ 124 

Some Experiences at a German University. III. Degree Exami- 
tions. F. P. Venable 

Old Times. J, M. Richmond, '58 - 

An Elizabethan Literary Fad; or, Romeo's Love Conceits. 

Herbert Bingham, '94 --- 140 

Progress op Science. A New Theory for Lunar Graters. Charles 

If. White, '94 
Book Notices 

Harvard Stories— Church and State in North Carolina. 

Among the Magazines. Holland M. Thompson, ' 95 

Current Comment. Caswell Ellis, '94 - 

College Record. Fred. L. Carr, '95 

Foot-hall — Shakspere Club— Philological Club — Elisha Mitchell 
Scientific Society — Alumni Notes — Marriages — Deaths. 

The University Magazine is published every month during the col- 
lege year by the Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies. 

The aim of the Magazine is, first of all, to preserve the best under- 
graduate work of our University, and to be • the expression i 
strongest and soberest thought of the University in all its departments. 
It will contain in each number an article of the more serious s 
some alumnus of the University or other prominent thinker, 1 
poems, critical reviews, essays, careful book notices, and editon. 
topics of general interest. 

Contributions are solicited from both students and alumni, and such 
as are available will find a place in the Magazine. 

The Magazine is for sale by the booksellers of the State generally. It 
may be had at Sevur's in Cambridge, Mass., and at Brentano's," New 
York. Single copies cost twenty-five cents ; the subscription price is 
one dollar and fifty cents per year. Address, 

THE UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE, 

ered at the Chapel Hill Post-cjJHcr as second-class mail mat 







n 


X-v**' 




JL^Hu" J 




h-w '-ft 







HUNTER LEE HARRIS. 



NORTH CAROLINA 

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE 

Old Series, Vol. XXVI. No. 3— DECEMBER, 1893. New Series, Vol. XIII. 

THE PARLIAMENT OF RELIGIONS. 

. . . All the creeds of men have come to praise 

And kneel and worship at the great white throne 
Of God, the Father of us all, and raise 

The all-world's prayer to Him, the Great alone. 

— Mrs. L. Ormiston Chant. 

The Parliament of Religions was one of the many nota- 
ble "World's Congresses" held in the Art Institute, in 
the city of Chicago, as a part of the ' ' Columbian Exposi- 
tion." 

The idea of such a gathering was first conceived about 
two years ago. Both the conception and the execution of the 
idea have been largely due to two men — Charles C. Bonney 
and Dr. John Henry Barrows. 

Although the proposition to assemble the different relig- 
ions of the world seemed to strike a responsive chord in 
the hearts of thousands of religious people of almost every 
nation, yet there were many who seriously doubted the 
wisdom of such a gathering, and some who bitterly op- 
posed it. In this respect it was like all new and great 
movements. There was no precedent by which to judge 
it; and many — especially those who were not accustomed 
to think for themselves, or who had not the courage of 
their convictions — knew not what attitude to assume 



ii4 University Magazine. 

toward it. But the lamented Whittier was not of these. 
Dr. Theodore Munger, in a recent sermon, said: 

" Whittier knew human nature on its better side, and was, therefore, 
enthusiastic in support of the proposed Parliament. In a conversation 
with him, shortly before his death, he would scarcely talk of anything 
else." 

Thus, in the midst of doubt, opposition, and enthusiastic 
support, the plan moved forward. And now, after having 
overcome innumerable difficulties — difficulties that will 
never be wholly known nor fully appreciated — the Parlia- 
ment has met and adjourned. It held its opening session 
on Monday, September nth, and, continuing through 
seventeen days, closed with that memorable ' ' farewell 
session" on the evening of September 28th. 

Distinguished representatives of all the great religions 
of the world were present and took part in the proceedings. 
Among the religions represented were: Christianity, Juda- 
ism, Buddhism, Brahminism, Mohammedanism, Confu- 
cianism, Zoroastrianism, Shintoism, and theBrahmo-Somaj. 
All of these, with two or three exceptions, had a number 
of representatives present. Christianity, of course, had far 
the largest and strongest delegation. There were present: 
Baptists, Methodists, Congregationalists, Presbyterians, 
Episcopalians, Quakers, Salvation Armyists, Unitarians, 
Universalists, Roman Catholics, and representatives from 
almost all the other sects of Christendom. 

What a gathering! How inspiring to think of it! Once 
in the history of Christendom have the various divisions 
of Christianity met in friendly counsel! Once in the his- 
tory of the world the representatives of the great religions 
of mankind have met and shaken hands! And what a 
beautiful spirit seemed to pervade the whole Parliament! 
Although there were men of every color, dress and cus- 



The Parliament of Religions. 115 

torn upon the platform, yet they seemed more like brothers 
than strangers. 

What was the object of this meeting of the nations ? It 
was not to make war upon each other. It was not to con- 
vert each other. . It was not, as Dr. Munger has well 
remarked, to fence the religious world within narrower 
limits, as almost all religious councils have done. It was 
not that any religion should concede one jot or tittle of its 
Faith. No religion made a single concession — save the 
concession of personal hatred and intolerance. The object 
of this Parliament was, it appears to me, threefold: 

First, that all men who were "feeling after God if 
haply they might find Him" might come together in a 
spirit of love, kneel around one common altar, and join in 
one common worship of the Father of us all. 

Thus, three times a day, the various religions assembled 
offered up together the Lord's Prayer. With deep feeling 
and true reverence all religions joined, also, in singing such 
beautiful and universal hymns as "Nearer, my God, to 
Thee." 

The second object was that the various religions of the 
world might be expounded by their own adherents, so that 
each religion could thus learn of all the others. This, it 
was hoped, would lead to a knowledge of what is common 
to all religions. 

The third object was that the representatives of the 
various religions of the world might come together and 
cultivate that spirit of love, tolerance and justice which, 
heretofore, they have so sadly lacked. 

Has the Parliament accomplished its purposes ? What 
do those who were present think of it ? It is fair to assume 
that such alone are thoroughly competent to judge. 



u6 University Magazine. 

Alfred Momerie, of the Church, of England, says: 

" It is the greatest event so far in the history of the world." 

Rev. Augusta Chapin said in her farewell address: 

" It has been the greatest gathering ever, in the name of religion, held 
on earth." 

George Dana Boardman, of the Baptist Church, said on 
one occasion: 

" It is lengthening the cords of Zion and strengthening its stakes." 

Dr. Frank M. Bristol, of the Methodist Church, says: 

' ' Infinite good and only good will come from this Parliament of 
Religions. ' ' 

Bishop Arnett, of the African Methodist Episcopal 
Church, says: 

" It is one of the grandest conceptions of the nineteenth century. * * * 
It is a God-send to my race. ' ' 

George E. Post, Christian missionary from Syria, says: 

"I consider the Parliament of Religions the most interesting and far- 
reaching in its results of all the exhibits of the World's Fair of 1893." 

Mrs. Julia Ward Howe, in her farewell address, said, 
with deep emotion: 

" I have brought you a heart brimming with love and thankfulness for 
this crown of the ages, so blessed in itself, and so full of a more blessed 
prophecy." 

These are but examples of like sentiments expressed by 
hundreds of others. 

But the thoughtful student is not content even with 
such praise. He wants to know effects. A meeting so 
great must be fraught with tremendous results. What, 
then, are these results ? 



The Parliament of Religions. 117 

1. It has shown that religion is universal — that "God 
hath not left Himself without a witness among the 
nations"; that religion is implanted in the very roots of 
man's constitution; and that man is, above all things else, 
a religious being. Bishop Keane says: 

"The Parliament has been a weighty blow to atheism, to deism, to 
naturalism, and to mere humanism." 

2. The Parliament has stimulated, in no small degree, 
the study of Comparative Religions. Never before has 
there been such an opportunity to hear the religions of the 
world expounded by their own adherents. Without sym- 
pathy it is impossible to fully understand and appreciate a 
religion. This sympathetic explanation of the religions 
of the world has given us a new insight into them, and 
has created in us a desire to know more about them. 

3. The Parliament has laid the basis of universal toler- 
ance. It has shown to the world that, however widely 
men may differ in their religious beliefs, and however ear- 
nestly they may desire to convert each other, they may yet 
find a common bond of brotherhood, and dwell together 
in unity. 

4. It will aid in bringing about international and racial 
justice. When Pung Kwang Yu, special delegate of the 
Chinese government to the Parliament, arose at one of the 
meetings, and begged for a kinder treatment of his coun- 
trymen, he received quite an ovation ; and almost every 
one in the great audience arose to vote that the "infamous 
Geary law" should be repealed. 

The sentiment of the Parliament was overwhelming 
also in condemnation of England's treatment of India; 
of the world's treatment of the Jews; and of America's 
treatment of the Indians and Negroes. 



n8 University Magazine. 

5. The sojourn of the Orientals in our Western civiliza- 
tion will have a very broadening effect upon them. They 
have been accustomed to look upon us as " heathens," and 
to regard with contempt our boasted civilization. Their 
visit hither will make the scales fall from their eyes. 

6. The Parliament has given a new impulse to the 
movement for Christian union, both at home and abroad. 
Amid so many and such different Faiths, Christians could 
not but feel 

" How petty all poor distinctions seem." 

7. It will make a new era in Christian missionary meth- 
ods and in Christian missionary zeal. Rev. Dr. George T. 
Caudlin, a Christian missionary to China, who was present 
at the Parliament, says: 

"As a missionary I anticipate that the Parliament will make a new era 
of missionary enterprise and missionary hope. * * * This (Parlia- 
ment), then, is Pentecost, and behind it the conversion of the world." 

8. The Parliament has given a new insight into Chris- 
tianity. The foreigners had nothing but love and rever- 
ence for Christ; but they severely criticised Christianity as 
it is often practiced. They affirmed that there were many 
inconsistencies between the religion of the "meek and 
lowly Jesus," and our practice of it. And who dare deny 
the charge? The Religion of Christ has been highly 
exalted by this Parliament. A new light has been shed 
upon it; and its adherents who have taken advantage of 
this light have a deeper and more genuine faith in it than 
they ever had before. 

A few words in conclusion: Some Christian people — 
and some of the most devoted, too — are extremely fearful 
lest this meeting with foreign religions prove hurtful to the 
cause of Christianity. But if Christianity have not the in- 



The Parliament of Religions. 119 

herent power to conquer we Christians may as well surren- 
der; we can never give it that power by shielding it from 
comparison, or by hiding it under a bushel. He that has 
a genuine diamond need never fear that any test or com- 
parison will prove it to be paste. 

Is not this fear, then, an evidence of a lack of faith in 
the Gospel of Christ ? And if our Leader were here — as, 
indeed, He is here in His Spirit and in His Power — would 
He not administer to such the rebuke which He once 
administered to His disciples: "Why are ye fearful, O ye 
of little faith?" 

Shall we be alarmed for the safety of a gospel which has 
in it the inherent power of Truth ? Shall we stand trem- 
bling for the safety of a gospel which has triumphed over 
so many difficulties in the past; which has always con- 
quered wherever and whenever it has had the slighest 
opportunity — when now, in its own land, in the midst of 
its own greatest champions, and with every advantage on 
its side, it is brought face to face with the religions of the 
world ? 

But others object to the Parliament and to any friendly 
intercourse of Christianity with other religions, not, we 
are assured, because of any fear on their part for the safety 
of Christianity; but because "Christianity is the one true 
and supreme religion, is infinitely superior to all other relig- 
ions, and, therefore, should have nothing to do with them." 
But is not this a tendency toward a Pharisaical spirit of 
exclusiveness utterly inconsistent with the life and teach- 
ing of Him who "ate with publicans and sinners," and 
contrary to the example of His greatest Apostle ? 

In the olden times it was always the mark of a true 
prophet that he should be able to see and interpret God's 
action in the events around him. And what better can 



120 University Magazine. 

God's modern prophets do than imitate their noble exam- 
ple? It is an easy thing, indeed, to read God's action in 
the past, for that is written down in books; but to read 
His action in the present requires the devotion and insight 
of a seer. 

Many of God's truest and greatest prophets have declared 
that this Parliament of Religions is His latest gift to the 
nations. 

Shall we turn our back upon Him, and scorn His gift ? 
Rather may we accept it in a spirit of humility and thank- 
fulness. Wallace E. Rollins, '92. 



RETROSPECTION. 

There have been times when out of twilight shades — 
That time when sprites from shadowy coverts stir, 

And fireflies flicker in the sheltered glades — 

Sweet ghosts have come to me from days that were. 

The ghosts of voices I remember well; 

The ghosts of forms, the ghosts of faces dear; 
The ghosts of those that, ever flitting, tell 

To mine own ear the tales of days that were. 

And what a glory now — the days that were! 
Far less to me the days that are to be, 
Because they lead to where I may not see; 

And from the dark unknown there comes a fear, 
A nameless dread, a sense of mystery; 

There is no dread in dreams of days that were. 

Hunter Lee Harris, '89. 



HUNTER LEE HARRIS. 

The number of North Carolina college graduates who 
engage in scientific pursuits, and thus endeavor to add 
something to the sum of human knowledge, is much 
smaller than it should be; though this fact is no doubt in 
large measure regulated by the law of supply and demand 
on a financial basis. And hence, and in view of the great 
importance of such pursuits in their relations to the mate- 
rial progress of the country, the loss of a member of this 
limited class attains the greater prominence. 

The late Hunter L. Harris belonged to this limited class. 
Growing up on a farm in Granville county, he early evinced 
a fondness for observing natural objects, which became more 
marked as he became older and his powers of observation 
more acute. During his course at the State University, 
where he graduated in 1889, he showed a marked interest 
in chemistry, geology and natural history, and attained 
special proficiency in these branches. He served as clerk 
in the Agricultural Experiment Station in 1890— '91, and 
as clerk and assistant geologist on the North Carolina 
Geological Survey during the summers of 1891 and 1892; 
and as instructor in geology in the State University during 
the session of i89i-'92. The college year of 1892-' 93 he 
spent at Harvard University studying advanced courses 
in geology and physical geography, and at the time of his 
death he was again connected with the Geological Survey, 
and was engaged in an exploration of the sand-hill region 
of Harnett and Cumberland counties. While traveling 
dow Lower Little River on July 13th (1893) ^ e went in 
bathing and was drowned in the river, near Little River 

2 

\ 
\ 



122 University Magazine. 

Academy, at the age of twenty-six years. And thus his 
career, which gave promise of great usefulness, was abruptly 
ended just when he was ready to begin his work. 

Mr. Harris had published only one short paper, but he 
had laid the foundations of and had planned several others 
of larger proportions. He was a faithful student and accu- 
rate observer, and his varied accomplishments as a geolo- 
gist, mineralogist, photographer and draughtsman made 
him an exceptionally useful assistant on the survey; while 
his quick intelligence, his generous nature, his desire to 
help others, and his cheerful disposition combined to make 
him a most agreeable companion. 

He showed a fondness for poetry and published some 
acceptable verses. The letter appended below was written 
by him to Dr. S. B. Weeks in response to an inquiry as 
to the origin of his love of poetry, and is reproduced here 
because it pictures so clearly his early life and character. 

J. A. Holmes. 



Jefferson, n. C, July nth, 1891. 

DEAR WEEKS: — I have to apologize for delaying to answer your postal 
forwarded to me from Raleigh. The fact is I am away iu the country 
nearly all the time, coming to Jefferson only once or twice during the 
week. I can, without trouble, give you the simple facts about birth, edu- 
cation, etc., but how to account for and trace back my taste for poetry, 
if, indeed, I have it, is a difficult matter with me. Here are the facts: 

My father was a physician and local (for awhile traveling) Methodist 
Protestant preacher (Adam Clarke Harris, native of Granville county). 
My mother was a Hunter of Halifax county, descended on one side from 
the Crowells of same county, and on the other from the Lewis family of 
Halifax and Edgecombe. 

They lived for awhile at Henderson (now Vance county), where my 
father was an arduous practitioner. When the children came on the 
parents decided to purchase a country place, preferring to live on a smaller 
income in order that the boys might be free from the baneful influence 
of the town and have all the benefits of country living. So they moved 
westward sixteen miles to the country place where I was born — the young- 



Hunter Lee Harris. 123 

est of six — just after the close of the war, in 1866, December 16th. There, 
amid comfortable surroundings, the family grew up entirely unbroken 
until the gradual removal, marriage, etc., of older children from 1876 to 
1882. 

My life there up to the age of sixteen was, and is, and will always be, 
the bright fountain-head of my existence. The home influence though 
devout was of that free and liberal sort which is entirely devoid of cant. 

As to education, all that previous to my college days was of the home — 
studies being directed by my mother, sisters and brother (Eugene) in 
turn. Part of this was in a small school of neighborhood boys, and after- 
wards a family school of girls. The instruction received was about as 
ordinary to boys of my age in the county; but with the inspiration of 
teachers having a special interest in me, as well as having also (I imagine) 
deeper and more conscientious realization of duty toward pupils than is 
generally found in teachers. I cannot say I ever loved study — or, in fact, 
any work which required long continued effort without promptly appar- 
ent effect. Nothing was more delightful, however, than reading — chiefly 
the magazine sort — not history, not biography, but descriptive, pictorial, 
adventurous, fanciful, grotesque. This formed a large part of my amuse- 
ment, not having any brothers or sisters young enough to be playmates, 
and not having (probably on that account) special fondness for the com- 
pany of boys of my age. In addition to this kind of reading (Dickens 
particularly, Scott not being available) my great enjoyment when I 
became older was hunting. Not that I ever took great delight in the 
shedding of blood (it was a thing not very often accomplished), but there 
was a nameless and unfailing pleasure to me in the silence of the mighty 
woods — in every aspect and characteristic of natural scenery and the 
animal-life of the same. Once at home, my next amusement was derived 
from companionship with the domestic animals — which was carried on to 
such an extent as to be very amusing to the rest of the family. 

I grew to know harder times and to share in the work of providing for 
the few of the family yet unscattered. In turn all of the kinds of farm 
and household work became familiar (entirely too familiar, I thought 
then, but blessed be the exigency that called them forth). 

I may say that on account, perhaps, of this kind of life, and the undy- 
ing impression it made upon me, my affection or attachment has a ten- 
dency to run to places somewhat more than people, though the habits of 
later years have begun to alter that, and now I couple places with persons. 
I cannot say whether I inherited any love for the poetical or not. I can 
say that I inherited a disposition which might be easily led into that 
channel. However, my father had great appreciation for the grand in 
description, and one of his many preacher brothers in his youth contrib- 
uted many verses to State and Virginia papers. Another in later years 



124 University Magazine. 

(a lawyer) contributed several of a finer vein. Still another of his broth- 
ers claims to trace our ancestry back on that side to Watts of hymn-book 
fame — though we who never looked into it always took it with a pinch of 
salt and spoke of him as "your cousin Watts." I doubt the authenticity 
of it. Those on my mother's side have a similar appreciation of the 
poetic and also something more of the artistic. I do not account for this 
facultj- by heredity. All I know is that the early, persistent efforts of 
my brothers in that line were ardently watched by me and I grew to desire 
and attempt to imitate them in it. I presume the "artistic and the 
poetic" run together, both springing from a common source and each 
influencing the other. 

The love for music is, perhaps, most wide-spread in our family — all 
being undyingly fond of it, and several possessing good voices and culti- 
vation. It is, however, not what you would call a "musical family." 
One of my brothers has of late years written some very fair verses, though 
he has not pressed them into publication and seems rather to conceal it. 
Others have good powers of description without running into poetry, but 
rather into scientific accuracy. * * * 

I have contributed to no papers outside the State, except one, a short 
poem to the Detroit Free Press. Or, to be more accurate, none have 
been printed in outside papers. The "Twilight Songs and other Youth- 
ful Poems " were gotten up as Christmas souvenirs and sent to friends. 
No other collection has been made. I have not written much lately; cir- 
cumstances have not been favorable. *'.*■.* 

Yours truly, 

Hunter Lee; Harris. 



WHAT INLET DID AMADAS AND BARLOW 
ENTER IN 1584? 

In addition to the articles already published by rne, in 
the University Magazine* and Charlotte Observer, in regard 
to the above subject, I submit the following as additional 
evidence in support of my theory — that they entered an 
inlet near Cape Lookout. 



*Vol. XII, p. 243, May, iS 



What Inlet Did Amadas and Barlow Enter? 125 

From Barlow's narrative I quote the following: "The 
King's brother's wife when she came to us (as she did 
many times) was followed with forty or fifty women always, 
and when she came into the ships she left them all on 
land, saving her two daughters, her nurse, or one or two 
more." 

Let us analyze this statement, and in doing so assume 
that the theories of Doctors Hawks and Cheshire are true. 
The ships are about twenty-one miles south of Roanoke 
Island, and from the inlet where they are anchored to the 
main-land the distance is fifteen miles. The Indians are 
crossing and re-crossing this rough and dangerous sound 
(Pamlico), taking with them forty or fifty women each 
time. Their mode of travel is in very small canoes — 
motive power, small paddles. 

A person who is acquainted with narrow rivers, small 
creeks and mill-ponds, only, could possibly imagine that 
such a state of affairs did exist, but no other person, I 
am quite sure, could. 

To make this absurd theory still more absurd, if possible, 
I will quote again from Barlow: " He (Granganimeo, 
the King's brother) sent us every day a brace or two of fat 
bucks, conies, hares, fish, the best in the world." So 
those Indian braves not only crossed Pamlico Sound many 
times while Amadas and Barlow were here, but they did 
so every day. I respectfully submit, can any one believe 
they were north of Hatteras ? 

If the ships were at Lookout Inlet (where we think they 
must have been) the difficulties in regard to crossing the 
sound vanish, because Croatoan (Harker's Island), the home 
of Manteo, was only two miles distant, but even here the 
sound would not be crossed many times, if Doctor Cheshire 
and the writer had the canoes to paddle. 



126 University Magazine. 

If the ships were twenty or more miles south of Roa- 
noke Island the Indians could not have seen them, either 
from Roanoke or the main-land. Barlow's narrative and 
White's map both show or prove that there were no Indians 
dwelling on the banks north of Hatteras. The truth is 
they did not dwell on any part of the banks. 

John White, after his return to England, made, from 
memory, his map of North Carolina. In support of this 
assertion we refer the reader to Lane's account of their 
leaving here with Commodore Drake. (See Hawks' His- 
tory of North Carolina, Vol. I, page 138). 

For this and other reasons, not necessary to mention 
here, this map, when in conflict with the narratives of 
Barlow and Lane, should not, we think, be considered; 
but since Doctor Cheshire seems to think it is conclusive 
against our theory we will call the attention of the reader 
to it again. (This map can be seen by referring to Hawks' 
History of North Carolina, Vol. I, page 140). On it 
twelve inlets are located between Lookout and the Vir- 
ginia line. Grenville entered only three of these inlets — 
one of them the same that Amadas and Barlow entered, 
and certainly no one can believe that White failed to locate 
this most important inlet of all to Grenville and his com- 
pany. 

For the benefit of those who may not be able to get a 
copy of this map we will say that the first inlet south of 
east of Roanoke Island is seven miles distant, the next is 
eight, and the next fifty. 

Barlow informs us that the island called Roanoke was 
seven leagues (twenty-one miles) from the inlet they entered ; 
therefore the first two are too near Roanoke Island to be the 
one he entered by thirteen and fourteen miles respectively, 
and the other is too far away by twenty-nine miles. 



What Inlet Did Amadas and Barlow Enter? 127 

Again, this map shows an inlet abont two miles from 
Cape Lookout and none where Old Topsail is now. So 
in addition to what I said about the map in my article 
published in the Charlotte Observer, it here sustains my 
theory in three more very important particulars. 

We quote again from Lane. After leaving the first inlet 
they entered they sailed northward and on the 26th of 
June they anchored at Wocoken, and while here he says: 
"The 6th (July) Master Arundell was sent to the main 
and Manteo with him and Captain Aubry and Captain Boni- 
ton the same day were sent to Croatoan, where they found 
two of our men left there, with thirty others, by Captain 
Raymond some twenty days before." 

This statement by Lane fixes, beyond the shadow of a 
doubt, Croatoan south of Ocracoke and near the first inlet 
Grenville entered. At this inlet the men were allowed 
to go on shore and mingle with Manteo' s countrymen. 
The good feeling existing between them must have been 
increased by Manteo' s story of the kind treatment he 
received everywhere he went from the English. Being so 
kindly entertained by the Indians, Captain Raymond's 
men were, naturally, in no hurry to return to the ship, 
and being ordered to sail he had to leave them, after 
obtaining a promise, we think, from some of the Indians 
that they would take his men to the ships at Wocoken — 
that being the next inlet they were to enter. But two of 
the men not reporting, Captains Aubry and Boniton were 
dispatched to Croatoan after them. 

Having established the fact that Croatoan was south of 
Ocracoke, we will now quote from White's account of his 
first voyage, in 1587: 

"On the thirtieth of July Master Stafford and twenty 
of our men passed by water to the island of Croatoan, with 



128 University Magazine. 

Manteo, who had his mother and many of his kindred 
dwelling in that island, of whom we hoped to understand 
some news of our fifteen men, but especially to learn the 
disposition of the people of the country toward us, and to 
renew our old friendship with them. At our first landing 
they seemed as though they would fight with us, but per- 
ceiving us begin to march with our shot toward them, 
they turned their backs and fled. Then Manteo, their 
countryman, called to them in their own language, whom 
as soon as they heard they returned and threw away their 
bows and arrows and some of them came unto us, embrac- 
ing and entertaining us friendly, desiring us not to gather 
or spoil any of their corn, for that they had but little. We 
answered them that neither their corn nor any other thing 
of theirs should be diminished by any of us, and that our 
coming was only to renew the old love that was between 
us and them at the first and to live with them as brethren 
and friends." 

THE OLD LOVE. 

Amadas and Barlow visited no part of the State south 
of the inlet they entered and only one island to the north, 
which was twenty-one miles from where their ships were 
anchored ; and yet White sends Stafford with twenty men 
to Croatoan Island, south of Ocracoke, and eighty miles 
south of Roanoke Island, for the especial purpose, so he 
himself says, to renew the old love with a tribe of Indians, 
the countrymen of Manteo, which love they had with them 
from the first. 

How any man, after having read the above extracts from 
Lane's and White's narratives, can believe that Amadas 
and Barlow entered an inlet north of Hatteras or visited 
Roanoke Island, is simply beyond my comprehension. 

John D. Davis. 

Beaufort, N. C. 



SOME EXPERIENCES AT A GERMAN 
UNIVERSITY. 

III. DEGREE EXAMINATIONS. 

Before a student is admitted to examination in a German 
University a certain amount of time must be spent in 
gathering and digesting the required knowledge. No mat- 
ter how well prepared a young man may fancy himself to 
be, he must bring proof that he has been pursuing the 
study for this fixed number of years at a university of 
recognized standing. Candidates for the philosophical 
degree, for instance, must show that for three years they 
have pursued the studies chosen by them. Students in 
medicine take their examinations at the end of five years. 
This long period is broken at the end of the first two years 
by examinations upon physics, chemistry, botany and 
anatomy. There is no effort at finding out whether the 
student has really been studying the subject during these 
years. There are no recitations, no minor examinations. 
The only evidence required is the Anmeldiingsbuch with 
the signatures of the professors, saying that Herr So-and-so 
has attended their courses of lectures. In reality he is 
required to attend only two and may have "cut" all the 
intermediate ones and no one be any the wiser. That a 
great many do this is unquestioned. The thoroughness of 
their preparation in the Gymnasien or public schools largely 
makes amends for this, however. In addition to an exami- 
nation, say, in the philosophical faculty for the " Philo- 
sophies Doctor" the candidate must hand in an approved 
thesis upon some original research, historical, philosophical, 
literary, or scientific. This is his ^Arbeit" and engages 

o 
O 



130 University Magazine. 

the most of his attention during the three prescribed years 
of study. As a student in chemistry, I consulted with my 
professor and began under his direction the preparation 
and examination of certain new chemical substances. My 
youthful pride and ardor were great, as I increased my 
list of bodies never prepared nor seen before, forgetting 
that I was merely the hands while another was doing the 
cleverest part of the thinking and devising for me. In my 
greenness I put down many lectures on my Anmeldnngs- 
buch, but soon found the laboratory more fascinating and 
attended only three or four outside courses regularly. The 
truth is, the majority of the German lecturers of whom I 
know anything were extremely dull and gave me little 
information not obtainable from books. Books I purchased 
in numbers and diligently read them, as this could be done 
at night and need not interfere with my laboratory prac- 
tice. 

When I finally made up my mind that I would be able 
to stay long enough to apply for a degree, I went to Pro- 
fessor Kekule, the kind, genial, brilliant professor in whose 
honor chemists from all parts of the world celebrated a 
Jubilee a few years ago. I laid my case before him and 
asked his advice. I was having a good time at Bonn and 
preferred to stand my examination there under him. He 
stroked his long gray beard and looked me through with 
piercing, quizzical eyes. 

"I would not try it here, if I were you," he said. 
"They will examine you on much you never knew and 
much that you have forgotten: mathematics (a grimace), 
Greek, Latin, and many other things. They would pass 
you, but they would make a fool of you, and you would 
not like that." 



Some Experiences at a German University. 131 

I rather thought I would not like it, and was decidedly 
doubtful about their passing me. On further inquiry I 
found that the candidate had to wear a long black robe, 
make an oration in Latin, and defend several theses in the 
same language. This latter operation was decidedly inter- 
esting. I was afterwards invited to a friend's performance 
in that line. He had chosen some three or four questions 
for debate. These were his theses. He had to write a 
Latin speech on each one and defend his position against 
opponents also armed with Latin harangues. Sometimes, 
when only one candidate is up for examination, he writes 
the speeches on both sides of the question and chosen 
friends present them. In such contests he always comes 
off victor. 

All of this was very archaic, and progressive members 
of the faculty wished to get rid of it, and would readily 
pass men in spite of very poor performances in the way of 
subordinate examinations and Latin orations. Still that was 
of very little comfort to me. I must go elsewhere for the 
degree. Gottingeu is the university usually chosen by 
English and Americans. The town once belonged to the 
English crown, and the university has upon its rolls the 
names of some of the most distinguished American schol- 
ars. So to Gottingen I went. 

It seems a little strange to American ideas of college-life 
that one can pursue his studies in one university and be 
examined in another; but it is very common in Germany. 
Students move from place to place as the notion strikes 
them. One has a good summer climate; another is pleas- 
anter in winter; a distinguished professor is lecturing in 
Berlin; or a special course just suited to his desires is given 
at Munich. To provide for this peripatetic attendance a 
general or Universitats-Kalendar is published, giving all 



132 University Magazine. 

the lecture courses at the different universities. The " Ljst 
of Graduate Courses" recently published in this country 
is largely imitative of the German, and shows a similar 
tendency to migrate on the part of our advanced students. 

Up to this time my card bore the symbols Stud: Phil:. 
Having sent in an application for an examination, this was 
changed to Cand: Phil:. I was greeted now as Herr Candi- 
datus; and, if successful, would blossom out into Herr 
Doctor. But a weary road lay before me. I chose for my 
Hauptfach chemistry and as Nebenfach, or minor study, 
physics. Then finding out the two professors who would 
examine me, I took every possible class of theirs so as to 
become familiar with their methods and with the men 
themselves. Certain of the assistants were induced to get 
up quizzes on parts of the chemistry. For physics I trusted 
to what Clausius had taught me, and to luck. Here the 
process would be called cramming. ^Ich muss ochsen" 
says the German student, who has put off to the last his 
preparation, and feels desperate work only will save him. 
The fact that I was a candidate seemed to lend me some 
importance in the public eye. My landlady was more 
attentive. The maid brought wild flowers and put them 
on my writing-table, and an extra cake or two was pro- 
vided for dinner. 

Meanwhile the summer came on apace, and the hot 
weather became very wearing. No one who has failed to 
experience the delights of a dirty little German town in 
midsummer can imagine the foul odors which arose from 
the streets and surface sewers as I sat by my window late 
at night or walked to the laboratory in the early morning 
light, for I had a private arrangement with the janitor by 
which I could spend a couple of hours or more at work 
before the others came in, and thus took advantage of the 



Some Experiences at a German University. 133 

coolest part of the day. No one who has not been tied 
down that way can fancy the rest that Sunday brought 
with it, when we could escape beyond the walls and wan- 
der in the forest or harvest field. A visit to Marienbrun- 
nen or the Wiesenmiihle or to Jericho, the quaint village 
with its thatched houses and queer old church, was a great 
relief. 

My thesis was at last finished and handed in, together 
with a curriculum vitce, the first in German, the latter in 
Latin, carefully corrected by a gymnasium teacher, glad of 
the job to eke out his meagre salary. Then came the noti- 
fication that it would be convenient to hold the examina- 
tion on one of the last days in July. 

Only a short time was left me in which to complete my 
preparations. Anxiously the entire field was glanced over 
once more, for it must be borne in mind that no books are 
specified on which one is to be examined, nor are certain 
courses of lectures selected. The examination was to cover 
the whole field of chemistry and physics, and the examin- 
ers had large liberty in the matter of asking questions. 
Hence I " boned " over portions which I felt had been too 
much neglected by me in previous reviews. I patched 
here and polished there, and ended with a foolish feeling 
that the whole subject was slipping away from me and that 
I knew next to nothing about it all. The days became 
hotter, and the nights almost unbearable. On the day 
before the examination I went through the form of calling 
upon my examiners and the committee of the faculty who 
were to be present at the ordeal. This formality was 
intended to give the torturers at least one opportunity of 
becoming acquainted beforehand with the victim whom 
they were appointed to torture, but the only purpose it 
seems to subserve is to notify the professors that the exami- 
nation time has come. 



134 University Magazine. 

I supplied myself with visiting cards, hired a nobby, 
close carriage, with a most imposing, beavered and rosetted 
coachman, and then rigged myself out in the most aston- 
ishing full-dress suit ever seen in those quarters. It was 
full, yes, far too full in some directions, and not full enough 
in others. It was borrowed from various friends and 
acquaintances, as a dress suit was the last thing I had 
dreamed of providing myself with in that far off land. 
My landlady, the wife of a deceased professor, kindly 
hunted up the old gentleman's vest and coat. It would 
have accommodated a pillow or half a keg of beer in addi- 
tion to myself. The trousers belonged to a friend some 
two or three inches shorter than myself and with limbs 
decidedly slenderer. I just could sit down in them after 
donning thetn, and dared not indulge in any sudden motion 
for fear of causing a catastrophe. The old-time recipe of 
putting sugar in one's boots came to mind as I viewed the 
evident tendency of the bein kleider to rise and maintain 
a high place in the world. The beaver was made to fit by 
removing the lining and mashing it down on the head. 
Even then it was shaky and had to be frequently settled in 
place. White kid gloves and an astounding tie were secured 
at one of the shops in the town. It is needless to say that I 
displayed myself to the public gaze as little as possible in 
this toggery. I drove to the various professorial residences, 
found them all out, and left my cards with polite regrets. 

The next day I arrayed myself in the same borrowed 
feathers and proceeded to the central university building, 
where the examination was to be held. The janitor, who 
admitted me, smiled at sight of me, but piloted me into 
the waiting-room. After a few moments of nervous trepi- 
dation the door opened, and, preceded by the Bedell or 
janitor, our little procession filed across the hall into a 



Some Experiences at a German University. 135 

long, handsome room, where the committee were in session. 
A long table held glasses, wine and cake, provided at the 
expense of myself, the victim. A dozen men, some grave 
and elderly, some young and chatty, were seated along its 
sides. At the end nearest the door were the two exam- 
iners and one vacant chair. The Bedell bowed the victim 
to this and withdrew. Four weary hours of questioning 
lay before me. The gloves were removed, the beaver 
having been left in the Bedell' 's keeping, the vest was 
filled out as nearly as possible, and the other deficiencies 
hidden by the table. A spirit of antagonism was swelling 
the breast of the victim as he faced the crowd. It began 
with physics, simple questions at first, and then harder 
and deeper ones, until the victim began to fear that his 
legs would be swept from under him, and so he took a 
hand in the questioning himself. He knew the failings of 
the garrulous old gentleman, the professor of physics, and 
by a sly question or two started him off on some of his 
hobbies and pet theories. The dear old gentleman went 
into a regular lecture, and not six more questions were asked 
during the hour or more devoted to physics. This little 
manoeuvre on the part of the victim was noticed with much 
amusement by the committee and they drank and chuckled, 
and chuckled and drank, and even invited the victim to 
partake of his own wine. 

But no such trick could be played with the examiner on 
chemistry. Shrewd and quick-voiced, though kindly, he 
traversed the subject from end to end. Hard questions 
and easy ones, theoretical and technical, organic and inor- 
ganic, until subject, examiner and candidate seemed ex- 
hausted. Then further invitations to partake of the feast, 
followed by a rising of the committee, a mutual bowing 
and rebowing, a retreat in good order to the door, and the 
ordeal was over. 



136 University Magazine. 

In the waiting-room a pet dog and his gambols served 
to make the slow moments pass until the judgment should 
be known. Presently the Bedell came in smiling, and the 
burdened heart was lightened by his kindly congratulations. 
The heat was no longer noticed. The broadcloth was sup- 
planted by the old easy lounging coat as soon as home 
was reached, and orders were given for the Doctor-Schmaus. 
At a quiet little restaurant the supper was laid, and friends 
gathered, and a jolly night spent with singing and speech- 
making. 

And so the degree was won. Soon great posters were 
printed and stuck up on the bulletin boards, saying that 
Herr (the victim) was a Vir Pr&clarissimns, etc. ; that he 
had satisfactorily passed the examinations required, and 
was hereby declared a Philosophies Doctor. This ceremony 
takes the place of our public presentation of degrees. A 
printed oath about eight by fourteen inches in size had to 
be signed and filed away among the university archives. 
The gist of it was that the honor of the George Augustus 
University at Gottingen would be duly upheld, and that 
the degree, of Ph: D: would not be sought or taken at any 
other university. One formality was left. The Abschieds- 
besnch or parting visit had to be paid to the examiners 
and to the dean of the faculty. As this time a real visit 
was intended and not a mere card-leaving, the hired car- 
riage was dispensed with. It seemed too ridiculous, how- 
ever, to parade the streets during the morning hours arrayed 
in my ill-fitting garments, so, despite the sweltering weather, 
an overcoat was put on over all, and a large, sheltering and 
concealing umbrella hoisted. The same rig can be recom- 
mended to any one who wishes a Turkish bath and cannot 
get the genuine article. The dean of the faculty, a genial 
mathematician, received me with much amusement. I 



Old Times. 137 

confided to him all my woes in the matter of that clothing, 
and we laughed heartily together at the fit. When the 
round was over and lodgings at last reached these clothes 
were torn off and returned with sincerest thanks to their 
several owners. 

Westward now all hopes were set. America and home 
were before me, so a fond good-bye was said to Germany, 
and the pleasantest of student days were ended. 

F. P. Venable. 



OlyD TIMES. 

[The Editors have received the following letter, which will undoubtedly 
prove of interest to many old Chapel Hillians] : 

St. Joseph, Mo., October 17, 1893. 

The University Magazine, 

Chapel Hill, N. C. 
Messrs: Editors : 

Dear Sirs: — It is more than thirty-five years since I 
left the classic walks of the dear old Hill where you now 
sojourn; and I must say that my love is even stronger 
than then, for I did not appreciate the happiness or oppor- 
tunities. I had all of my memories revived afresh yes- 
terday by receiving a copy of your Magazine. * * * * 
****** you have struck the key-note of one 
plan amongst others when you tell them to preserve their 
Magazines and have them bound. By referring to the 
Centennial Catalogues of the University and Dialectic Soci- 
ety, 1889, you will see that I graduated in the Class of 
1858. And after all these thirty-five of the most active, 
4 



138 University Magazine. 

progressive years of the world's history the dearest treas- 
ure I have is my old Book of Autographs of my friends 
and class-mates at Chapel Hill during my four years there. 
One hundred and eighty-five names — home, birth, pro- 
fession, class. I have added "Dead" to more than half. 
The first two pages of this book are occupied by a few lines 
written there at my request by my dear friend and class- 
mate, by whom I sat for four years. His autograph is 
thus : 

Caldwell C. Swayze, 

Opei<otjsas, La. 
Born January 8th, 1837. 
Law. 
Class of 1857- '§8. {Dead). 

These lines have never been published. To me, after 
so long a time, they seem almost to have been inspired. 
If you think the lines and circumstances are worth pub- 
lishing you can do so; if not, just put it in the waste-basket. 
I have the original. Excuse me for occupying so much 
of your time. I never know when to stop when talking 
about Chapel Hill. 

Yours respectfully, 

J. M. Richmond, '58. 



The world's vain wealth is soon consumed; the blossoms that perfume 
and make lovely the pathway of life may wither and cease to gladden the 
heart; charming youth, glowing like the rising sun, may paint the eastern 
sky of life in all the golden splendors of alluring hope, and yet at even- 
ing all may be o'ercast with the clouds of disappointment — all may be 
shrouded in the gloom of despair; but still one joy will yet remain. 'Tis 
the memory of what has been — the enduring recollections of pleasures 
past — the permanent shadows of fleeting substances. 

Youth, soaring on Icarian wings, may traverse the cerulean vault of 
heaven in pursuit of the tinseled phantoms of hope; manhood, in delir- 



Old Times. 139 

ious dreams, may tread the giddy heights of ambition; but 'tis memory's 
part alone to soothe declining age and fill his languid heart with calm 
and sweet delight. 

And thus, to balm in future years 

The stiffening cares of declining age, 
When life has passed through all the fears 

And doubts and hopes that fill its path, 

I treasure deep in memory's urn 

Your joyous laughs, your well-known smiles, 

And kindly words that glow, that burn, 
To warm the heart with friendship's fire. 

Ah! then, what a joy the heart will feel, 

When all your faults are long forgot, 
When memory forth from the mind may steal 

And wander back to college days. 

As the sea-bird in his stormy flight 

Oft rests his wings in some calm island, 
So memory will linger with delight 

Around this charming spot of life. 

And then if recollection true 

And memory both too treacherous prove, 

May these your autographs renew 

Each name, each face and friendly voice. 

Oh, Time! thy mouldering hands restrain, 

And touch not these, m}' dearest riches, 
But once from tlry wonted course refrain 

And spare the memory of my Friends. 



C. C. S., '58. 



Chapel Hill, N. C, April 20th, 1858. 



AN ELIZABETHAN LITERARY FAD; OR, 
ROMEO'S LOVE CONCEITS. 

[Read at the Shakspere Club, November 14, 1893]. 

A conceit is a quaint fancy or strained conception, and so 
a love conceit is a quaint fancy or conception of love, or 
more often a strained, and even false, analogy between the 
object loved and some feature of Nature. 

That this dwelling upon one idea and developing it into 
many a quaint and curious form of analogy was a favorite 
exercitation of the poets of the Elizabethan era I wish to 
show, taking Shakspere as the great example and dwelling 
especially upon the love conceits put into the mouth of 
his Romeo. 

It was the fashion of that day for every young gallant 
upon his first entering the world to take as the mistress of 
his heart some lady of distinction, probably older than 
himself, whose humble servant he became and to whom he 
swore eternal devotion and humility. The lady, on the 
other hand, usually scorned and scoffed at him and his love, 
with the result that the young lover became negligent in 
dress, careless of the world and often even went so far as 
to shut himself up in his room, keep out the cheerful sun- 
light and devote his time to pouring out his unreciprocated 
affection in the form of woful ballads made to his mistress' 
eyebrow. 

Romeo, in the beginning of the play, is just at this 
interesting period. His father says of him that he is — 

As is the bud bit with an envious worm, 
Ere he can spread his sweet leaves to the air 
Or dedicate his beauty to the sun, 

and he earnestly entreats Benvolio, his kinsman and Romeo's 
friend, to ascertain the cause of this black and portentous 



An Elizabethan Literary Fad. 141 

humor that good counsel may this cause remove. He is 
in love with the disdainful Rosaline, and almost his first 
words are a curious conceit of love: 

O brawling love! O loving hate! 

O anything, of nothing first created ! 

O heavy lightness! serious vanity! 

Misshapen chaos of well-meaning forms! 

Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health! 

Still waking sleep, that is not what it is. 

— Act I, Scene 7, I. 168-173. 

In answer to Benvolio's inquiries he tells him that he is 
in love, and thus fancifully describes her whose haughty 
disdain is the cause of his melancholy and life-weariness: 

She'll not be hit 
With Cupid's arrow; she hath Dian's wit, 
And, in strong proof of chastity well arm'd, 
From love's weak, childish bow she lives unharm'd. 
******** 
O, she is rich in beauty! only poor, 
That, when she dies, with beauty dies her store. 
******** 
For beauty starv'd with her severity 
Cuts beauty off from all posterity. 
She is too fair, too wise, wisely too fair, 
To merit bliss by making me despair; 
She hath forsworn to love, and in that vow 
Do I live dead that live to tell it now. 

— Act I, Scene 1, I. 200-218. 

It is interesting to note that Romeo runs into the sonnet 
form a little further along, where, in answer to Benvolio's 
statement that he will show him "one so fair as will make 
him think his swan a crow," he emphatically says: 

When the devout religion of mine eye 

Maintains such falsehood, then turn tears to fires; 

And these, who often drown'd could never die, 
Transparent heretics, be burnt for liars! 

One fairer than my love, the all-seeing sun 

Ne'er saw her match since first the world begun. 

— Act /, Scene 2, I. 87.93. 



142 University Magazine. 

All this is before Romeo sees his Juliet, and whether we 
believe that he really loved Rosaline, but the vigor and 
warmth of his love were checked by her cold and unre- 
sponsive heart, or that this was simply a dream of love 
from which he was to be awakened and plunged into the 
genuine reality by the sight of Juliet, still this serves to 
show that the love conceit was a "fad" among the young 
gallants of Shakspere's time and earlier, for we know that 
though the scene is laid in earlier times in "fair Verona," 
yet Romeo is a conception of the young gallant of Shak- 
spere's own times. Even after Romeo meets Juliet, whose 
beauty makes him think he ne'er saw true beauty before, 
and swear that he never loved till now, he still clings to 
this form of expression and says, describing Juliet: 

Her beauty hangs upon the cheek of night 
Like a rich jewel in an Ethiop's ear. 

******** 

So shows a snowy dove trooping with crows, 
As yonder lady o'er her fellows shows. 

— Act II, Scene 5, I. 42-4.6. 

But as he is developed, and his love becomes stronger 
and deeper, he loses more and more his fantastical way of 
expressing himself, and at last, when he is completely 
overwhelmed by his passion, he uses the simple, direct 
language of deep feeling, as in the parting scene, where 
Romeo says: 

Let me be ta'eu, let me be put to death, 
I am content, so thou wilt have it so. 
******** 
I have more care to stay than will to go; 
Come, death, and welcome! Juliet wills it so. 

— Act III, Scene 5, /. 17, 18, 23, 24.. 

Juliet seems to be aware of the fashion of young gallants 
of choosing some temporary mistress, for when (in the 



An Elizabethan Literary Fad. 143 

balcony scene) Romeo swears devotion to her by the moon, 
etc., she continually interrupts him with, "O swear not 
by the moon," "Do not swear at all," "Well, do not 
swear" (Act II, Scene 3), showing that she doubts the con- 
stancy of such affirmations of love. 

The love conceit is found in other poets than Shakspere, 
as in Carew, who expresses his constancy to his Celia thus: 

The fish shall in the ocean burn, 
And fountains sweet to bitter turn, 
The humble oak no flood shall know 
When floods shall highest hills o'erflow; 
Black Lethe shall oblivion leave, 
If ere my Celia I deceive. 

Love shall his bow and shaft lay b} 7 , 
And Venus' doves want wings to fly, 
The sun refuse to show his light, 
And day shall then be turned to night, 
And in that night no star appear 
If once I leave my Celia dear. 

How exquisite, and yet how fantastical, is Sir John Suck- 
ling's description of a noble bride: 

Her feet beneath her petticoat 
Like little mice stole in and out, 

As if they feared the light. 
But O, she dances such a way, 
No sun upon an Easter-day 

Is half so fine a sight. 

Her cheeks so rare a white was on, 
No daisy makes comparison 

(Who sees them is undone), 
For streaks of red were mingled there, 
Such as are on a Catherine fair, 

The side that's next the sun. 

This form of expression became so interwoven with the 
literary efforts of the day that it even ran into religion and 
things sacred, as the "Saintly" George Herbert expresses 



144 University Magazine. 

and explains the restlessness of man without God and his 
yearning for the unknowable thus quaintly: 

When God at first made man, 

Having a glass of blessing standing by, 
Let us (said He) pour on him all we can, 

L,et the world's riches which dispersed lie 
Contract into a span. 

So strength first made a way, 

Then beauty flow'd, then wisdom, honor, pleasure; 
When almost all was out God made a stay, 

Perceiving that alone, of all His treasure, 
Rest in the bottom lay. 

For if I should (said He) 

Bestow this jewel also on My creature, 
He would adore My gifts instead of Me, 

And rest in Nature, not the God of Nature, 
So both should losers be. 

Yet let him keep the rest, 

But keep them with repining restlessness: 
Let him be rich and weary, that at least, 

If goodness lead him not, yet weariness 
May toss him to My breast. 

But Shakspere was the great master of this kind of 
writing, and it is in his sonnets that we see the love con- 
ceit in its highest perfection. It is thought by some that 
he wrote these sonnets for a young nobleman who was a 
famous gallant, and employed his friend's genius to write 
those conventional sonnets to his mistress which fashion 
required, and which lack of time or talent prevented him 
from himself composing. One of the most fantastical is 
that in which love is played upon: 

Take all my loves, my love, yea, take them all, 
What hast thou then more than thou hadst before ? 

No love, my love, that thou mayst true love call, 
All mine was thine before thou hadst this more. 



An Elizabethan Literary Fad. 145 

Then if for my love thou my love receivest, 

I caunot blame thee for my love thou usest; 
But yet be blamed, if thou thyself deceivest, 

By willful taste of what thyself refusest. 
I do forgive thy robbery, gentle thief, 

Although thou steal thee all my poverty; 
And yet love knows it is a greater grief 

To bear love's wrong than hate's known injury. 
Lascivious grace, in whom all ill well shows, 
Kill me with spites; yet we must not be foes. 

And also that one in which the poet chides the flowers 
for their too bold theft of their beauties from his mistress' 
charms : 

The forward violet thus did I chide: 

Sweet thief, whence didst thou steal thy sweet that smells 
If not from my love's breath ? The purple pride 

Which on thy soft cheek for complexion dwells 
In my love's veins thou hast too grossly dyed. 

The lily I condemned for thy hand, 
And buds of marjoram had stol'n thy hair; 

The roses fearfully on thorns did stand, 
One blushing shame, another white despair; 

A third, nor red nor white, had stol'n of both, 
And to his robbery had annex'd thy breath; 

But, for his theft, in pride of all his growth 
A vengful canker eat him up to death. 

More flowers I noted, yet I none could see 

But sweet or color it had stol'n from thee. 

I think Shakspere wrote these sonnets merely as an 
exercitation, as if it were his desire to show the writers of 
sonnets that he was their superior, even in their chosen 
line of conceits. He seems to be sneering at this kind of 
composition even while he indulges in it in the one hun- 
dred and thirtieth sonnet: 

My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun; 

Coral is far more red than her lips' red; 
If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun; 

If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head. 



146 University Magazine. 

I have seen roses damask'd, red and white, 

But no such roses see I in her cheeks; 
And in some perfume there is more delight 

Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks. 
I love to hear her speak, yet well I know 

That music hath a far more pleasing sound; 
I grant I never saw a goddess go — 

My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground, 
And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare 
As any she belied with false compare. 

After the time of the poets Herrick, Carew, Suckling, 
Ivovelace and Herbert this form of fanciful expression fell 
into decay. Probably the young lover was still "sighing 
woful ballads," but no poets have since given their atten- 
tion to this form, till, of late, there has been some attempt 
at this kind of writing in the "vers de societe" which 
one reads in the modern magazine. While the peculiar 
and fanciful analogies of these are pleasing, yet they lack 
the poetic power and boldness of thought that may be 
seen in the earlier love conceits; they touch the fancy 
alone. I take only one example from the great number of 
such productions: 

If I had wings, and you were bound 

Fast in some fragrant close, 
Where sweetest blooms are always found 

And spring-tide ever flows, 
I'd bumble, bumble merrily 

In sheen or tender gloom, 
If I were but a happy bee 

And you a clover bloom, 
I'd whirl about, and closer swing 

And bolder, bolder grow; 
Your leaves should feel my winnowing, 

Your face should shrink and glow, 
And then, oh, then, the tender boon, 

The nectar sip — ah, me! 
But you are not a clover bloom 

And I am not a bee! 
October 14, 1893. Herbert Bingham, '94. 



PROGRESS OF SCIENCE. 

A NEW THEORY FOR LUNAR CRATERS. 

Of all the theories that have been offered, to within a 
recent date, accounting for the origin of the moon's cra- 
ters, the most reasonable one ascribes their origin to vol- 
canic outbursts. This explanation was so generally 
accepted that lunar craters were much studied by geolo- 
gists in the hope that some light would be thrown upon 
the origin of terrestrial volcanoes. The subject is an 
attractive one, and the interest in it has been so great that 
the moon's face has been more accurately mapped than our 
own continent; and, indeed, her visible features are so 
familiar that a map has been made of a broad ring of the 
unseen side. 

Very recently, however, the great expert in topography, 
Mr. G. K. Gilbert, Chief Geologist of the United States 
Geological Survey, finding, after much study, that lunar 
craters differ in so many points from terrestrial craters, 
offered a new explanation of their origin in the Moonlet 
theory. By this theory, which is stated at length and sus- 
tained by very able arguments in Vol. XII of the Bulletin 
of the Philosophical Society of Washington, the moon had 
its origin in the breaking up of a nebulous ring surround- 
ing the earth, like the rings around Saturn. At first the 
many centers of aggregation were rapidly brought together 
by gravity, and as the masses grew larger the blows were 
harder and more rare, so that the impact would not only 
fuse the falling mass, but also the lunar surface where it 
struck, throwing up around these places steep, mountain- 
like rims. 

New interest will be given to the subject by this theory, 
and discoveries of great value to science will no doubt be 
the result. Charles H. White, '94. 



BOOK NOTICES. 

Harvard Stories. By Waldron Kintzing Post. 8-vo., 
pp. 312, $1.25. New York: G. P. Putnam'' s Sons. 

The author does not "expect any one to be interested in 
these stories who is not interested in the scenes where they 
are laid," and tells us that they are "only yarns and 
pictures" of student-life at Harvard, intended to "serve 
at times in the place of an old chum," to bring back old 
memories very dear to the hearts of those who lived them. 
The author was a member of the Class of 1890, and the 
stories are those familiar to every '90 man, and for that 
very reason intensely interesting to those for whom the book 
is written. The stories give us glimpses of Harvard men 
in their gayest moods, at ball-games, at the races, as 
"supes" in the Boston theatres, at "grinding bees," where 
a Cambridge "mucker" drives the Bohn pony for fifty 
cents an hour; in fact, everything but the more serious 
phases of college-life. The book is written in a style that 
promises much for its young author as a writer, and he 
who reads one of the stories will be very apt to read them 
all before he lays down the book. 

Church and State in North Carolina. By Stephen 
Beauregard Weeks, Ph. D. 8-vo. , pp. 65, 50 cents. Bal- 
timore: The Johns Hopkins Press. 

This is a continuation of a former work by Dr. Weeks, 
"The Religious Development of the Province of North 
Carolina." It is an attempt to show the relations of the 
Establishment to the Civil Government from the beginning 
of the year 171 1 up to the death of all religious require- 
ments or tests. The period of Proprietary Government up 
to 1728 is first considered and then the period under the 
crown. The conclusions he draws are decidedly unfavorable 
to the Episcopal side of the controversy. They are: I. 
Whatever of persecution there may have been was indirect, 
shown in compulsory payment of tithes, though attendance 
at services never was compulsory. II. L,aws were made 



Book Notices. 149 

discriminating against Dissenting ministers, particularly in 
regard to musters and the marriage ceremony. III. The 
Schism act was passed and, at least, partially enforced. 
With these statements no fault can be found, but possibly 
some other conclusions he draws are hardly warranted by 
the facts. An example is where he attributes the State's 
backwardness in education entirely to the Establishment. 

Undoubtedly, the first Episcopal ministers were, for the 
most part, ungodly men, and, of course, little could be 
expected of their congregations. Dr. Weeks shows a 
decided leaning toward the Quakers, who certainly were not 
ideally meek and mild. In the "Cary Rebellion" many 
of them, led on by hope of power and influence, bore arms, 
but when, a few years later, the very life of the colony was 
threatened by a terrible Indian war, their religion forbade 
the use of carnal weapons, especially since nothing could 
be gained by contest. In fact, there seems to have been 
very little true Christianity in the province. 

However, the pamphlet is a decided addition to our his- 
torical literature. The author has brought to light much 
that was before unknown in regard to this subject, and 
every one who cares for the history of his State should 
read it. 



AMONG THE MAGAZINES. 

HOLLAND M. THOMPSON. 

The FIRST number of a new volume is decidedly a literary aud in some 
respects a rather characteristic Century. Nearly all of its contributors 
are in a way connected with literature, and the majority of them are 
familiar to Century readers. It opens with a poem by Emerson, "To 
Lowell on his Fortieth Birthday," the "form" of which, as Charles Eliot 
Norton, in a prefatory note, says, "is not perfect, but it bears the tower- 
stamp of genius, and it has a special interest in its illustration of the 
relations between the poets." It is followed by an article on Fifth Ave- 
nue, which, although the subject is rather trite, is delightful. It is 
invested by Mrs. Van Rensselaer with the charm of personal attachment. 
Childe Hassam's pictures are very good. Anna Eichberg King contrib- 
utes a pleasant little Dutch story seconded by George Wharton Edwards 
as illustrator. This is not the first time these two have appeared to- 
gether to the pleasure of the Century reader. George Kennan, whose 
notable Siberian papers were a feature of this magazine several years ago, 
sketches "A Psychological Study from Life, John Henderson, Artist." 
The subject was his friend, who exhibited a weakness of mind in a cer- 
tain direction. The sketch is interesting, appearing as it does in our day 
of "cranks." "Bismarck at Friedricksruh," by Eleanora Kinnicutt, 
gives us a charming glimpse of the warrior-statesman in his family-life. 
She says: 

"I saw before me, as if stepping out from a Lenbach canvas, the ' great 
man Bismarck,' his two Danish hounds at his side. Never shall I forget 
the picture. * * * ' This one was a gift to me from the young Em- 
peror,' said the Prince, pointing to the larger of the two. * * * (Con- 
versation next turned upon America, and Bismarck asked much about 
his old friend, Carl Schurz). ' In 1845,' he said, 'I anticipated as little as 
did Schurz what the future had in store for me. My highest ambition 
was to become a good farmer, and to be able eventually to purchase the 
lands adjoining our estate. Occasionally I cast a hungry eye upon the 
office of justice of the peace, but the only chance I had to obtain it was 
cut off' — with a smile at the Princess — 'by my not succeeding in marry- 
ing the girl who could have helped me to attain it.' 'So much the bet- 
ter for me,' was the Princess's laughing rejoinder. And the better for us 
all, thought I; for what a wholesome and blessed example of happy mar- 
riage has this historic home presented to the world for the last half cen- 
tury ! ' ' 



Among the Magaziiies. 151 

The number is completed by an impressive essay on "Humor, Wit, Fun 
and Satire," by James Russell Lowell. There is a remarkably well stated 
open letter on "The Sale of Votes in New Hampshire." "In Lighter 
Vein" is richer than usual and contains some pleasing bits. On the 
whole the November number is an especially good one. 

To say that any particular article in the November Cosmopolitan is 
the leading one would be very difficult. There are so many striking 
features that one hesitates in judging. First, there is an interesting auto- 
biography of Franz Von Lenbach, the artist. "Busy Days of an Idler 
in Mexico" is very readable. It gives glimpses of parts of Mexico 
almost unknown as well as new views of well-known scenes. The illus- 
trations are more than simply bare images. They seem to give the dreamy, 
restful appearance of sky and atmosphere in a land where no one is ever 
hurried. General Badeau writes at length of forms of invitation used 
in England, giving facsimiles of many received by him while Cousul- 
General at London, and is so entertaining that one almost forgets the 
contemptible littleness of the man. In Mrs. Roger A. Pryor's article on 
the dress of women in all time, the departure of having colored illustra- 
tions is made. There are ten of these, showing figures of several 
epochs and nations. Mr. Walter Besant cannot recover from his aston- 
ishment at America, and is now writing a series of "American Notes" 
a la Dickens. The first paper deals altogether with the New England, and, 
in conclusion, he says : 

" I have seen my Laud of Romance; I have traveled for a few weeks 
among the New England places, and, with a sigh of satisfaction and relief, 
I say with Kingsley, ' At Last ! ' 

" This romance which belonged to my boyhood, and has grown up with 
me, and will never leave me, once belonged, then, more or less, to the 
whole of the English people. Except with those who, like me, have been 
fed with the poetry and literature of America, this romance is impossible. 
I suppose that it can never come again. Something better and more 
stable, however, may yet come to us when the United States and Great 
Britain will be allied in amity as firm as that which now holds those Fed- 
erated States. The thing is too vast, it is too important, to be achieved 
in a day or in a generation. But it will come — it will; it must come — it 
must come! Asia and Africa may become Chinese or Cossack, but our 
people shall rule over every other land, and all the islands and every sea. 

The November Review of Reviews contains three special articles of 
interest to all. Perhaps the most important is "The Possibilities of the 
Great Northwest," by S. A. Thompson, Secretary of Duluth Chamber of 
Commerce. This is ably supplemented by an article by Dr. Emery R. 
Johnston upon "Inland Water-ways of the Northwest." These articles 



152 University Magazine. 

are meant to direct attention to the great empire composed of the North- 
ern States of our country west of the Mississippi, together with the Terri- 
tory of Alaska, and the neighboring provinces of Canada. A glowing 
picture is painted. The sketch of Lobengula, King of the Matabeles, will 
clear away the uncertainty regarding the question at issue between him 
and the British Government, and will give also a vivid idea of this 
sovereign and his subjects. On account of the controversy over the South 
Carolina Dispensary Law the interest in "The Gothenburg System of 
Liquor Traffic ' ' will be wide-spread. This is a careful and authoritative 
account of the working of this system in Sweden and Norwa3*. The 
writer shows the success of the arrangement, since it has never been 
abandoned where once adopted. In regard to success of the system in 
America, the writer quotes from Dr. Gould, a statistical expert of the 
United States Department of Labor, who says: 

"Let us not be accused of lack of faith if we say that to transplant the 
Gothenburg system to America will require heroic effort. Not only will 
liquor have to be fought on the social and economic side, but it must also 
be reckoned with as a political factor. In the latter respect conditions are 
going from bad to worse. Why trifle further? Why not invite the 
struggle openly on the only plan of control which eliminates the political 
influence of the liquor interest, and abolishes altogether the saloon as we 
know it to-day? If ever municipal politics are permanently purified it will 
not be through outbursts of righteous wrath followed by periods of supine 
indifference. * * * Greater purity in municipal politics, while not an 
absolute prerequisite, will assuredly follow the introduction of the Gothen- 
burg system." 

THE COLLEGE MAGAZINES. 

The table is covered this month with college periodicals of every kind — 
good, mediocre and poor. An examination does not show a very high 
degree of excellence for the average. Too many are edited simply to 
show the literarj' accomplishments of the editors. The greatest fault of 
many is the "Personal Department." In these pages the wit of the editor 
has a chance to display itself in numerous mysterious allusions to esca- 
pades, presumably very funny to the initiated, but rather disgusting to 
those who cannot know the circumstances. Some of our best exchanges 
are much disfigured by this department. 

Decidedly the best magazine we have this month is the Brown Maga- 
zine. Its articles have some finish and show good literary training. The 
short stories and the verse are especially well done. 

From the University of California come two weeklies, the Berkleyan 
and the Occident. The two great subjects exciting the interest of the 
University of California man are foot-ball and cheating on examinations. 



Among the Magazines. 153 

By the way, the latter is being seriously considered iu many places. Few 
colleges seem to have as high a standard in this respect as our own Uni- 
versity, and we sincerely hope that this standard may never be lowered. 

The Vanderbilt Observer is creditable iu the literary department, but 
the management seems to be lacking iu enterprise. Vanderbilt, with her 
numbers and endowment, deserves a handsomer periodical than she has. 
The paper and press-work are poor and advertisements few. Surely the 
Nashville merchants would do better if approached. 

The Davidson Monthly comes out in a new, but modest and becoming 
dress. We notice that the societies there have adopted the plan of com- 
pulsory subscription. This is, it seems, the best plan, as the management 
can then count upon some definite amount and build accordingly. 

The October number of the Wake Forest Student is the best we have 
seen in some time, both with regard to appearance and contents. The 
new cover is a decided improvement. We are glad to see that the Student 
does not retreat because of the attacks of a few chronic objectors, but 
stands squarely for athletics and vigorous manhood. 

The Trinity Archive though late is welcome. This is the first number 
of the new volume and is hardly up to the standard of last year. We 
hope to see better numbers in the future, as the staff is strong. 

The Vassar Miscellany is the best argument we know for woman's 
capability for literature or business. Its advertising patronage is larger 
than that of any magazine we know and its articles are gracefully and 
clearly written. 

The Pennsylvania University Courier is the paragon of college week- 
lies. Well printed, strong and dignified, it reflects much credit upon 
the University of Pennsylvania. The drawings in this are always decid- 
edly good. 



CURRENT COMMENT. 

CASWEM, EUJS. 

Some alumnus or friend of the University could do great service, as 
well as make a paying investment, by putting up a building here with 
bright, comfortable rooms above and a large dining-hall below. It is the 
decided preference of many of the students to board in a well-organized 
club of about fift3 r , but at present there is no house to be had suited to 
the purpose. The rooms above the hall could be easily rented even now, 
as the town is full of students, and these are necessarily often crowded 
into dirty and dismal rooms. Bven with the best management the hotels 
cannot accommodate the rush of men in the early fall. This year parlor 
floors were pressed into service, and for some time things were uncom- 
fortable generally. Next fall there will probably be even a larger crowd. 
With the addition of one or two club-houses the hotels would be relieved 
of the older students to some extent, and could better accommodate the 
new men. We know of no town where judicious investment in houses 
pa}'s better than here. 

IT is quite gratifying to see the students and their patrons taking such 
decided interest in our last article on board. It is a pleasure also to state 
that the fare is much better now than it was last month. It will be a 
great thing for the University if this good work continues. The students 
have the right to demand this and the power to enforce it. If they are 
not satisfied with the present arrangement, then clubs can take the mat- 
ter in hand. This thing of food strikes at our very existence, and, if we 
do not look after it ourselves, past experience plainly shows that no one 
else will. One part the students must perform — pay their board promptly. 
Those who waste their money and never pay we can only refer to the 
eighth commandment. A large class carelessly put off paying their bills 
till long after they are due, and thus deprive their landlords of the rightful 
use of their mone3 r , often forcing them to buy on credit at a great disad- 
vantage. The landlords are partly to blame for allowing this. Though 
they do it in kindness it often breeds loose and harmful habits in those 
whom they thus favor, and is not fair to those who do pay promptly. It 
seems to be the nature of some people to do nothing till they are forced. 
They seem to forget that it is not right to keep a man's money three 
mouths. It is but a step from three mouths to a year, then several years 
and for life, when we dignify it by the name of stealing. 



Current Comment. 155 

IT is certainly time to stop the ancient school-boy custom of stealing 
("taking") faculty wood and fruit, and, in fact, most anybody's fruit. 
While this is done in the spirit of joke it has a verj r demoralizing effect. 
Every one is a part of all that is around him, and the taking faculty prop- 
erty opens the way to more serious crimes. We boast of our manhood and 
claim that these acts are not committed feloniously; but the next time 
some weak fellow under pressure steals, or cheats on an examination, and 
we are readjr to drive him from college, just remember that the way was 
opened and that crime made easier to commit by this habit of ours, the 
true nature of which we hide under the name of "swiping." 

Everything HERE, except the literary societies, seems to have new life 
and interest. The societies of the past and their noble sons have long 
been the pride of the University, and the occasion of many a heart-rend- 
ing sophomoric curl. It generally were better for a man that a millstone 
be hanged about his neck and that he be cast into the depths of the sea, 
than that he should offer to suggest that anything could be an improve- 
ment upon what our fathers did thirty years ago, or that changed circum- 
stances demand now a changed order of things. Just now, however, 
new life and a spirit of progress are shown and men plainly see that some 
of the work of the former societies is now done better in the class-room 
and under the direction of an instructor. Two advantages derived from 
the society still give sufficient reason for its existence: men are taught to 
think and speak clearly while on their feet, and are made familiar with 
parliamentary law. Both these are invaluable, and are obtained from the 
debate. The other exercises are now and have been for some time, with 
few exceptions, a farce, a bore, and a dead clog to the best and truest 
interests of society. There is now a strong sentiment iu favor of putting 
society meetings on Saturday night and cutting off the essays and decla- 
mations. The former are looked after in the class-rooms, and the decla- 
mations are attended to in the preparatory schools and by the yearly 
visits of a trained elocutionist. That improved class work should absorb 
part of the work of the literary societies is the history of other growing 
institutions. Let us look at the matter fairly and see what is obtained 
aside from the debate. If this is not enough to counterbalance the dis- 
taste for society engendered by dry, rehashed essays and long meetings 
then it is doing serious harm and should be abolished. We will discuss 
the library in our next issue, and will be glad to publish views on all sides 
of the subject, student, faculty, or mixed supervision. 

Last June a Department of Sanskrit was added to the departments of 
the University of North Carolina. Within the last fifty years nearly all 
our great Eastern colleges have established Chairs of Sanskrit. The 
importance of this subject was recognized early in this century by the 



156 University Magazine. 

leading universities of England and Germany, until to-day Sanskrit is 
taught in all but one of the German universities. Scholars are realizing 
more and more that a knowledge of this old language is indispensable to 
a satisfactory study of the structure and vocabulary of Greek and Latin. 
While it is true that the majority of students elect Sanskrit simply as a 
help to the better appreciation of the classical languages, yet it is hoped 
that more will be led to study the literature, religions and languages of 
India for their own sake. At our University the first year will be spent 
in mastering the elements of the language and reading short extracts 
from the epic poem, Mahabharata, the Laws of Manu, the Sutras and a 
few hymns of the Rig Veda. The second year will be given up to the study 
of the Vedas and Sanskrit Drama. The instructor emphasizes above all 
else the work in Vedic Sanskrit, and as soon as the students are far 
enough advanced he will organize a Sanskrit Seminary, devoting the hour 
to careful interpretation of hymns of the Rig Veda, with special reference 
to the German translations of Grassman and Ludwig. The difficult pas- 
sages of the Veda are very difficult and afford the best possible means for 
developing the powers of discrimination and judgment. Ou the other 
hand, the classical Sanskrit is a comparatively easy language. Some dif- 
ficulties may confront the beginner at the outset, but when these are over- 
come he will soon be able to read easily ordinary passages of Sanskrit 
text. The instructor will translate rapidly one evening in the week to 
advanced classes six books of Laws of Manu one year, alternating with 
portions of the Mahabharata the following year. During the spring term 
of the present year a course of lectures on Sanskrit literature will be given. 
In the death of Professor Benjamin Jowett, Master of Baliol, Oxford 
loses one of her grandest figures. His great translation of Plato gives 
him a permanent place in English literature and among classic scholars. 

Dr. NEREUS Mendenhau*. — The spirit of scholarship in North Caro- 
lina has lost a friend in the death of Dr. Mendenhall. We met him once 
only — about a year ago, when he was old and feeble in body. But one 
did not need to be long with him to see his spirit. He gave this clear 
and permanent impression: that he was a man whose mind had not grown 
old. As a rule with us, the mind is the first to show the approach of age. 
We lose interest in the great world. We drop into one set of ideas, and, 
like the " University train," make our daily run of ten miles. This type 
of life is so common among us that we do not readily understand a man 
like Dr. Mendenhall. He did not grow old intellectually. He had deep 
convictions; he held clearly and firmly certain theories; but his mind was 
never shut to the light. It was like our noble oaks, open on all sides, 
freely taking whatever was good, producing its fruitage yearly. That so 
rare and admirable a spirit should pass from us must come as a personal 
loss to every real student in our State. H. H. W. 



COLLEGE RECORD. 

FRED. I,. CARR. 

Dr. BaTTi/E delivered a very entertaining lecture on "St. Paul at 
Athens," in the Episcopal church, Sunday evening, November 5. 

Improvements about college continue to be made. The South Build- 
ing has been recovered with a new tin roof, and the old terra-cotta chim- 
neys of the New East and New West have been replaced by neat brick 
ones. 

Dr. Chears, formerly President of the State Board of Pharmacy of 
North Carolina, was on the Hill a few days since, looking into the advisa- 
bility of establishing a Chair of Pharmacy at the University. 

Mr. B. H. Hardy, of the North Carolinian, gave a concert in the 
Chapel, November 2, for the benefit of the Athletic Association. The 
sum realized was quite a help to the Association. 

A monument to the late Professor Charles Phillips (1841), D. D., LL. D., 
has recently been erected in our cemetery. A sketch and portrait of 
Dr. Phillips appeared in the University Magazine, Vol. X, No. 1. 
Upon the monument is the following inscription: 

Charges Phillips, 
July jo, 1822. May 10, 1889. 

"A devoted minister of the Gospel; long eminent as a teacher in the 
University; a warm and faithful Friend; and to every duty of life respon- 
sive and true. 

"These also that sleep in Jesus will God bring with Him." 

FOOT-BALL. 

University vs. Washington and Lee, Friday, October 20. The Univer- 
sity team left for Lexington, Va., where, on the following Friday, they 
played the Washington and Lee eleven. The game was called at 4:15 
p. M., University with the ball. In two and a half minutes Steele goes 
around the left end for a touch-down. Barnard kicks goal, and the score 
stands U. N. C, 6; W. & L-, o. At the end of the first half North Caro- 
lina has run the score up to 24 to o. The second half was but a repetition of 
the first, and at the end of thirty minutes the score was U. N. C, 44; W. & 
L-, o. The features of the game were the rushing of Steele, Hickerson 
and Whedbee. Denson followed his interference beautifully, making 



158 University Magazine. 

four touch-downs from the 40-yard line. Butler, Weaver and Mitchell 
did the playing for W. & L. 

University vs. Virginia Military Institute, Saturday, October 21. This 
game was played at Lexington, and fairly won by V. M. I., the score 
standing 10 to 4. Baskerville made the touch-down for North Carolina, 
and Coffeeu both touch-downs for V. M. I. The V. M. I. team played 
together effectively and won by their superior team work. Carolina was 
much demoralized by the absence of Snipes and the easy victory of the 
day before. Those doing effective work for U. N. C. were Baskerville, 
Pugh and Little. For V. M. I. Coffeen and Biscoe. The game lasted 
sixty minutes. 

Universit}' vs. Trinity College, Saturday, October 28. The University 
was defeated by Trinity College at Trinity Park, October 28, by a score 
of 6 to 4. The game was called and Trinity secured the ball. Early in 
the game Murphy, U. N. C.'s center, was injured and was replaced by 
Sharpe, Little, J., going in as guard. U. N. C. made a touch-down, but 
failed to kick goal, and at the end of the first half the score stood U. N. 
C, 4; Trinity, o. In the beginning of the second half Trinity made a 
touch-down and Daniels kicked goal. Nothing else was made. Among 
the University players Merritt, Pugh, Whedbee, Baskerville, Tull and 
Kirkpatrick deserve special notice. Avery, Daniels, Maytubby, Tuttle, 
and Flowers did the playing for Trinity. 

University North Carolina vs. University Tennessee, Friday, Novem- 
ber 3. The game between University of North Carolina and University 
of Tennessee was played at Athletic Park, November 3, U. N. C. winning 
by a score of 60 to o. The game was played in thirty-minute halves. The 
U. of T. played a pluck]/ game, but was no match for the heavier men of 
U. N. C. For Tennessee James, Coyler, Harris, Fisher, Baugh and Wag- 
gouer did the playing. For U. N. C. the playing of Kirkpatrick and 
Whedbee were especially noticeable. 

University second eleven vs. A & M. College, Raleigh, November 17. 
The University second eleven was beaten by the A. & M. team at Ath- 
letic Park, Raleigh, N. C, by a score of 8 to 6. For A. & M. Hughes 
and McRae did the work. The playing of Price, Little, J., and Currie 
for the second eleven should be noticed. 

University vs. Wake Forest College, Raleigh, November iS. The Uni- 
versity team, with a good number of students, went down to Raleigh on 
Saturdaj', the iSth, where, in the afternoon of the same day, it played the 
Wake Forest team at Athletic Park. Wake Forest won the toss and 
started with the ball, but soon lost it. In five minutes Little was sent for 
a touch-down. The first half lasted forty-five minutes, and the score was 
30 to o in favor of U. N. C. The second half lasted only thirty minutes, 



College Record. 159 

and the score was run up to 40 to o. Wake Forest played a hard game, 
Sykes and Daniels doing especially good work, but was no match for 
U. N. C. The rushing of Whedbee and Little for the University deserves 
especial notice. 

Hon. H. W. J. Ham, of Georgia, the Southern orator and humorist, 
lectured in the Chapel, Saturday evening, November n, on the "Snolly- 
goster in Politics." He denned snollygoster as "a man who has always 
been running for office, but never has been successful, and could not have 
filled it if he had been." He showed the danger of such men to the Re- 
public. Said there were two theories of government based on the princi- 
ples of the Democratic and Republican parties respectivel} 7 ; that the gov- 
ernment started as a free one, but now the snollygoster had gotten in. 
This snollygoster was made in ward politics and rose from the lower 
offices to Congress where he had full play. He exists because of the 
apathy and ignorance of the American people. But the people will 
awaken, and all that will be left of the snollygoster will be an unsavory 
blotch on the history of American politics. The future government is to 
be the rule of the commons. Home, school and church are the forces 
working to produce the typical American citizen of the future — a man 
kind and sober, truthful and loyal. 

The lecture was interspersed with fine bits of humor, thus sustaining 
Mr. Ham's reputation as the first humorist of the South. 

SHAKSPERE CLUB. 

One of the most successful meetings in the history of the Shakspere 
Club was held in the Chapel, Tuesday evening, November 14, Dr. Hume 
presiding. The names of several candidates for membership were pro- 
posed and accepted. J. T. Pugh was elected Secretary, Thomas Rollins 
having resigned. After a few remarks the President announced as the 
subject of the meeting the play of "Romeo and Juliet." He commented 
on the folk-lore, superstitions, types of character and the theory of life 
set forth in the play. He showed that Shakspere was the great psycholo- 
gist of his age. The following papers were then presented: 

' ' The Sources of Romeo and Juliet, and How Shakspere Used Them, ' ' by 
S. A. Hodgin. He traced the origin of the play to the time between Dante 
and Petrarch, when such rival factions really existed. There were similar 
tales in Greece and other countries. Shakspere followed closely the trans- 
lation in Broke's poem — in fact, only the dramatic form and decorations are 
his own. Yet he gave life and movement to the story by compressing the 
time. 

"The Historical Setting of the Play," by C. L. Van Noppen, who said 
that it was a fact of history that such feuds existed in northern Italy at 
that time, and were the outgrowth of the disordered condition of society 



160 University Magazine. 

and the unsettled government. But Shakspere's account has eclipsed 
that of the historian's, because he has given it a soul. His is the eye of 
genius tracing out the superstitions and folk-lore and giving them reality. 

"A Literary Fad; or, The Love Conceits of Romeo and Juliet," by 
Herbert Bingham. He said it was the fashion of the day for a young 
gallant to write love sonnets to some woman older than himself, who 
generally scorned his love. So we see Romeo, who was a typical young 
gallant, sighing over Rosaline, his first love. But Shakspere was a great 
master and in his sonnet we see the perfection of this fad. The fashion 
soon fell into deca}' and degenerated into the " vers de societe" of our 
time. 

"The Ethical Significance of Romeo and Juliet," by Rev. F. Towers. 
He said that a true dramatist, as Shakspere, has no theory of ethics, but 
represents the passions and character of human life; he has no conceived 
plan of salvation except that worked out in life; his stud}' is a study of 
the living ethics of actual life. Shakspere may have had some moral 
object in view, as the influence of passion on character. The ethical sig- 
nificance does not, as the German students affirm, enforce the lesson of 
moderation, for true love has no element of evil and cannot be excessive. 
This view comes from a mistaken idea of religious life. But rather does 
it show the unif}-ing effect of pure love on human character, the true 
end of love. Romeo and Juliet are sacrificed on the altar of love to bring 
about the reconciliation of their parents. 

PHILOLOGICAL CLUB. 

The regular meeting of the Philological Club was held on Friday even- 
ing, October 27. Professor Tolman offered a note on the apparently 
irregular accent in the second Aorist infinitive and participle in Greek, 
showing that there ought, for accuracy, to be three Aorists recognized in 
Greek: (1) the Sigma- Aorist; (2) the second Aorist; (3) the Alpha- Aorist. 
This Alpha-Aorist is derived from a form in which the Alpha, or its cor- 
responding letter, had the accent; so, now that the form has suffered con- 
traction, the accent is on the syllable thus formed by contraction. 

Professor Tolman next discussed the newly-found fragment of the 
Evangelium of St. Peter. Though discovered in a grave in 1886, it was 
not published till 1892. Professing to have been written by St. Peter, it 
was certainly composed before 200 A. D., and by several of the early 
fathers rejected as " Docetic " in doctrine. A careful analysis of the 
fragment was given, showing what is Docetic, what passages are identical 
with the other gospels, what variations in language occur between this 
and the other gospels, and some indications that the writer was not a Jew 
at all. The entire fragment was read to the Club. 

Professor Harrington gave a history of our MSS. and text of Tibullus, 
and discussed critically the readings at I, 1, 5, and I, 1, 25. 



College Record. 161 

The regular monthly meeting of the Club was held on Friday evening, 
November 24, Professor Harrington in the chair. 

Professor Toy discussed the causative constructions in French, showing 
that in early French these constructions are found with /aire and par or 
a. The French grammars of to-day state that the agent is expressed by 
the Dative with a, an unsatisfactory explanation. If we suppose that a 
in French stands for Latin ab as well as for Latin ad, we can place this 
construction with a on an equality with the construction with par. We 
may, perhaps, conclude that the French idiom represents an echo of a 
lost passive, and that the conjunctive Dative pronoun is a Dative formed 
on a false analogy, and that the a there is in reality derived from the 
Latin ab. 

Professor Tolman gave an account of the Hittite race, mentioned 
frequently in the Old Testament, and, as it now seems, once a very powerful 
nation. The efforts now being made to decipher their language were 
referred to, also the mention of the people made by Herodotus. Herodo- 
tus is in error in confusing their language with that of the Egyptians. 
It shows, also, no connection with the Aryan family, and not much with 
the Semitic family. At present there are more grounds for assuming a 
Mongolian origin. 

Professor Harrington discussed Tibullus, I, 3, 4, showing the reasons 
for preferring there a reading that has not the strongest MS. authority. 

ELISHA MITCHELL SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY. 

The Society met m the Chemical Lecture-room, Tuesday evening, 
November 21, under the supervision of Professor Gore. Mr. Basker- 
ville read a paper on the "Salt Mines of Germany." He said that as far 
back as the thirteenth century it was noticed that salt was deposited by 
the salt springs of central Germany. But the Germans argued that this 
salt must come from a large deposit underneath the surface. So in 1839 
the Prussian government bored into the springs and discovered the great 
salt mountain. This salt was deposited by the sea, which in olden times 
covered this part of the earth. The salt is mined by means of shafts and 
side shafts, using rock-salt as pillars, the object being to get out the car- 
nallite. The ore is then crushed and further ground to a fine powder. 
This is then dissolved in hot water and the potassium chloride crystallized 
out. 

Dr. Wilson made a few remarks on the abnormalities in the primitive 
streak of a chicken egg. He said that the only living part of the egg is the 
membrane immediately surrounding the yolk. This membrane, called the 
formative organ or blasto-derm, is divided into three layers, representing 
the three fundamental parts of the body — the skin, muscles and aliment- 

7 



1 62 University Magazine. 

ary canal. Before the egg is laid there is onty one laj'er of the membrane. 
The second layer grows from the first and fuses with it. In the growth of 
this middle layer occur the abnormalities, appearing in various shapes 
according to condition. 

On Tuesday morning at 12:30 o'clock many students and citizens 
gathered in the Chapel to participate in the memorial exercises to the late 
Dr. Charles F. Deems. The service began with an appropriate prayer by 
Dr. Hume. Dr. Battle was then introduced and spoke of the "Life and 
Character of Dr. Deems." He said that he had long known Dr. Deems, 
and considered his life well worthy of emulation. Dr. Deems was born 
in Baltimore in 1820, and graduating at Dickinson College, Pa., at the age 
of nineteen, began his public life in New York City. Soon afterwards he 
came to North Carolina as Agent for a Bible Society, and in 1842 became 
Adjunct Professor of Rhetoric and Logic at the University. In 1848 he 
left the University for Randolph-Macon College, where he was Professor 
of Chemistry. He stayed there only one year. Returning to North Caro- 
lina, he was Professor at Greensboro Female College, and later Presiding 
Elder of the Newbern district. Shortly before the war he went to Europe, 
returning to take the presidency of a college at Wilson, N. C. After the 
war he went to New York, where -he edited for a short time a religious 
paper called The Watchman. Later he inaugurated the "Church of the 
Strangers." During the darkest time of the University he established a 
fund here for the benefit of poor boys. He retained a tender love for 
the University and was ever working for its good. After a long life of 
usefulness he was stricken with paralysis and passed away on Monday, 
November 20, remaining bright, serene and hopeful to the last. Dr. 
Deems was essentially a working man; in fact, he was ruined by his super- 
abundant energy. In addition to his numerous public works he is the 
author of several excellent books, all reflecting his pure and hopeful 
character. The exercises closed with the hymn, "Integer Vitse," and the 
benediction by Dr. Hume. 

ALUMNI NOTES. 

H. McCaul (i89i-'92) is teaching at Fancy Hill, N. C. 

J. D. Lynch (i855-'58), whose poem, "Columbia Saluting the Nations," 
was adopted as the National Poem by the World's Columbian Commis- 
sion, is a prominent attorney at West Point, Miss. He is also author of 
" The Bench and Bar of Mississippi " and " The Bench and Bar of Texas." 

Colonel J. S. Carr (i862-'64) has been elected a Vice-President of the 
American Bankers' Association. He is also President of the State Agri- 
cultural Society of North Carolina. The New York Daily Finance says: 
"The election of Colonel J. S. Carr as President of the State Agricultural 



College Record. 163 

Society is a graceful and well-deserved recognition of genuine ability. 
Colonel Carr's prominence is not confined to the Old North State, but 
extends throughout the whole country." 

Dr. Isaac Emerson (i869-'7o), who moved from Chapel Hill to Balti- 
more several years ago, has purchased the yacht ' ' Susquehanna. ' ' With a 
party of four friends he expects to come to the coast of North Carolina 
in January in search of the wild fowl which abound there. 

J. M. Richmond, 1858, is Professor of Obstetrics and Genito-urinary 
and Rectal Diseases in the Ensworth Medical College, St. Joseph, Mo. 

James Thomas, 1886, is assistant pastor of the Presbyterian church of 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. After leaving the University he engaged in the 
practice of law. Then he entered the Princeton Theological Seminary, 
from which he recently graduated fully equipped for the duties of his 
new field. 

MARRIAGES. 

George L. Wimberly (i879-'8i) was married to Miss Mary Bunu, 
daughter of Congressman B. H. Bunn, at Rocky Mount, on Thursday, 
November 16. 

DEATHS. 

B. S. Guion, 1848, died at his home in Charlotte, Thursday, November 9. 
He was a native of Newbern and followed the profession of civil engi- 
neer. He moved to Charlotte some time ago and was elected civil engi- 
neer of that city. At the time of his death he was a devout and consist- 
ent member of the Episcopal Church. 




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UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



FACULTY. 

George Tayloe Winston, LL. D., President, and Professor of Political and 
Social Science. 

Kemp Plummer Battle, LL. D. , Professor of History. 

Francis Preston Venable, Ph. D., Professor of General and Analytical 
Cbemistry. 

*Joseph Austin Holmes, B. S., Professor of Geology and Mineralogy. 

Joshua Walker Gore, C. E., Professor of Natural Philosophy, 

John Manning, LL. D., Professor of Law. 

Thomas Home, D. D., LL. D., Professor of the English Language and Litera- 
ture. 

Walter Dallam Tot, M. A., Professor of Modern Languages. 

tEben Alexander, Ph. D., LL. D., Professor of the Greek Language and 
Literature. 

William Cain, C. E., Professor of Mathematics and Engineering. 

Richard Henry Whitehead, M. D,, Professor of Anatomy, Physiology and 
Materia Medica. 

Henry Horace Williams, A. M., B. D., Prof essor of Mental and Moral Sci- 
ence. 

Henry Van Peters Wilson, Ph. D., Professor of Biology. 

Karl Pomeroy Harrington, A. M., Professor of the Latin Language and 
Literature. 

JCollier Cobb, A. B., Professor of Geology and Mineralogy. 

Edwin Anderson Alderman, Ph. B., Professor of the History and Philoso- 
phy of Education. 

Herbert Cushing Tolman, Ph. D., Professor of Sanskrit, Acting Professor 
of Greek. 



INSTRUCTORS AND ASSISTANTS. 

Charles Baskerville, B. Sc, Instructor in Chemistry. 

?homas Roswell Foust, B. E., Instructor in Mathematics and Drawing. 

ames Thomas Pron, A. B., Instructor in Latin. 

Jharles H. White, Assistant in Physical Laboratory. 

Villiam Rand Kenan, Jr., Assistant in Chemical Laboratory. 



OFFICERS. 

Gore, Secretary and Registn 

E. A. Alderman, Librarian. 

F. C. Harding, Student Librarian. 
W. T. Patterson, Bursar. 



*State Geologist, on leave of absence from the Unn 
{■Minister to Greece, Roumania and Servia. 
IHead of the department. 



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iiiis 



THE RECORDS 



OF THE 



NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY OF THE CINCINNATI, 

With notes by Professor Edward Graham Daves, will be 
* published in the North Carolina University 
Magazine for January, 1894. 
None of these papers have before been, published, and the collection 
ie of great historical value. Price, 25 cents. 

Address THE UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE, 



I. XIII. 



JANUARY, 1894. 



NORTH 
CAROLINA 
UNIVERSITY 
/\AGAZINE 




the Dialectic and Philanthropy 

PRICK 2tf CENTS. 






NORTH CAROLINA 

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE 

(Founded in 1844). 



CONTENTS FOR JANUARY, 1894. 

PAGE. 

North Carolina Society op the ■Cincinnati, 1783, Edv. 

'hum Dares 

Woodrow Wilsox'.s-Dxvision and Reunion— 1829-1889. Robert W. 

A "View of Got.dwin Smith's Book. Collin- Cobb 

Progress of Science. Artificial Production of Petroleum. Willi 

Hand TCi 

Tite Ralek;ii Fort on Roanoke Island - 196 

Book Notices 

Life and Art of Edwin Booth — Princeton Sketches— Th 
Life of the Romans — Principles of Procedure in Deli 
Bodies. 

Among the Magazines. Holland M. Thompson. '95 

t Comment. Caswell Ellis, '94 

e Record. Fp '■' 

ot-ball-r Alumni —Deaths. 



University. Magazine is published every month duri 
ear by the Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies. 
aim of the Magazine is, first of all, to preserve the bent under- 
graduate work of our University, and to be the expression 
strongest and. soberest thought of the University in all its depart) 
It will contain in each number an article of the more serious g 
some alnnant* of the University or other prominent thin! 

critical reviews, essays, careful book notices, and editor 
topics of general interest. 

Contributions are solicited from both students and alumni, and 
as are available will find a place in the Magazine. 

The Magazine is for sale by the booksellers of the State generally, it 
may be had at -Sever' s in Cambridge, Mass., and at Brent; 
York. Single copies cost twenty-live cents: the Subscription p 
ifty cents per year. Address, 

T 1 1 E T T m V EPS IT Y MAGA Z 1 [ 



■ 'hanel TIUl mail 



NORTH CAROLINA 

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE 

Old Series, Vol. HVL ' No. 4— JANUARY, 1894. New Series, Vol. M 

THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY OF THE 
CINCINNATI, 1783. 

OMNIA RE LI QUIT SERVARE REMPUBLICAM. 

One hundred and ten years ago the Continental army of 
the Revolution was in Cantonment on the banks of the 
Hudson. It was that critical period in the history of our 
country which intervened between the cessation of hostili- 
ties and the founding of a new government. Friend- 
ships formed between the officers during the long struggle 
had grown into warm attachments amidst common dangers, 
privations and sufferings. The desire to perpetuate these 
associations, and to transmit them to coming generations, 
was the sentiment which gave birth to the Society of the 
Cincinnati, and no organization owes its origin to nobler 
purpose or more interesting circumstances. 

The officers of the Line determined to create a permanent 
Military Order, which should continue and strengthen the 
ties formed in the service, and provide a fund for the sup- 
port of indigent members of the Association. Who first 
conceived the idea is unknown, but it was probably Baron 
von Steuben, though the original plan of the organization 
was drawn by General Henry Knox. This was revised by 
a committee, and finally accepted on 13th May, 1783, at a 



1 66 University Magazine. 

general meeting of officers representing all the regiments, 
which was presided over by General von Steuben, and was 
held at his headquarters in the Verplanck house near Fish- 
kill. 

The Institution thus adopted declares that to perpetuate 
the memories of the Revolution, "as well as the mutual 
friendships which have been formed under the pressure of 
common danger, and in many instances cemented by the 
blood of the parties, the officers of the American army do 
hereby, in the most solemn manner, associate, constitute 
and combine themselves into one Society of Friends, to 
endure as long as they shall endure, or any of their eldest 
male posterity, and in failure thereof the collateral 
branches who may be judged worthy of becoming its sup- 
porters. ' ' 

As the members of the new order had made a sacrifice of all 
personal interests to save the country in her hour of peril, 
and as now, like the old Roman hero Cincinnatus, they 
were about to lay aside the sword and resume their citi- 
zenship, they adopted the motto, omnia reliquit servare 
rempnblicam, and styled themselves the Society of the 
Cincinnati. 

The immutable principles of the Association were de- 
clared to be: "An incessant attention to preserve inviolate 
those exalted rights and liberties of human nature for which 
they have fought and bled, and without which the high 
rank of a human being is a curse instead of a blessing. 

"An unalterable determination to promote and cherish, 
between the respective States, that union and national 
honour so essentially necessary to their happiness and the 
future dignity of the American empire. 

"To render permanent the cordial affection subsisting 
among the officers. This spirit will dictate brotherly kind- 



North Carolina Society of the Cincinnati, ifSj. 167 

ness in all things, and particularly extend to the most sub- 
stantial acts of beneficence, according to the ability of the 
Society, towards those officers and their families who 
unfortunately may be under the necessity of receiving it." 

The army was about to disband, and the officers would be 
widely scattered; therefore the General Society was, for 
convenience, and "for the sake of frequent communica- 
tions," divided into thirteen "State Meetings," one for 
each Colony. The sessions of the General Society were to 
be triennial, that body to consist of the general officers and 
of five delegates from each State Society. 

The permanent fund, only the interest of which was to 
be used for the beneficiaries, was made up of the entrance 
fees of a month's pay for each member, which varied from 
the $26.60 of the Lieutenant to the $166. of the Major- 
General. In some of the State Societies this fund has by 
judicious investment now grown to a sum of many thou- 
sands. 

The claims to original membership are defined by the 
declaration that "All the officers of the American army, 
as well those who have resigned with honour, after 
three 3'ears' service in the capacity of officers, or who have 
been deranged by the resolutions of Congress, as those 
who shall have continued to the end of the war, have the 
right to become parties to this Institution; * * * and as 
a testimony of affection to the memory and the offspring of 
such officers as have died in the service, their eldest male 
branches shall have the same right of becoming members 
as the children of the actual members of the Society. 

"And as there are, and will at all times be, men in the 
respective States eminent for their abilities and patriotism, 
whose views may be directed to the same laudable objects 
as those of the Cincinnati, it shall be a rule to admit such 



1 68 University Magazine. 

characters, as Honorary members of the Society, for their 
own lives only." 

The Society adopted as an Order "a medal of gold, sus- 
pended by a deep blue riband, edged with white, descrip- 
tive of the union of France and America. ' ' On the obverse 
are three Roman Senators presenting Cincinnatus with 
military ensigns; surrounding the figures the legend, Omnia 
reliqiiit servare rempublicam. On the reverse Fame crown- 
ing Cincinnatus with a wreath; below hands joined, with 
the motto Esto Perpetua, and around the whole, Societas 
Cincinnatormn Institula, A. D. 1783. 

Major L,' Enfant, of the Continental Corps of Engineers, 
to whom this design was referred, objected to a medal as 
an unsuitable emblem for a military Order, and suggested 
instead the Bald Eagle, as peculiar to America, and distin- 
guished from that of other climes by its white head and 
tail. The eagle is of gold, displayed, supporting on its 
breast the figure of the medal. Grasped in its talons are 
golden olive branches, with the leaves in ' green enamel, 
and above its head is an olive wreath to which the clasp is 
attached. The head and tail are enamelled in white, the 
body and wings are of gold, and the medal on its breast and 
back is enamelled in green and blue. This beautiful deco- 
ration is the one now worn by all members of the Society. 
The officers of the French navy presented to General 
Washington a very artistic and costly copy of the Cincin- 
nati eagle richly set in diamonds, which has been handed 
down to successive Presidents-General, and is now in the 
possession of Hon. Hamilton Fish of New York. 

At the second meeting of the Society, held in the Can- 
tonments on 19th June, 1783, the organization was com- 
pleted by formally adopting the Eagle as the emblem of the 
Order, by directing that a diploma on parchment be given to 



North Carolina Society of the Cincinnati, f/Sj. 169 

each member, and by electing- General Washington Presi- 
dent-General and General Knox Secretary-General. 

In the course of the year all of the thirteen State Socie- 
ties were formed, that of North Carolina in October at 
Hillsborough, with General Jethro Sumner as President, 
and Rev. Adam Boyd, Brigade Chaplain, as Secretary. 
To the list of the original members, sixty in number, 
printed for the first time in the May number of this Maga- 
zine for 1893, should be added the names of Lieutenant 
Colonel Henry Dixon and Major George Doherty. * 

In our generation, when the Society of the Cincinnati 
is so limited in its membership, and so entirely devoid of 
any political significance that the mere fact of its exist- 
ence is unknown to the great majority of Americans, it is 
difficult to understand the bitter storm of opposition which 
it at first encountered. Writers and orators proclaimed 
that a body existing by hereditary right would become a 
privileged aristocratic class, antagonistic to the spirit of our 
institutions and a dangerous element in a republican com- 
monwealth. Judge Burke of South Carolina attacked it in a 
virulent pamphlet; Mirabeau echoed his words from across 
the water; Jefferson demanded that the Order be annihilated, 
and John Adams wrote from Paris that "the formation of 
the Society was the first step taken to deface the beauty of 
our temple of liberty. ' ' State after State declared through 
legislative committees that the members of the Cincinnati 
were unworthy of American citizenship, and the Congress 
at Annapolis threatened to disfranchise them unless they 
abolished the hereditary feature of membership. 

In New York" the Tammany Society, or Columbian Order, 
as it was originally called, was founded in 1789 to antago- 



*See also an article on the Cincinnati in No. i of Vol. XII, 1S92. 



170 University Magazine. 

nize that of the Cincinnati, and was the first of those ultra- 
democratic organizations which glorified the French Revo- 
lution and which were so detested by Washington. It is a 
striking commentary on the trustworthiness of political 
prophecy that while the Order of the Cincinnati has been 
of little weight in the history of the nation, and is now 
entirely without political influence, its old rival, with its 
membership of thousands and its arbitrary though nomi- 
nally democratic methods, has gone on increasing in power 
and prestige until it has grown into the most formidable, 
and possibly most dangerous, political organization in the 
Union. 

Moved by this opposition so wide-spread throughout the 
States, some prominent members withdrew from the Soci- 
ety, and others laid aside its insignia. In France however 
the new Order was received with enthusiasm. Major L,' En- 
fant wrote from Paris in December, 1783, to von Steuben 
and Washington : ' ' Here they are more ambitious to obtain 
the Order of the Cincinnati than to be decorated with the 
cross of St. Louis. * * * This Institution they consider 
as a monument erected to republican virtues, as the funda- 
mental basis of a cordial union between the different States, 
and as a new tie which assures the duration of that recip- 
rocal friendship which, France has devoted to America." 

The first meeting of the General Society was held in the 
State-House at Philadelphia in May, 1784, and North Caro- 
lina was represented by Majors Reading Blount of Beau- 
fort County, and Griffith J. McRee of Bladen. Radical 
changes in the character of the Institution were there pro- 
posed, especially the abolition of the primogeniture feature 
of transmission of membership. General Washington, in 
deference to public sentiment, urgently advised these 
changes, and even intimated his purpose of resigning from 



North Carolina Society of the Cincinnati, iy8j. 171 

the Society unless the)' were adopted. Through his influ- 
ence the meeting accepted the proposed alterations; but as 
the delegates had no power to bind their respective States by 
such action, the amended Institution was referred back to the 
State Societies, and Washington issued to them a circular 
letter urging a ratification of the amendments. The North 
Carolina Society accepted them at a meeting held 4th July, 
1784. In the other States the discussion of the various 
propositions dragged on for several years; some of the Socie- 
ties taking no definite action on the amendments, and 
others refusing to ratify them. Finally, as it became evi- 
dent that it was impossible to obtain unanimous consent 
to the organic changes which would mark a wide depart- 
ure from the original principles of the Association, the 
General Society, at its meeting on 7th May, 1800, voted 
1 ' that the Institution of the Cincinnati remains as it was 
originally proposed and adopted by the officers of the 
American Army at their Cantonments on the Hudson River 
in 1783." 

The earliest evidence of the formation of the North Caro- 
lina Society is found in the two following letters from 
Gen. Sumner and Rev. Adam Boyd, which are on file in 
the office of the Secretary General of the Cincinnati: 

Halifax, N. Carolina, 28th October, 1783. 

Sir: — At the request of the officers of the Line of this State, I do myself 
the honour to return you their thanks & my own for your favour, cover- 
ing a letter from his excellency the Chevalier De la L,uzerne, and other 
papers. 

The officers being highly pleased with the Institution, will most chear- 
fully concur in any measures that shall be adopted for promoting its 
benevolent designs. Not to support such an institution betrays, in their 
opinion, a want of public virtue. 

It appears to be the sense of the Societies to the Southward, that the 
first general meeting should be held at Fredericksburg, in Virginia. That 
place, it is tho't, is nearly centrical, and most convenient for the Presi- 



172 University Magazine. 

dent-General. The compliance of the Northern Societies in this will give 
us very great pleasure. 

I shall always be extremely glad to hear from & to correspond with 
you, and have the honour to be, with great respect, 

Your most obedient & very humble servant, 

Jethro Sumner, 
Brig.-GenH and President. 
Hon. Major-Generai, Baron De Steuben. 



Wilmington, Cape Fear, 29th Dec'r, 1783. 

Sir: — In October a few officers of this State met at Hillsborough & 
laid the foundation of a society upon the plan of the Cincinnati. Among 
other things they resolved that the president should acquaint the Secre- 
tary-General with their desire, that the first general meeting should be 
held at Fredericksburg, in Virginia. That place is tho't to be nearly 
centrical and more convenient than any other for the President-General. 
This last was most decisive with them. 

The president having been obliged to go home before any letters could 
have been written, I was desired to write to yon on the subject. This I 
did upon the spot, & gave my letter to a gentleman coming directly here. 
Since my return to this place I find that letter was lost, and not know- 
ing that general Sumner has had an opportunity of conveying one to 
you, I again address you, lest the wishes of the N. Carolina Society 
should not reach you in proper time, and I should incur their censure, 
tho' very undeservedly. 

A pamphlet said to be the production of a judge Burke in So. Caro- 
lina, has created opponents to the Cincinnati. It has been in this town, 
but I have not yet got a sight of it. His objections, I am told, are founded 
upon a surmise that the Cincinnati mean to establish a numerous peerage 
in direct contradiction to the federal union of the States. This he has 
tortured out of the "hereditary succession." The whole appears tome 
altogether chimerical: but there are swarms of Butterfly -statesmen & 
patriots who flutter & strutt in the sunshine of safety & peace. These 
things affect to be lynx-eyed, and however groundless their cries may be, 
yet being generally of a popular tone, they are received "as proofs from 
holy writ. ' ' 

Terrible things have been threatened against us, & I do expect our 
Assembly, in their April sessions, will be moved to suppress the Society. 
At that time we have a meeting, and if you can furnish anything to 
strengthen our hands, you will render us a very acceptable service. 

As our President lives near 200 miles from a sea-port town or post-office, 
letters for him had better be sent here. I am about to change my place 



North Carolina Society of the Cincinnati, 1783. 173 

of residence, but if I do leave this, our vice-presideut (general Clark) 
and several officers will be here & take care of such letters. 
I have the honour to be, with much respect, 

Your very humble and most obedient servant, 

^~ Adam Boyd, Sec'y. 

P. S. — I would most gladly correspond with the secretary of your State 
Society. If you will please tell him so you will do me a favour. My 
address is Rev'd A. B., Wilmington, Cape Fear. This is the South 
part of No. Carolina, & vessels from Boston often come here. If I 
remove, my address will not be changed. 

Honorable; General Knox. 

The hostility to the Cincinnati at the very outset, as 
shown in this letter, is noteworthy, and the outcome of 
the opposition in the Legislature is seen in a communica- 
tion from Adam Boyd of a twelvemonth later date. At 
a meeting of the North Carolina Society, held at Fayette- 
ville on 4th July, 1784, the Secretary was ordered to 
address a circular letter to the other State Societies. The 
following copy of this was made from the archives of the 
Maryland Cincinnati, and the letter is also among the 
papers of the Massachusetts Society. It is of interest as 
showing the attitude of the State Assembly toward the 
Association, and as reporting the action of the North Caro- 
lina Cincinnati on the proposed amendments to the Insti- 
tution: 

Cape Fear, No. Carolina, iothjany., 1785. 

Sir: — I am ordered by the Cincinnati of this State to acquaint you that, 
in consequence of a former adjournment, we had a meeting at Fayette Ville 
on the 4th of July, when the circular-letter, with the institution as altered 
and amended, was read and highty approved. 

The meeting then proceeded to frame their bye-L/aws, and to make such 
regulations as they tho't might promote the friendly and benevolent 
intentions of the Society. 

We had hopes that the Assembly would take our funds under their 
direction and aid the general design; but tho' the ablest Members of 
both Houses were on our side, yet the Majority was Against us. 



174 University Magazine. 

Waiting the event of this Application, I defered writing, and am truly 
sorry I cannot give a more agreeable account of it. Yet this disappoint- 
ment will not affect the Zeal of Our Members, and we flatter ourselves the 
Opposition will soon die. 

It is the earnest wish of this meeting to hold correspondence with the 
different State Meetings. This, it is tho't, might be of general advan- 
tage, and contribute to that harmony which is the Soul of the Society. 

I am, with much respect, 

Y r most obedient servant, 

Adam Boyd, Sec. 

Secretary to the Cincinnati in Maryland. 

This second letter, enclosing a copy of the by-laws, is 
addressed to General Otho H. Williams, of the Maryland 
Cincinnati, who served so brilliantly under Greene in the 
Guilford campaign: 

New Berne, No. Carolina, 20th May, 1785. 

Sir: — In obedience to orders, you will herewith receive a copy of the 
bye-laws of this State meeting; and I was likewise ordered to send a copy 
of the institution, with the names of our members, on parchment. But 
the gentleman appointed for that purpose has not sent me the parchment, 
neither is the roll of names by any means compleat. . At our annual meet- 
ing I hope these and some other things will be better regulated. 

I beg, Sir, you will excuse the liberty I have taken in troubling you 
with the inclosed letters. My reason for taking it was, I knew not the 
name of an officer near a sea-port in your State or Virginia, whither I beg 
the sealed one may be sent. It is a transcript of that designed for the Sec- 
retary of the Maryland meeting. 

I have the honor to be, with the utmost respect, 

Your obedient and most humble servant, 

Adam Boyd. 

Honble Gene. Williams, Maryland. 

Fayettevieee, North Carolina, July nth, 1785. 

RULES AND REGULATIONS EOR GOVERNING THIS STATE MEETING. 

I. The first business of the anniversary meeting shall be the election of 
a President, Vice-President, Secretary, Treasurer, and a representation to 
the Society for the ensuing year. Three members shall be appointed 
Judges of the election, and any two of said Judges agreeing, shall declare 



North Carolina Society of the Cincinnati, 1783. 175 

those having a majority duly elected; and in case of an equality of 
ballots the decision shall be by lot. 

II. All elections shall be by ballot. 

III. The President is, at all meetings, to regulate the decision of every- 
thing that may be proposed; to state and put questions, agreeably to the 
sense and intention of the members. He is also empowered whenever 
he shall think it necessary, to call an extraordinary meeting, on giving 
sixty days' previous notice by circular letters to the members in each dis- 
trict; and in any occasional absence of the President, and Vice-President, 
the members present shall appoint to the chair one of their number, who, 
whilst there, shall possess all the power of a President. 

IV. The Secretary shall take the minutes of the proceedings of each 
meeting and produce them fairly transcribed in a book to the next meet- 
ing. In this book shall also be entered all such letters and Essays addressed 
to them or the Society as they may think worth recording, the Originals 
of which must likewise be filed: and the more effectually to guard against 
accidents, which may endanger the records, the proceedings shall be 
copied into two books; for one of which the Secretary shall be answerable, 
and the other shall be lodged with the President, and in Order to prevent 
errors, those books of record shall be carefully revised and compared at 
every meeting. 

V. The Treasurer shall receive the Subscriptions and donations of 
members, and others, agreeably to the institution and under the direction 
of the meeting, shall manage their fund, and transact all their monied 
matters. He shall also lay before every annual meeting, a true state of 
the stock, interest, and other monies belonging to them, and disbursments 
made by their Orders; and he shall deliver to his successor the books, and 
all papers belonging to his Office, together with all monies remaining in 
his hands. And for the faithfull discharge of his trust, the said Treasurer, 
before he enters on the Duties of his Office, shall give bond and security 
to the President and Vice-President, on behalf of the meeting, in the sum 
of five Thousand pounds. 

VI. At every annual meeting any number of members shall be compe- 
tent to the business of the meeting, consistant with the rules of the 
Society. 

VII. The transactions of extraordinary meetings shall be binding, 
untill the next annual meeting, which shall have the power to confirm or 
abolish their proceedings. 

VIII. In conducting the business of the meeting, no question shall be 
put on a motion unless it be seconded. When any member speaks, he 
shall address himself to the Chair; and no member without permission 
shall speak more than twice on the same subject. 



176 University Magazine. 

IX. Nt> part of the Interest arising from the principal fund, and other 
monies in the disposal of the meeting, shall be ordered in payment for 
charitable or other purposes, without the consent of two-thirds of the 
members present. Each member shall report to the annual meeting such 
objects of charity as may come within his notice; and agreeably to cir- 
cumstances, the meeting shall grant orders for such sums of money as 
shall be judged necessary, and consistant with the state of finances. 

X. It shall be the duty of any member elected to an Office in the meet- 
ing or Society, to Officiate agreeably to the appointment. 

XL All questions which are not determined by some express Rule, shall 
be decided by the Voice of a majority of the members present. 

XII. Any member, who shall fail to attend the annual meeting, shall 
pay to the Treasurer the sum of five pounds currency, for the use of the 
meeting, unless his excuse be admitted by a majority of members present. 

XIII. The expeuce of deligation to the Society, and all other necces- 
sary expenditures, shall be an equal contribution of the members of the 
meeting. 

XIV. No member shall absent himself without permission, from the 
Service of the meeting. 

XV. No member shall be expelled the Society, but by consent of two 
thirds of the members present at the annual meeting. 

XVI. Should the meeting be reduced to the disagreeable necessity of 
expelling a member, the motive shall be entered at large on the minutes; 
and as soon as possible, notice shall be given to the Society by the Presi- 
dent, who shall also by circular letter inform the different meetings 
thereof, specifying his name and situation, previous to his becoming a 
member. . 

XVII. These rules and regulations to be subject to any alterations or 
amendments at an annual meeting, two thirds of the members agreeing 
thereto. Adam Boyd, Secy. 

(Copy). 

On the death of General Jethro Sumner in March, 1785, 
Lieutenant-Colonel John B. Ashe, of New Hanover County, 
was chosen President of the North Carolina Cincinnati. 
Major Howell Tatum succeeded Rev. Adam Boyd as Secre- 
tary in 1787, and Major Robert Fenner was elected 
Treasurer. Major Fenner was the sole representative of 
North Carolina at the second triennial meeting of the 
General Society at Philadelphia in May, 1787, the other 
delegates, Colonel William Polk and Major Reading Blount, 



North Carolina Society of the Cincinnati, iy8j. 177 

failing to attend. Again at the third general meeting, in 
May, 1790, the only North Carolinian present was Colonel 
Benjamin Hawkins, of Warren County, and since that date 
the State has ceased to be represented. 

A report has been found of but one meeting of the State 
Society. This is printed in the Pennsylvania Packet and 
Daily Advertiser of August 12th, 1786, and is as follows: 

Halifax, N. Carolina, July 8th. 
The State meeting of the Cincinnati was held here on the 4th, agreeable 
to their adjournment from Fayetteville; the festivity of this auspicious 
day commenced by a suitable discharge of artillery about 11 o'clock. A 
large number of gentlemen from the town and different parts of the 
State met the Societ}' at Mr. Barkdale's tavern, where an elegant dinner 
was prepared by the direction of their stewards. After dinner the follow- 
ing toasts were drunk, accompanied by separate discharges of cannon, 
and animated with the most rational mirth and patriotic enthusiasm: 

1. The Memorable 4th July, 1776. 

2. The United States of America.' 

3. The late American Army and Navy. 

4. The Fleet and Armies of France who have served in America. 

5. His Most Christian Majesty. 

6. His Excellency General Washington. 

7. May America be grateful to her Patriotic Children! 

8. The Memory of the Brave Patriots who have fallen in defence of 
America. 

9. Ma}' Virtue support what Courage has gained! 

10. The Vindicators of the Rights of Mankind in eve'ry quarter of the 
Globe. 

11. May America be an Asylum to the Persecuted of the Earth! 

12. May a close Union of the States guard the Temple they have 
erected to Liberty! 

13. May the Remembrance of this Day be a Lesson to Princes! 

The afternoon was spent in the utmost conviviality, enlivened with a 
number of gay and political songs and toasts. In the evening the Society 
gave a ball, which was honoured with a numerous and splendid attend- 
ance of the ladies. 

When and under what circumstances did the North Caro- 
lina Society become dormant? It has not died, for there 



178 University Magazine. 

exists no record or report of any formal dissolution. What 
became of its funds? There is no evidence that they were 
given to any public institution, as was done in Virginia, or 
that they were divided among the members, as in Dela- 
ware. The answer to these questions must be given by 
some diligent searcher among North Carolina documents 
and archives, who will find the papers of the Society sub- 
sequent to 1790. Especially should inquiry be made as 
to the preservation of any papers of Major Tatum, the last 
known Secretary of the Cincinnati. 

One can readily see that the difficulty of holding meet- 
ings of members scattered over a State so large, and with 
so imperfect means of communication, must have been 
insurmountable. Moreover many of the Continental 
officers had their land grants in districts over the moun- 
tains, and removed to what became the State of Tennessee. 
North Carolina, too, possessed no important city, like Bos- 
ton or Qharleston, to become the centre of commercial, 
social and political life; and it is probable that the Society 
of the Cincinnati died out simply from the impossibility of 
bringing the old members together for the election of new 
ones. 

Six other of the State Societies ceased to exist for 
various reasons. In a memorandum presented to the Mas- 
sachusetts Cincinnati in June, 1812, we find it stated that: 

The Society was dissolved ill Delaware by a formal vote in July, 1802, 
and the funds were resumed in due proportions by those who had furnished 
them. 

In July, 1803 a proposition was made in the Connecticut Society for its 
dissolution. This proposition stood one year for the consideration of the 
members; it was adopted Jul}', 1804, and the Society was accordingly 
then dissolved. 

In December, 1803, the Virginia Society voted to bestow all their funds 
for the endowment of an Academy in the County of Rockbridge, denomi- 
nated the Washington Academy, which had been the object of Gen. 
Washington's particular patronage and bounty. 



North Carolina Society of the Cincinnati, 1783. 179 

In South Carolina the Society not being numerous, sometimes associates 
itself with a Society in Charleston called the "Revolution Society" in 
celebrating the 4th of July, and on other occasions. 

In New Hampshire the Society is not formally dissolved, but it is seldom 
heard of; and in Georgia, North Carolina and Rhode Island very few per- 
sons (except now and then a veteran officer of the Revolutionary Army) 
seem even to know that such a society either does, or ever did exist. 

The Society flourishes chiefly in Massachusetts, New York, Pennsyl- 
vania and New Jersey; while there are occasionally tokens of its existence 
in South Carolina and New Hampshire. In all other States it may be 
said to be very dormant or totally extinct. 

It is curious that in this statement no mention is made 
of the Maryland Society, which, together with those of 
South Carolina, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York and 
Massachusetts, has had an unbroken existence from the 
beginning until now. That of Rhode Island was revived 
in 1 88 1, and Connecticut was re-admitted to the Order at 
the triennial meeting of the General Society in Boston in 
June, 1893. These eight Societies are now full of life and 
activity, and are all represented by large delegations at 
each recurring General Meeting. They are, however, 
greatly reduced in numbers by the dying out of some 
Revolutionary families, and the apathy of others in claim- 
ing their hereditary rights to membership. The whole 
number of the Cincinnati is now less than five hundred; 
while at the founding of the Order Massachusetts alone 
had three hundred and thirty-seven members and Pennsyl- 
vania two hundred and sixty-eight 

Steps have been taken to revive the dormant Societies 
of Georgia and Virginia, and will not North Carolina also 
knock for admission at the triennial meeting to be hejd in 
Philadelphia in 1896? There are living in the State lineal 
descendants of the original sixty-two members, and of other 
Continental officers who were entitled to membership, and 
it is the patriotic duty of these men to assert their heredi- 



180 University Magazine. 

tary claims. At present only three members of the Cin- 
cinnati represent officers of the North Carolina Line: Judge 
William D. Harden, of Savannah, great-grandson of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Thomas Pasteur, of New Bern, and Honor- 
able George D. Johnston, of Washington, great-grandson 
of Major George Doherty, of Wilmington, who are both 
members of the South Carolina Cincinnati, and Professor 
Edward Graham Daves, of Baltimore, grandson of Major 
John Daves, of New Bern, who belongs to the Maryland 
Society. 

The early meetings of the Cincinnati were conducted 
with much dignity and ceremony, the members assembling 
in full uniform or court dress, and after the transaction of 
business marching in stately procession to some church or 
public hall to listen to an elaborate address. All this has 
given way to modern republican simplicity, and there is 
now nothing more formal than an annual banquet, at which 
the themes of the speakers are the heroic deeds of our sires 
in the times that tried men's souls. 

The Society has always warmly cherished love of coun- 
try, and has helped many a widow or orphan in her hour 
of need. All prejudice against it has died away, and no 
one now withholds respect for an association which is alike 
illustrious in its origin, patriotic in its aims, and beneficent 
in its operations. It accentuates Americanism in the best 
sense of that term, and surely never was such an influence 
more needed than now, when the absorption of an enormous 
foreign element into the body politic is modifying our 
natiqnal character, and there is a dangerous tendency to 
depart too widely from the standards of our fathers. 

The past score of years has witnessed a marked revival 
of interest in Revolutionary events, and a growing admi- 
ration for the wisdom and manly virtues of the founders of 



North Carolina Society of the Cincinnati, f/8j. 181 

the Republic. These sentiments have been quickened by 
the successive patriotic celebrations, which have extended 
from the hundredth anniversary of the Mecklenburg Decla- 
ration of Independence, on 20th May, 1875, to that of the 
Inauguration of our first President, on 30th April, 1889, 
and will culminate in the unveiling of the superb equestrian 
statue of Washington erected in Philadelphia by the 
Pennsylvania Cincinnati. 

In all this movement the Order of the Cincinnati has 
been a factor of potent influence, and it has within this 
period given birth to other similar organizations, such as 
that of the Sons of the Revolution, an association of like 
purpose and wider scope. These new societies show all 
the vigour and enthusiasm of youth, and they are rapidly 
multiplying the number of men and women who are 
making a special study of Colonial and Revolutionary his- 
tory, and who find for noble patriotic work in the present, 
inspiration in our heroic past. 

In reviewing the long life of the now venerable Society 
one finds that it has never swerved from its wise and noble 
purposes, and there is probably no patriot who would 
not echo the words of Washington in his letter to William 
Barton concerning the founding of the Order: "I am con- 
vinced that the members, actuated by motives of sensibility, 
charity and patriotism, are doing a laudable thing in erect- 
ing this memorial of their common services, sufferings and 
friendships." Edward Graham Daves. 



WOODROW WILSON'S DIVISION AND 
REUNION— 1829-1889. 

We have read this little book, fresh from the presses, 
with pleasure. 

For, surely, the utterance of a Princeton professor that 
"the legal theory upon which this startling and extraordi- 
nary series of steps (secession) was taken was one which 
would hardly have been questioned in the early years of 
the government, ' ' bids us believe that the spirit of historical 
truth is abroad in the land. 

Here we have a text-book, prepared by a professor in 
Princeton and edited by a professor in Harvard, for the 
use of students in these great institutions, and nowhere 
within its pages do we find the word "traitor," nor 
"rebel," nor "rebellion," as applied to the Southern peo- 
ple or their conduct in the late war between the States. 

The author characterizes the discussion between Hayne 
and Webster, on the Foote Resolutions of 1830, as "the 
formal opening of the great controversy between the North 
and South concerning the nature of the Constitution which 
bound them together." 

At its heart lay a question the merits of which are now seldom explored 
with impartiality. Statesman-like wisdom unquestionably spoke in the 
contention of Webster, that the Constitution had created not a dissoluble^ 
illusory partnership between the States, but a single Federal State, com- 
plete in itself, enacting legislation, which was the supreme law of the 
land, and dissoluble only by revolution. 

* * # * * * -ji- 

lt may nevertheless be doubted whether this was the doctrine upon 
which the Union had been founded. It seems impossible to deny that the 
argument of Hayne contained more nearly the sentiment of i787-'89. 

The ground which Webster took, in short, was new ground; that which 
Hayne occupied, old ground. 



University of North Carolina. 

GEORGE T. WINSTON, EE. D., President, and Professor of Po- 
litical and Social Science. 

KEMP P. BATTEE, LE. D., Professor of History. 

FRANCIS P. VENABEE, Ph. D., Professor of General and Ana- 
lytical Chemistry. 

JOSEPH A. HOEMES, B. S., State Geologist and Lecturer on 
Geology of North Carolina. 

JOSHUA W. GORE, C. E., Professor of Natural Philosophy. 

JOHN MANNING, EE. D., Professor of Law. 

THOMAS HUME, D.D., EE.D., Professor of the English Lan- 
guage and Literature. 

WAETER D. TOY, M. A., Professor of Modern Languages. 

*EBEN AEEXANDER, Ph. D., EE. D.,Professor of the Greek 
Language and Literature. 

WIEEIAM CAIN, C. E., Professor of Mathematics. 

RICHARD H. WHITEHEAD, M. D., Professor of Anatomy, 
Physiology and Materia Medica. 

HENRY H. WIEEIAMS, A. M., B. D., Professor of Mental and 
Moral Science. 

HENRY V. WIESON, Ph. D., Professor of Biology. 

KARE P. HARRINGTON, A. M., Professor of the Latin Language 
and Literature. 

JAMES E. SHEPHERD, EE. D., Chief fustice of North Caro- 
lina, Professor of Common and Statute Law. 

COEEIER COBB, A. B., Professor of Geology and Mineralogy. 

EDWIN A. AEDERMAN, Ph. B., Professor of History and Phil- 
osophy of Education. 

HERBERT C. TOEMAN, Ph. D., Professor of Sanskrit and Act- 
ing Professor of Greek. 

INSTRUCTORS AND ASSISTANTS. 
CHAREES BASKERVIEEE, B. Sc, Instructor in Chemistry. 
THOMAS R. FOUST, B. E., Instructor in Mathematics. 
JAMES T. PUGH, B. A.. Instructor in Latin. 
CHAREES H. WHITE, Assistant in Physical Laboratory. 
WIEEIAM R. KENAN, Jr., Assistant in Chemical Laboratory. 
ROBERT P. JENKINS, Assistant in Biological Laboratory. 
OFFICERS. 

J. W. Gore, Secretary and Registrar. 

E. A. Alderman, Librarian. 

F. C. Harding, Student Librarian. 
W. T. Patterson, Bursar. 

♦Minister to Greece, Roumania and Servia. 



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Wilson' 1 s Division and Reunion — 1829- 1889. 183 

The North was now beginning to insist upon a national government; 
the South was continuing to insist upon the original understanding of the 
Constitution: that was all. 

Webster found little difficulty in overwhelming the argument for "nulli- 
fication "; it was the argument for State sovereignty, the major premise 
of the argument for nullification, which he was unable to dislodge from 
its historical position. It was to be overwhelmed only by the power that 
makes and modifies constitutions by the force of national sentiment. 
The principles upon which secession was attempted were indeed plain 
enough to everybody in the South and needed no argument. The national 
idea had never supplanted in the South the original theory of the Consti- 
tution. Even in the North the national idea had been slow to grow. 
* * * Even after the Southern States had acted upon the old-time 
theory, and seceded, the North for a moment was not sure that they had 
acted beyond their right. It required the terrible exercise of prolonged 
war to impart to the national idea diffused vitality and authentic power. 

These and many other excerpts of like kind show that 
the author is fair and impartial in the treatment of events, 
even when self-interest dictated the opposite course. 

We think that one factor, most potential in developing 
the national idea, has not been touched upon; we refer to 
the decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States. 
"From it," says Edward Everett, u the voice of equity 
and justice has gone forth to the most powerful States of 
the Union, * * * annulling unconstitutional laws, 
and reversing erroneous decisions." 

Rarely did Marshall write about the Constitution but to 
enlarge the power and jurisdiction of his own Court. 
What momentous consequences would have followed a 
different conclusion of that august tribunal in any of its 
early formative decisions! 

Gibbons vs. Ogden, declaring to the mighty State of 
New York that she did not own exclusively the rivers 
within her borders; McCulloch vs. The Bank (affirmed in 
Osborn vs. The Bank), promulgating the doctriue that 
the State of Maryland had not the power to tax a United 



184 University Magazine. 

States Bank, for the right to tax involved the power to 
destroy; and the Cherokee Indian decision, to the effect 
that even a sovereign State was not superior to the obliga- 
tions of its contracts, each and all, must have rudely 
shocked the ideas of the early advocate of the sovereign 
right of the States. 

Indeed we read in Benton's Abridgment that this sen- 
timent found expression in a bill proposed by a Senator 
from Maryland, that, in all controversies involving the 
rights of the States under the Constitution, an appeal should 
lie from the Supreme Court of the United States to the 
Senate of the United States. 

Professor Wilson has a judicial temperament, and care- 
fully weighs his words. Hear him upon the subject of the 
exchange of prisoners: 

And yet the end did not come until Sherman had made his terrible 
march through Georgia and the Carolinas, a march almost unprecedented 
in modern warfare for its pitiless and detailed rigor and thoroughness of 
destruction and devastation. It illustrated the same business-like purpose 
of destroying utterly the power of the South that had shown itself in the 
refusal of the Federal Government to exchange prisoners with the Con- 
federacy. 

The Southern prisons were left full to overflowing with thousands upon 
thousands of prisoners, because the South was known to be using up her 
population in the struggle, and it was not thought best to send any fight- 
ing men back to her. 

The Southern troops were themselves enduring hunger for lack of 
supplies; and the prisoners, too, of course, suffered severe privations, 
aggravated by the necessity of placing large numbers under the guard of 
small forces, by the difficulties of transportation, and by a demoralization 
in prison administration, inevitable under the circumstances. It was im- 
possible that they should be cared for in such overwhelmingly burdensome 
numbers. But General Grant said that they were dying for the Union as 
much where they were as if they died in the field. 

There are times when we think that our author might, 
indeed ought, have written with a more caustic pen. 



Wilson'* s Division and Reunion — 1829— 1889. 185 

Speaking of the Electoral Fraud of 1876, he simply says, 
"the feeling was universal that, leaving aside all questions 
of fraud in the elections, which affected both parties almost 
equally, the whole affair threw profound discredit upon 
those concerned." 

Did not old Jere Black, addressing the Court where 
Rhadamanthus presides, more nearly voice the situation: 
"For we have made lies our refuge and under falsehood 
have we hid ourselves " ? 

In another part of the book our author speaks of it as 
the war ' ' for the perpetuation of slavery. ' ' This is a 
popular error, Mr. Lincoln himself, on more than one 
occasion, saying the contrary.. 

We close our extracts with a picture of ante-bellum 
Southern society: 

The existence of slavery in the South fixed classes there in a hard crys- 
tallization and rendered' it impossible that the industrial revolution, else- 
where making changes so profound, should materially affect the structure 
of her own society. Whenever slaves perform all the labor of a commu- 
nity, and all free men refrain, as of course, from the meaner sorts of work, 
a stubborn pride of class privilege will exist, and a watchful jealousy of 
interference from any quarter, either with that privilege itself or with any 
part of the life which environs and supports it. 

If, from the above, we are to infer that slaves performed 
all the meaner labor in the South, it is a great mistake. 

"Wherever there is a vast multitude of slaves," said Burke, "those 
who are free are by far the most proud and jealous of their freedom. 
* * * In such a people the haughtiness of domination combines with 
the spirit of freedom, fortifies it and renders it invincible." The structure 
of Southern society unquestionably created an aristocracy, but not such 
an aristocracy as the world had seen before. It was, so to say, a demo- 
cratic aristocracy. It did not create a system that jeopardized liberty 
among those who were free, or which excluded democratic principles from 
the conduct of affairs. It was an aristocracy, not of blood, but of influ- 
ence, and of influence exercised among equals. It was based upon wealth, 
but not upon the use of wealth. Wealth gave a man broad acres, nutner- 



1 86 University Magazine. 

ous slaves, au easy, expansive life of neighborly hospitality, position and 
influence in his county, and, if he chose to extend it, in his State; but 
power consisted of opportunity, and not of the pressure of the wealthy 
upon the poor, the coercive and corrupting efficacy of money. It was, in 
fact, not a money wealth; it was not founded upon a money economy. 
It was a wealth of resource and of leisured living. 

The life of a Southern planter was in no sense a life of magnificence or 
luxury. It was a life of simple and plain abundance; a life companioned 
with books not infrequently; oftentimes ornamented with household 
plate and handsome family portraits; but there was none of the detail of 
luxury. There was little attention to the small comforts which we call 
conveniences. Tnere was abounding hospitality and generous intercourse, 
but the intercourse was free, unstudied in its manners, straightforward, 
hearty, unconstrained and full of a truly democratic instinct and senti- 
ment of equality. 

And, might he not have added, such a civilization as for 
genuine worth, match it what country can? 

From what has been said of the book the tone of the 
whole may be gathered. The style is accurate, exact, com- 
pact, nervous and new. It wastes no words in description. 
Adjectives are scarce, and such as appear are not worn with 
use. ' ' Purposeful, " " forceful, " " wasteful, ' ' and the like, 
and the idiom, "the while," are favorites, occurring quite 
often. 

The book is small in size, containing about three hun- 
dred pages. Its generic name is ' ' Epochs of American 
History." 

It is not, in any sense, a compilation. It is the cream 
of the thoughts of a scholar on America. To follow the 
thread of thought one must have an extensive acquaint- 
ance with American history. To group and mass and 
suggest and not to explain is the undertaking. 

Authors, about to publish, can do no better than study 
the excellent arrangement of the book. What with sug- 
gestive catch-words, a complete index, full marginal 
analyses, and thought-provoking, epoch-marking maps, the 
heart of the book is not difficult to find. 



A View of Goldzvin Smith's Book. 187 

Mr. Wilson is in no sense a partisan. He does not have 
a care that the Whig dogs get the best of it. 

While he has omitted occasionally to cast the money 
changers out of the temple, still he has on the whole pro- 
duced a just book and a fair, from whose pages the New 
England youth will read many statements, new, no doubt, 
to them, but true and luciferous. 

Robert W. Winston. 



A VIEW OF GOLDWIN SMITH'S BOOK.* 

In Japan the greatest artists make their drawings with 
the fewest lines, and it is surprising how much they can 
express with a few strokes of a pencil. I recall a picture 
of a horse drawn with seven strokes of the artist's finger- 
nail dipped in ink, and with a few touches of a wide brush 
for the mane and tail. The drawing is strong and vigorous, 
sure to attract, yet with all its strength the picture is not 
a true one. Mr. Goldwin Smith's book has impressed 
me very much as the Japanese artist's seven-stroke horse 
did. It has strength and characteristic vigor, and puts 
many things in a new and interesting light. It sketches 
with a few bold and dashing strokes, and in the brief space 
of about three hundred pages, the gist of our political his- 
tory for four hundred years, from 1492 to 1872. So the 
strokes be strong it matters little if the book be not free 
from minor errors of fact. He has written as if he feared 
a search for facts might spoil his vigorous spontaneity. 

The book can hardly be called a history in this age of 



*The United States: An Outline of Political History, 1492-1872. By Goldwin Smith , 
D. C. I,. 12 mo., pp. x, 312, $2.00. New York: Macmillan & Co. 



1 88 University Magazine. 

scientific accuracy and scholarly criticism, and yet I con- 
fess that the absence of the dry-as-dust modern historical 
method constitutes for me the book's chief charm. It is 
hard to say whether it shows more of the author's national 
characteristics or of his personal peculiarities. His view 
is always that of the Briton, and his cynicism makes him 
find in American history numerous texts from which to 
preach on every disagreeable subject which he delights to 
handle. His portraits and characterizations of public men 
are particularly strong, however unfair we may think them, 
and they cannot fail to prove interesting as showing us our 
heroes as they appear in the eyes of the British moralizer. 
Hear what he says of Benjamin Franklin, "an offspring of 
New England Puritanism grown mellow": 

His commercial shrewdness, his practical inventiveness, his funda- 
mental integrity, his public spirit, his passion for improvement, were 
native to his community in the phase which it had now reached, no less 
than were his "Poor Richard" philosophy of life and the absence in him 
of anything spiritual or romantic. He it was who in his boyhood had 
suggested to his father that much time might be saved by saying grace at 
once over the whole barrel of red herrings. 

His sneers at Samuel Adams and at Patrick Henry will 
be hard for Americans to understand. Of Samuel Adams 
he says: 

This man had failed in business as a malster and as a tax-collector, and 
has found a shrine in American history as a patriot saint. Though an 
enthusiast he was not wanting in the astuteness of the politician. The 
latest of his American biographers cannot help surmising that his puritan 
conscience must have felt a twinge in the very time at which he had 
devoted himself, body and soul, to breaking the link that bound America 
to England, he was coining for this or that body phrases full of reverence 
for the king and rejecting the thought of independence. 

Of Patrick Henry he says: 

This man had tried various ways of earning a livelihood and had failed 
in all. He was bankrupt at twenty-three, and lounged in thriftless idle- 



A View of Goldwin Smitli 1 s Book. 189 

ness till he found that though he could not live by industry, he could live 
by his eloquent tongue. * * * Henry's first exploit as a barrister was 
a successful defense of the spoliation of the clergy, an unpopular order, 
by an appeal to public passion against legal right. Civil discord brought 
him at once to the front. * * * It is no wonder that Patrick Henry 
could so vividly portray to his audience the attitude of a slave. From the 
beginning to the end of his life he was a slaveholder, he bought slaves, he 
sold slaves, and by his will, with his cattle, he bequeathed slaves. A 
eulogist says of him that he could buy or sell a horse or a negro as well 
as anybody. That he was in some degree conscious of the inconsistency 
does not alter the fact. Other patriot orators besides Patrick Henry, when 
they lavished the terms slave and slavery in their revolutionary harangues, 
might have reflected that they had only to look round them in order to 
see what real slaves and slavery were. 

He has drawn a strong, though hardly fair and accurate, 
picture of Andrew Jackson, "the Congressman from 
Tennessee, of gaunt frame and grim aspect, with elf-locks 
hanging over his face and his hair tied behind in an eel 
skin, and so hot in temper that when he tried to speak his 
utterance was choked by passion": 

Jackson, although he had once been in Congress, and had vented his 
jealous spleen on Washington, was a fighter, with an iron will and great 
powers of command, ill educated, destitute of the knowledge and the 
habits of a statesman, with an uncontrolled temper, and almost as much 
swayed by passion as any Indian chief, though, like many an Indian 
chief, he could bear himself with dignity and even with grace. That he 
had beaten the British at New Orleans was his title to the headship of 
the nation. * * * But a greater force even than that of military 
renown was bearing on Andrew Jackson to the Presidency. Hitherto the 
Republic had not been democratic. The common people had been con- 
tent with their votes and had left government to an aristocracy of intellect 
drawn largely from the bar. But they desired to govern. They were 
beginning to suspect that they were fooled by intellect and to wish to see 
one of themselves in power. Andrew Jackson was one of themselves; 
he was not only the old hero, but "Old Hickory," a plain, honest man who 
would govern by a good, homely rule, sweep away abuses, and see that no 
more tricks were played by superior cunning upon the people. To rule, 
a multitude must be incarnate in a man, and the American multitude was 
incarnate in Andrew Jackson. 



190 University Magazine. 

Continuing, Mr. Smith says of the inauguration of Jack- 
sonian rule: 

The seat of government, having been stormed by General Jackson and 
his train, was at once given up to pillage. * * * A ruthless proscrip- 
tion swept the Civil Service to make places for Jackson's political soldiery. 
* * * No merit or record would save you. * * * Those who could 
get access to Jackson had a chance of escaping by appeals to his vanity. 
One official is said to have saved his head by begging for the old hero's 
old pipe. Thus was inaugurated the spoils system, together with the trade 
of place-hunting, by a President who came probably with a sincere desire 
of clearing government from corruption and of making simple honesty 
the rule, and of whom it must in justice be said that his own hands were 
perfectly clean. * * * • * * 

After the inauguration came a reception. There was orange punch by 
the barrelful, but as the waiters opened the door a rush was made, the 
glasses were broken, the pails of liquor were upset, and the semblance of 
order could be restored only by carrying tubs of punch into the garden 
to draw off the crowd from the rooms. Men stood in muddy boots on the 
damask-covered chairs to get a sight of the President. "The reign of 
King Mob seemed triumphant, " says Judge Story, who was glad to escape 
from the scene. 

Mr. Smith's estimate of Henry Clay falls far short of 
the traditional one: 

Clay was perhaps the first consummate party leader of the Congressional 
and platform type. He was a paragon of the personal fascination now 
styled magnetism. Magnetic, indeed, his manner and voice must have 
been if they could make the speeches that he has left us pass for the most 
cogent reasoning and the highest eloquence. * * * His power of 
winning the hearts of men was unique. When at last he missed his prize 
by losing the election for the Presidency his partisans wept like children; 
one of them is said to have died of grief. He was ardently patriotic, 
after the war-hawk fashion, but the Presidency was always in his thoughts 
and its attraction accounts for the perturbations of his political orbit. He 
said that he would rather be right than be President; but it has been too 
truly remarked that even at the moment of that memorable utterance he 
was thinking more of being President than of being right. His policy 
and sentiments were intensely American, and by the cosmopolitans would 
now be designated as jingo. 



A View of Goldwin Smith" 1 s Book. 191 

What he says of Washington agrees more nearly with 
the generally accepted opinion, though he closes his esti- 
mate in these words: 

Some American writers seem anxious to prove that Washington's 
character is essentially different from that of an English gentleman. 
About this we need not dispute. The character of an English gentleman 
is certainly devoid of any traits that might be derived either from a planta- 
tion or from a war with Indians in the backwoods. Yet an English gen- 
tleman sees in Washington his ideal as surely as he does not see it in 
Franklin, Samuel Adams, or Patrick Henry. 

It is upon Lincoln that the author bestows his most un- 
stinted and heart-felt praise: 

Abraham Lincoln is assuredly one of the marvels of history. No land 
but America has produced his like. This destined chief of a nation in 
its most perilous hour was the son of a thriftless and wandering settler, 
bred in the most sordid poverty. * * * He had a strong and eminently 
fair understanding, with great powers of patient thought, which he culti- 
vated by the study of Euclid. In all his views there was a simplicity 
which had its source in the simplicity of his character. * * * Both as 
an advocate and as a politician he was "honest Abe." As an advocate he 
would throw up his brief when he knew that his case was bad. * * * 
He said himself that he had not controlled events, but had been guided 
by them. To know how to be guided by events, however, if it is not 
imperial genius is practical wisdom. Lincoln's goodness of heart, his 
sense of duty, his unselfishness, his freedom from vanity, his long suffer- 
ing, his simplicity, were never disturbed either by power or by opposi- 
tion. * * * To the charge of levity no man could be less open. 
Though he trusted in Providence, care for the public and sorrow for the 
public calamities filled his heart and sat visibly upon his brow. His state 
papers are excellent, not only as public documents, but as compositions, 
and are distinguished by their depth of human feeling and tenderness 
from those of other statesmen. He spoke always from his own heart to 
the heart of the people. His brief funeral oration over the graves of those 
who had fallen in the war is one of the gems of the language. 

The extracts serve to give the general tone of the book. 
It is well worth reading by those who are already familiar 
with our history; and there is so much. in it that is true 



192 University Magazine. 

that we regret the author's inability to rise above prejudice 
and leave off preaching against Americans for forgetting 
their debt to the mother country, against the sin of the 
War of 181 2 and of the Revolution, against the Irish- 
Americans, the evils of slavery, and the iniquities of the 
tariff — all very well in the Toronto Globe, or in any other 
political newspaper, but decidedly out of place in a book 
of facts covering our political history. The author's chief 
mistake is in judging men apart from their environment 
and by nineteenth century standards. Collier Cobb. 



PROGRESS OF SCIENCE. • 

ARTIFICIAL PRODUCTION OF PETROLEUM. 

This source of great wealth, with its special scientific 
interest, is widely distributed. The question of how it was 
originally formed in nature has been discussed very often 
in the last few years, but has never been satisfactorily 
determined. 

The theories of its origin suggested by Reichenbach, 
Berthelot, Mendel ejeff and others made no attempt to 
account for the exceeding variety in its chemical composi- 
tion, in its specific gravity, its boiling point, etc. 

Berthelot and Mendelejeff, upholding the chemist view, 
ascribe the origin to the action of chemical force on inor- 
ganic matter, while Peckham, Ross and other geologists 
ascribe it to organic matter. 

Sokoloff thinks that petroleum was produced during the 
period of the formation of our planet, out of cosmical 
hydrocarbons, which in the beginning dissolved in the 
softness, separated from it later on. 



Progress of Science. 193 

The theory advanced by Mendelejeff, and one that has 
received much attention, was that petroleum is never of 
organic origin, but purely a product of a reaction between 
inorganic substances. He assumed that water, entering 
by fissures and chasms the interior of the earth, came in 
contact with melting carbide of iron, and produced in a 
simple manner oxide of iron and the hydrocarbons of 
petroleum. 

Strong objection cannot be made to these two theories 
from the chemical stand-point, but the composition of the 
different kinds of petroleum is against them, and geology 
considers them not free from objection. 

For a series of years the idea that petroleum was pro- 
duced from the remains of plants by a kind of a distilla- 
tion process was generally adopted, especially by chemists. 
Chemical and geological reasons are against this theory. 
From the chemical stand-point it seems quite impossible 
that the substance of the plants could be split up by distilla- 
tion into petroleum without leaving charcoal or coke. 
There would be a genetic connection between coal and petro- 
leum, but in occurrences of the ordinary kind coal is nearly 
always absent. If such was the case, there ought to be with 
every oil occurrence in close connection a coal bank, which 
really seldom happens. 

The idea that remains of animals form the raw materials 
from which petroleum is formed in nature is defended by 
many prominent scientific men on geological grounds. 
There are many facts proving the decay of masses of 
animals, which we find now in banks, in the crust of the 
earth, in the form of the remains of shells, fishes, etc. 

Many years ago Warren and Stover obtained from the 
distillate of fish oil almost all the hydrocarbons which 
have been discovered in the petroleum of Pennsylvania — - 



194 University Magazine. 

not only illuminating oils are produced, but also the lighter 
hydrocarbons which compose gasoline, benzine, etc. 

More recently Dr. Bngles produced by distillation of 
fish oil and synthetical triolein, under a pressure of several 
atmospheres, a quantity of artificial petroleum. 

The artificial petroleum, which was described as a 
merely colorless, flourescent liquid, apparently resembling 
ordinary American kerosene in physical characters, was 
not only examined chemically, but was obtained in suffi- 
cient quantity to admit of its being practically tested by 
burning in lamps in comparison with the Pennsylvania 
petroleum of commerce, and its illuminating power was 
found to be high in relation to the consumption of oil. 

Many thousand salt-water fishes, and also shells, have 
been distilled under strong pressure — the result being a 
liquid containing most nitrogenous bases, which was little 
or not at all similar to petroleum. Some experiments of 
Wetherill and Gregory showed that the wax found in 
cadavers was nothing else than the fatty residue which 
remains after the putrefaction of all the other animal mat- 
ter. It is also well known that even fossil bones frequently 
contain fat. 

Could not the process in nature have been a similar one? 
Should not, first of all,' the nitrogenated animal substance 
have been destroyed, leaving the fat, which was then 
transformed into oil? This was proved chemically pos- 
sible by Dr. Engles, who submitted animal fat to distilla- 
tion under a pressure of 25 atmospheres at a moderate heat 
(300-400 C), and under favorable conditions 70 per cent, 
of the animal fat was transformed into petroleum. This 
equals 90 per cent, of the theoretical output. Besides the oil 
some water and combustible gas was always formed. The 
same behavior has been shown by other fats, like butter, 



Progress of Science. 195 

the fat of hogs, artificial fats, as well as the chemically 
pure glycerids of the fats like triolein, tri-stearin and the 
free . fatty acids. All have been transformed into petro- 
leum by distillation under pressure when managed in the 
proper way. 

To recapitulate: It is a geological fact that we find in 
nature the remains of animals, as shells, fishes, etc., 
accumulated in masses. Whether these animals have been 
piled up in consequence of a natural superproduction in 
special places in the ocean, or by currents, or in conse- 
quence of great revolutions of the earth, this must be 
decided by geology; however the remains exist. 

We know that animal substance consists essentially of 
nitrogenated material and fat; that the former is easily 
decomposed, while the latter is very stable, a fact which 
has been well known for many years; therefore this 
accounts for the fat in the bones of mammals thousands of 
years old. Whether and how far the fat was decomposed 
in this long period, the water splitting up glycerol and 
forming the free acid, cannot be answered. Both fat as 
well as the fatty acids form petroleum when distilled under 
pressure. 

We can imagine that such remains wrapped in mud and 
transported by the currents in the ocean easily accumulate, 
and later on, under the pressure of sedimentary layers or 
strata, perhaps also under the influence of heat, are trans- 
formed into petroleum. 

This is only one of the many possibilities by which the 
mechanical process of the transmutation of fat into petro- 
leum may have happened. 

Under any circumstances, Dr. Engles has proven that, 
from a chemical stand-point, the formation of petroleum 



196 University Magazine. 

from animal remains has the greatest probability, as we are 
now able to transform every animal fat into petroleum. 

No doubt in a few years the artificial production will be 
carried on, as the natural wells, especially those of Ohio, 
seem to be gradually giving out. 

William Rand Kenan, '94. 



THE RALEIGH FORT ON ROANOKE ISLAND. 

An association, which should enlist the aid and interest 
of all North Carolinians, has lately been formed, composed 
of residents of this State, with some native North Caro- 
linians residing in Baltimore, having for its object the pur- 
chase and proper preservation of the site of the fort con- 
structed on Roanoke Island in 1585 by the first of Sir 
Walter Raleigh's colonists on that island. 

The association has been incorporated, and among the 
corporators are Hon. David Schenck, Bishop Joseph B. 
Cheshire, General Rufus Barringer, Mrs. Sallie S. Cotten, 
of Frankland ; Prof. Edward G. Daves and Dr. Boykin, of 
Baltimore ; Messrs. Pruden & Vann and Frank Wood, of 
Edenton ; Major Graham Daves, of Newbern, and others. 
The purchase of "Old Fort Raleigh" and of the Dough 
farm, a tract of about two hundred and forty acres of land 
adjoining, without which the site of the fort could not be 
had, has been agreed upon, the cos^: to be $1,500, about 
half of which sum has already been provided for. 



The Raleigh Fort on Roanoke Island. 197 

Upon or near the site of the fort it is intended to erect 
a fitting memorial, and to preserve in other appropriate 
way this scene of the first known attempt at settlement in 
America of the Anglo-Saxon race, of the birth of the first 
white child in the United States, and of the first perform- 
ance of Christian rites within their original limits by the 
baptisms of Virginia Dare and of the friendly Indian 
chief, Manteo, more than twenty years before that of Poca- 
hontas at Jamestown. 

In furtherance of the objects of the association, Prof. 
Edward G. Daves will shortly, in lectures to be delivered 
at different places in the State — among them one probably 
at Chapel Hill — explain fully what is purposed, and will 
recount the interesting history and incidents of the several 
attempts at the early settlement of our State. It is not 
too much to ask that a generous response be made to the 
efforts of the association to obtain the amount necessary 
to carry out its praiseworthy undertaking, especially as 
most of the funds as yet contributed have come from patri- 
otic citizens of other States, and if the whole sum required 
be not secured by May next, the opportunity may be lost, 
and what has been done go for naught. The association 
asks but little, and we hope it will be as successful as it 
deserves. 

The fort — the shape, size and outlines of which are 

still easily and distinctly traceable — is situated about three 

miles north of Manteo, the county town of Dare county, 

in the north-east corner of Roanoke Island, near the shore 

5 



198 University Magazine. 

of Roanoke Sound, and the situation, when cleared, will 
command fine views of Currituck and Roanoke Sounds, 
of Nag's Head, the "Banks," and of the ocean beyond. 
The farm is favorably located for "truck" farming, has 
excellent fisheries, and is said to be a very good purchase 
irrespective of its historical associations. 



BOOK NOTICES. 

Life and Art of Edwin Booth. By William Winter. 
Illustrated with twelve full-page portraits in character, 
reproduced by E. Bierstadt, and other illustrations. Crown 
8-vo., pp. 308, $2.25. New York: Macmillan & Co. 

This book is a striking tribute to the great player from 
one who knew him well, and who therefore loved him well. 
No man was more closely intimate with Edwin Booth than 
Mr. William Winter, and there is hardly another so well 
qualified by theatrical experience and literary skill to do 
justice to his subject. The book can hardly be called a 
critical estimate of the actor; it is rather a picture of the 
man, a man whom misfortunes could not sour, but rather mel- 
lowed, whom triumphs always brightened and never spoiled, 
in every circumstance of life commanding the respect and 
esteem of his fellows. He never gave his public what he 
thought a public might demand, but always what he knew 
they ought to have, and brought them then to like it. 
Edwin Booth was in many ways a Phillips Brooks sort of 
man, and any young man who adds this book to his library 
cannot but be benefited by being drawn nearer to a pure 
and noble man. 

Princeton Sketches. By George R. Wallace. 8-vo., 
pp. vii, 200, $2.00. New York: G. P. Putnam' 1 s Sons. 

The story of Nassau Hall is quite interestingly told in 
this charming book by a Princeton man. We have just 
enjoyed " Harvard Stories," and now we are greeted with 
"Princeton Sketches." The author gives us a good view 
of the history of old Nassau from its opening on through 
the old colony days and the Revolution, down through the 
presidency of Dr. McCosh. The historical matter, inter- 
esting in itself, is enlivened by many anecdotes and stories, 
and by the warm, vigorous style of the writer. Though 
the whole book is interesting, we must mention especially 
the chapters on "The Halls" and "Under the Elms," 
which give us a good idea of the student-life in its various 
phases, social, literary and athletic. We see the great 



200 University Magazine. 

interest of the students in literary lines and in athletics, 
while the social duties are not neglected. Another chap- 
ter, on the Princeton idea, is aglow with the author's 
enthusiasm, and is well written. The book contains num- 
erous beautiful illustrations, mainly pictures of the build- 
ings and campus, besides many portraits and facsimiles of 
interesting documents. 

The Private Life of the Romans. 12 mo., 160 pp., 
with an appendix, $1.25. By Preston and Dodge. New 
York : Leach, Shewell & Sanborn. 

The private life of the Romans, which is so full of inter- 
est to every student of the classics, has been treated of freely 
and fully by the best scholars. But as the better works 
are in German, they remain a "sealed book " to the average 
college student. Some brief but discriminating manual is 
needed which will give us the main facts of the Roman 
life. Such a work is supplied by the little volume under 
consideration. It is compiled from the latest and best 
German authorities on the subject, and their results, freed 
from matters of detail, are given in a very satisfactory 
manner. The volume treats of the family, the daily life, 
the habits, amusements, etc., of the Romans; besides this 
valuable tables of weights and the like are appended. 
We think this book will prove of great service to the gen- 
eral reader as well as to the student. 

Principles of Procedure in Deliberative Bodies. By 
George Glover Crocker, President of the Massachusetts 
Senate. 18-mo. , pp. 168, 75 cents. New York: G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. 

This little manual gives those general principles of pro- 
cedure applicable to deliberative bodies, with which every 
college man, not to say every citizen of even ordinary 
intelligence, should be familiar. For every legislator or 
municipal officer a thorough knowledge of these general 
principles is indispensable. We heartily commend* the 
book. 



AMONG THE MAGAZINES. 

HOLLAND M. THOMPSON. 

The Harper is not what might be expected as the Christmas number of 
that excellent magazine. "The Old Dominion," by Thomas Nelson 
Page, is probably the leading article. Mr. C. S. Reinhart is illustrator 
and does his part in his usual good style. Without Mr. Page's statement 
we can easily learn, by reading the article, that he is a Virginian, a real ante- 
bellum F. F. V. In his eyes our Presidential mother has no peer among her 
sister States. She is faultless, perfect, and not to be compared with any 
except those States which were settled by Virginians. There are no virtues 
that she does not possess and she is subject to no vices. It may be con- 
sidered praiseworthy in Mr. Page to thus glorify his native State, but all of 
us cannot appreciate it, especially as we think that some other States have a 
record of which to be proud. Possibly we are a little jealous. Some of 
the charm of Mr. Page's more unaffected work is lost in this studied 
eulogy. There are some writers, as, for instance, Robert Grant, who 
could have made the article delightful, but Mr. Page is not one of them. 
A large part of it is quotable, so much in fact that I refrain altogether. 
Braruler Matthews begins his "Vignettes of Manhattan" with "A 
Thanksgiving Diuner. " It is a well-told story. E. A. Abbey and A. 
Lang illustrate and comment on "Two Gentlemen of Verona," their 
eleventh collaboration of Shakspere's comedies in Harper's. 

Encouraged by the success of the World's Fair number in September, 
the Cosmopolitan for December is an "After the World's Fair " issue. 
Most of the articles are concerned with the last views of the great wonder. 
The illustrations are much better than the text. They are numerous and 
of every sort, drawn by such men as Remington, Reinhart, Small, 
Gibson, Kemble, Knight, Dan Beard, Attwood and others. One can sit 
for hours studying the different types of our countrymen so faithfully 
presented. Mark Twain has an interesting story "Traveling with a 
Reformer," and Walter Besant continues his "American Notes." He 
says that he has found out two things by coming to America : (i) that 
America is really a new country, having all characteristics of youth, 
and (2) that the reason why the American flag is flaunted on every occa- 
sion is to grind the idea of federation and union into the very life of the 
people. He says further that these two things change his point of view 
entirely and make hirn proud of America. 



202 University Magazine. 

The old Atlantic is too staid and dignified to make any unusual prepa- 
ration for the holidays. It is the December and not a Christmas number 
that we have before us. There are several short papers of interest, though 
the continued stories are dull. Lafcadio Hearn writes of "The Eternal 
Feminine." It is a study of the difference between Japanese and 
Western civilization. He says that the Japanese are much more imagina- 
tive and emotional than they are given credit for being, though until you 
can get to their point of view they seem materialistic. The germ of the 
differences is in a different idea of the relations of the sexes. Bradford 
Torrey contributes another paper on "Nature's Aspects in Florida." 
This time it is the birds that are noticed. It is exact enough for the 
scientist and yet pleasant enough for the ordinary reader. There are 
several other articles of more than ordinary interest. 

A new exchange is McClure's Magazine. The December number, per- 
haps, has as many striking articles as any magazine. It begins with a 
strong paper on Archdeacon Farrar, which gives a glimpse at the home- 
life of that remarkable man. "Human Documents" is the title of a 
series of photographic groups now appearing. The ones in this number 
consist of photographs, taken at different ages from childhood up, of 
W. T. Stead, Whitelaw Reid and William McKinley. Professor Henry 
Drumroond tells of the influence which has been exerted upon boys by 
military discipline and drill. A crowd of street Arabs were taken, or 
rather came of their own free will, to learn military tactics. The changes 
made were remarkable. Travel, biography and fiction make up the 
remainder of the contents. If this periodical continues to make such 
strides as it has made it will soon be entitled to be ranked among the 
great magazines. 

The latest copy of the Southern Magazine is the best we have seen. 
Apparently it has passed the experimental stage. Two or three articles 
in dialect are only fairly done, while "A Morning Concert," by Margaret 
Minor, is well written. The longest article, however, is "The South in 
American Literature," by John Richard Meader. It is a somewhat dis- 
passionate, yet appreciative, review of the work of the section. No writer 
is praised simply because he belongs to the favored laud, but faults are 
mentioned freely. In conclusion, he says: 

"In reaching a final result of this study I have taken every fact into 
consideration, and I think that all who have followed me will bear me out 
when I say that of all the sons of the South who have obtained recogni- 
tion in the fields of literature at least four may be said to be assured a 
permanent reputation — a position among "The Immortals." While the 
South may be proud of all of her brilliant sons, it is for Edgar Allan Poe, 
Paul Hamilton Hayne, Sidney Lanier and Joel Chandler Harris that she 
must reserve her highest honors." 



Among the Magazines. 203 

THE COLLEGE MAGAZINES. 

The Nassau Literary Monthly, or otherwise the Lit, for November is 
belated and comes after November is gone. The Lit is justly considered 
one of Princeton's particular glories. As a trainer in English Composi- 
sition we should say that it is a success. "Old Nassau" can show a 
good magazine as well as the winning ball team. 

The University of Virginia Magazitie for October is here. This is num- 
ber one of the new volume. It is a good issue and the Virginians seem 
to be proud of it, judging from Topics. The editors say that the audience 
to which they appeal is simply the student-body and seem not to recog- 
nize the fact that there may be a broader field, which others may wish 
to reach. Its short stories are better than usually found in college maga- 
zines. 

The Red and Blue is rather anomalous. It is published twice in a 
month and tries to take the place both of a weekly and of a monthly. 
Both of Pennsylvania's papers have their hands full defending her repu- 
tation in athletics. The verse is perhaps the best feature of this publi- 
cation, though sometimes the editorials are strong. 

The Living-Stone, published by students of Livingstone College of 
Salisbury, N. C, is interesting. The December issue collects the tributes 
paid to President Price by newspapers generally. 

The Tennessee University Student will find that it cannot create college 
spirit by bewailing the lack of it. Work for Tennessee, talk for her, 
write for her, but never tell any one that her students do not appreciate 
her. 

The Southern Collegian reflects credit upon Washington and Lee. The 
fact that alumni and outsiders will read the college organ if it is worthy 
is recognized, and provision is made for them by printing work that is 
interesting to these classes. 

The Wake Forest Student is improving steadily with the new year. 
The latest number is decidedly good. Some of the departmental work is 
rather its best feature. "New Uses of Electricity" is interesting. 
Why do not members of faculties oftener give encouragement to editors, 
instead of discouraging them by every means in their power? 

The Harvard Advocate is always original and spicy. The set of 
"Harvard Types" now appearing are read with great interest by college 
men everywhere, for some, though not all the series, are seen in every 
institution. 

The Vanderbilt Observer is improved in every particular. Its editors 
usually take broad and liberal views on questions coming to their 
notice and do not condemn a thing simply because it is new or at variance 
with established ideas. The poetry department could be enlarged with 
profit. 



CURRENT COMMENT. 

CASWELL ELLIS. 

Presuming That our other good resolutions for the year are already- 
broken and that we are ready for something new, we would modestly sug- 
gest that all students resolve to furnish their rooms more comfortably and 
keep them neater and brighter. The introduction of the extravagant 
habits, prevalent at most Northern institutions, would do great harm, but. 
making the rooms more attractive and adding other comforts would tend 
to raise the tone of the student-body. The man has little to attract him 
to his room or to increase his respectability who sleeps on a tumbled 
down, soiled bed, washes his face in a rusty tin pan, and sits in a room 
ornamented alone by a pile of dirty, foul-smelling wood and a corner cur- 
tained off with fancy calico, while groups of cigarette pictures or equally 
elevating chromos adorn the walls. With very little expense and care 
our rooms can be made thoroughly comfortable and somewhat attractive. 
All this has a refining influence that college boys need. The campus and 
scenery around here are both inspiring and elevating, and it is simply 
beastly to live in such dens as some of us occupy. 

The foot-ball interest has given place to base-ball. This spring's 
team bids fair to win. We have, without a doubt, the best battery in a 
Southern college. Several of the old team are back, and good material 
is ready to be developed. Captain Robertson has no superior in any col- 
lege as fielder, and has had experience in training men. The foot-ball 
season brought us quite a disappointment, for our team was very strong, 
but, when most needed, one or two of our best men were nursing sprains. 
However, our training has taught us to take with equanimity victory or 
defeat. Last year we bore victory as became men, and now we can stand 
our defeat and grit our teeth for the next contest. The idle babble about 
the team's being seriously injured for life is all bosh. True, several men 
were hurt and retired temporarily. A man who has a slight sprain is unfit 
to contend against a perfectly sound one. There is not a single man here 
who played foot-ball that has any permanent injury, or who was not able 
to attend to his duties the day he returned from Richmond. That foot- 
ball should degenerate in some sections is not without parallel, but the 
game as encouraged at Chapel Hill, and in nearly every other respectable 
institution, is manly. 



Current Comment. 205 

WE welcome the breaking away from traditional methods and adoption 
of sound, progressive ideas in our primary schools. One of the best we 
have noticed is teaching the handling of English, and how to write freshly 
and pointedly, by means of writing newspaper articles on current events 
instead of compositions on George Washington and Julius Csesar. The 
Goldsboro Graded School now publishes a bi-weekly paper, The Round 
Table, gotten out exclusively by the students, under the supervision of 
the instructors. The articles are bright and well written, and show plainly 
that English can be taught in this practical way. The paper reflects 
credit upon the school, and Superintendent Howell shows that he is even 
ahead of the University in recognizing in a practical way that the best 
way to prepare a man to write available English is to make him practice 
it under intelligent supervision. Here all one gets from the faculty for 
work on the Magazine; is abuse, if it is not up to their standard, and 
sneering remarks when it is suggested that some credit be given for the 
thought and time put on this work. It does seem that the work must be 
worth something or nothing. If worth nothing, then abolish it, and 
don't have seven men wasting so much time on it. If really of some 
value, it is but fair that this should be given some credit along with essay 
writing and such work. 



COLLEGE RECORD. 

FRED. L. CARR. 

The re-roofing of the college buildings continues. The library has 
been covered, and the other building will be finished during the spring. 

The park has been considerably enlarged so as to allow more extended 
preparation for athletic exercises henceforth. 

Timber supports have been put up for the two large tanks on the 
fourth floor of the South Building. The braces extend to the first floor, 
and prevent the possibility of an accident. 

President Winston and Dr. Battle delivered eulogies on the late 
Bishop Lyinan at the Episcopal church on Sunday night, December 
17. 1893. 

The young ladies of Durham, assisted by several of the students, gave 
a very pleasant concert in the Chapel Thursday night, November 30th, for 
the benefit of the Presbyterian church. We give the programme as ren- 
dered : 

Part I. 

n J Messrs. Hampton, McRae, Blair, 

1. urchestra j Roberson and Mangum. 

2. Recitation — Selected Miss Morgan. 

3. Piano Solo — Fantasia No. 24 (C. Moll., Mozart) Miss Par risk. 

4. Vocal Duet — Echoes Misses Morgan and Woodward. 

5. Song — Banjo Accompaniment Mr. Blair. 

6. Violin Duet Messrs. Hampton and McRae. 

Part II. 

T rwr.^^™^ t 4- xt; u* (Messrs. Cooke, Mc A lister, 

1. QuARTETTE-LastNtght \Roberson and McKenzie. 

2. Recitation — Selected '- Miss Roberts. 

3. Vocal Solo — 'Tis Not True Miss Woodward. 

4. Recitation — Selected Miss Morgan. 

5. Banjo Selection Mr. Blair. 

r a,.™-,,^, I Messrs. Hampton, McRae, Blair, 

b. urchestra i Roberson, and Mangum. 

The recitations of Miss Morgan and the singing of Miss Woodward were 
much appreciated. R. W. Blair, with his banjo and comic songs, furn- 
ished much amusement, and was frequently encored. 

FOOT-BALL. 

University vs. Lehigh, New York, November 25. The team left for 
New York Thursday, November 23d, where they played the Lehigh eleven 
on the following Saturday. The game was played at Manhattan Field 
before a small but appreciative crowd. The Carolinians were no match 



College Record. 207 

for the sturdy Yankees. They were lacking in proper coaching, having 
no knowledge of the science of the game. Quick play was the order of 
the day. The score was Lehigh, 34; University of North Carolina, o. 

University of North Carolina vs. University of Virginia, Richmond, 
November 30. The final game for the championship of the South was 
played at Island Park, Richmond, November 30. The Viginians were victo- 
rious, winning by a score of 16 too. Though the Carolinians did not win the 
game they won the admiration of the spectators by their pluck and con- 
stancy. The park was too small to hold the immense crowd that came 
pouring from all quarters to witness the game. Excitement was intense, 
and everywhere was a perfect blaze of color — white and blue — orange and 
blue. As to the game, it was the hardest fought contest ever seen on a 
Richmond field, thought it was evident from the first that the Virginians 
were the stronger. Every inch was hotly contested, both sides avoiding 
the other's center and aiming at the tackles. Every man played hard, 
but Kirkpatrick deserves special mention. For Virginia the playing was 
done by Harper, Jones and Johnson. 

Last Sunday afternoon (December 10th) Dr. Kemp P. Battle, of the 
University, delivered a notable address at the rooms of the Young Men's 
Christian Association, in this city, on St. Paul. It is matter of congratu- 
lation that laymen like Dr. Battle and Judge Dick are willing to give the 
public freely the benefit of their researches and study of subjects which 
are generally left only to the ministers to discourse upon. The audience 
on this occasion was remarkably full, every available seat being occupied, 
and all enjoyed the address as a rare literary treat, while appreciating its 
excellence as a most instructive and valuable exposition of the subject. 
Dr. Battle evidently had given unusual research and study to its prepara- 
tion, and threw new light on the character of the most remarkable figure 
among the apostles. 

He dwelt on Paul's literary attainments, and sketched with vigor his 
great work as an Apostle to the Gentiles. His speech on Mars Hill, Dr. 
Battle analyzed with great effect, portraying the marvellous skill and the 
strength and the wonderful wisdom of Paul in making his argument 
effective. The Doctor presented the subject in a novel aspect, and those 
who were fortunate enough to hear him will long remember the occasion 
with pleasure, while feeling that St. Paul and his writings will ever pos- 
sess additional interest because of the information and instruction received 
from Dr. Battle. — News Observer-Chronicle. 

ALUMNI NOTES. 

George Gordon Battle (i88i-'82) is Assistant District Attorney at New 
York City. 
John Sprunt Hill, 1889, is in W. G. Peckham's law office, New York. 



208 University Magazine. 

George Holmes, Med., 1893, is pursuing his course in Baltimore. 

John S. Cunningham (i878-'7q) has been appointed State delegate to 
the National Farmers' Congress to be held at Savannah, Ga. 

The Washington, D. C, Evening Star has this to say of W. G. Ran- 
dall, 1884: "Mr. W. G. Randall's work is also universally clever, though 
lacking many of the opportunities enjoyed by other artists. Mr. Ran- 
dall has so utilized his American prerogatives that his work, particularly 
in portraiture, compares most favorably with that of older and much 
more experienced men. Much of his work is in North Carolina, where 
he has distinguished himself by his portraits of prominent State officials. 
He is just now engaged on a life-sized painting of the late Chief Justice 
Merrimon of that State, and also a large canvas of Miss Herbert, 
daughter of Secretary Herbert, which promises to be one of his most 
successful productions. ' ' 

MARRIAGES. 

J. A. Wilson, Law, 1893, was married to Miss Dassiter, near Smithfield, 
N. C, on Tuesday, November 21. 

Joseph Crudup, Law, 1892, was married to Miss Ruefry, at High Point, 
November 16. 

L. B. Grandy, 1886, was married to Miss Hattie Smart, at Atlanta, Ga., 
on December 13. 

J. R. Monroe (1885), of Brooklyn, N. Y., was married to Miss M. Ella 
Brown, at Asheville, N. C, December 29th, 1893. 

DEATHS. 

Major R. W. York, Daw, 1867, died at his home in Chatham county, 
Wednesday, November 22. 

Alfred D. Jones (1876-78), United States Consul-General to Shanghai, 
died on Saturday, December 9. He had been sick for some time and 
was coming home on a sick leave of absence. He became rapidly worse, 
and died on the passage. 

J. J. Summerell, 1842, died at Salisbury, N. C, Sunday, December 17, 
1893, aged 74 years. Dr. Summerell was a native of Northampton 
county. While at Chapel Hill he became engaged to Eleanor, the second 
daughter of Professor Elisha Mitchell, whom he married soon after gradua- 
tion. 

James A. Delke, 1841, A. M., LL. D., died at Conway, S. C, November 
26, 1893. Professor Delke was a native of Virginia, and was for more 
than fifty years a teacher. He occupied a professorship in Union Univer- 
sity, Tennessee, and was at one time Professor of Belles-lettres in Chowan 
Baptist Female Institute. He was a poet of no mean ability. 



UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



FACULTY. 

George Tayloe Winston, LL. D., President, and. Professor of Political and 
Social Science. 

Kemp Plummer Battle, LL. D., Professor of History. 

Francis Preston Venable, Ph. D., Professor of General and Analytical' 
Chemistry. 

*JosEi'H Austin Holmes, B. 3., Professor of Geology and Mineralogy. 

Joshua Walker Gore, C. E., Professor of Natural Philosophy. 

John Manning, LL. D., Professor of Law. 

Thomas Hume, D. D., LL. D., Professor of the English Language aud Litera- 
ture. 

Walter Dallam Toy, M. A., Professor of Modern Languages. 

tEben Alexander, Ph. D., LL. I)., Professor of the Greek Language aDd 
Literature. 

William Cain, C. E., Professor of Mathematics and Engineering. 

Richard Henry Whitehead, M. D., Professor of Anatomy, Physiology and 
•Materia Medica. 

Henry Horace Williams, A. M., B. D., Professor of Mental and Moral Sci- 
ence. 

Henry Van Peters Wilson, Ph. D., Professor of Biology. 

Karl Pomeroy Harrington, A. M., Professor of the Latin Languaj 
Literature. 

^Collier Cobb, A. R., Professor of Geology and Mineralogy. 

Edwin Anderson Alderman, Ph. B., Professor of the History ami E? 
phy of Education. 

Herbert Cusuing Tolman, Pn. D., Professor of Sanskrit, Acting Professor 
eek. 



INSTRUCTORS AND ASSISTANTS. 

Charles Baskerville, B. Sc, Instructor in Chemistry. 
Thomas Roswell Foust, B. E., Instructor in Mathematics. and Di 
James Thomas Pugh, A. B., Instructor in Latin. 
Charles H. White, Assistant in Physical Laboratory. 
William Rand Kenan, Jr., Assistant in Chemical Labi 



OFFICERS. 



J. W. Gore, Secretary and Registrar. 

E. A. Alderman, Librarian. 

F. C. Harding, Student Librarian. 
W. T. Patterson, Bursar. 

'State Geoi 'eave of absence from the University. 

[■Minister t Roumania and Servia. 

oft 1 IV. 



A. G. SPALDING & BROS. 



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SEND EOR OUR NEW CATALOGUES. 

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2 Q$ Madison St. 343 Broadway. 103a Chestnut St. 



ol. XIII. FEBRUARY, 1894. No. 6. 



NORTH 
CAROLINA 
UNIVERSITY 



MAGAZINE 




[Copyright, 1893, by Collier Cobb, for the Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies.] 

PRICE 25 CENTS. 






NORTH CAROLINA 

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE, 

(Foukded IN 1844). 

CONTENTS FOR FEBRUARY, 1894. 
William B. Rodman Frontispiece. 

PACK. 

Sketch of the Life of Judge Wiwam B. Rodman. Pulaski 
Cowper 209 

Heart Thoughts. A Poem. Thomas Bailey Lee, '94 225 

Life at the Naval Academy. Homer L. Ferguson, '92, U. S. N., 225 

Peace Institute. W. S. Primrose 230 

A Brief Critical Contrast of Carlyle, Macaulay and De- 
Quincey. Thomas Bailey Lee, "94 237 

Luther's Translation of the Bible. Walter D. Toy 242 

Blue and White. A Poem. Ninety-six- 

Book Notices 249 

Within College Walls — Essays in Idleness — A First Book in 
Latin — Authors and Their Public in Ancient Times. 

Literary Notes -- ,-. ; 

Among the Magazines. Holland M. Thompson, ' 95 ... ... 255 

Current Comment 260 

College Record. Fred. L. Carr, '95 263 

Shakspere Club — Philological Club — Historical Society — Elisha 
Mitchell Scientific Society — Alumni Notes — Marriages — 
Deaths. 

The University Magazine is published every month during the col- 
lege year by the Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies. 

The aim of the Magazine is, first of all, to preserve the best under- 
graduate work of our University, and to be the expression of the 
strongest and soberest thought of the University in all its departments. 
It will contain in each number an article of the more serious sort, by 
some alumnus of the University or other prominent thinker, besides 
poems, critical reviews, essays, careful book notices, and editorials on 
topics of general interest. 

Contributions are solicited from both students .and alumni, and such 
as are available will find a place in the Magazine. 

The Magazine is for sale by the booksellers of the State generally. It 
may be had at Sever's in Cambridge, Mass., and at Brentano's, New 
York. Single copies cost twenty-five cents ; the subscription price is 
one dollar and fifty cents per year. Address, 

THE UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE, 

CHAPEL HILL, 

Entered at the Chapel Hill Post-office as second-class mail mail 



PRINT6R AND BINDER, RAI.BIOH. 




?hXL> /3 » /2-AvKfcv\> 



NORTH CAROLINA 

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE 

01(1 Series, Vol. HVL Ho. 5— FEBRUARY, 1894. New Series, Vol. XIII. 



SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF JUDGE WILLIAM B. 
RODMAN. 

It is right and proper that history should preserve the 
recollection of men's lives who have served the State 
with honor and ability, and added lustre to her renown. 
It is a lesson calculated to incite an aim to earnest endeavor 
in those who succeed us, to have presented to them the 
achievements of mind and body of those who have left a 
name worthy to be recorded. 

Judge William Blount Rodman was the son of William 
Wanton Rodman, who was the son of John Rodman and 
Marcia Pell Rodman, of Pelham Manor, Westchester 
county, New York. 

William Wanton Rodman was a lawyer, and was born 
in New York. He settled in Washington, N. C. , in 1811, 
where he practised law. He married Polly Ann Blount, 
daughter of John Gray Blount, of Washington, and Judge 
Rodman was the oldest of four children, the issue of that 
marriage. William Wanton Rodman died at sea, about 
1825, while on a voyage to St. Augustine, Florida, to visit 
his brother, John Rodman, who, at that time, was Col- 
lector of that port, and who had gone there for his health. 
He had been a prominent member of the New York bar, 



2io University Magazine. 

and at one time United States District Attorney. William 
Wanton and John Rodman's Pell ancestors were an English 
family of distinction. Their Rodman ancestors were strict 
tl Friends," but these two brothers were what might be 
st}ded men of the world, and moved a great deal in society. 
They were members of the Ancient Order of Masons, and 
high degrees of that order were conferred upon them. 

John Gray Blount, the grandfather of Judge Rodman, was 
a prominent and useful citizen of his day, and the largest 
land-owner that ever lived in North Carolina. Two of 
his brothers settled in Tennessee, and one became Governor 
and the other United States Senator of that State — and the 
present Congressman from the First District, Mr. Branch, 
is a great-grandson of John Gray Blount. The oldest 
house in the town of Washington was built by John Gray 
Blount, in which he lived and died, and in which Judge 
Rodman was born, and is now the comfortable home of 
Miss Mary Marcia Blount Rodman, the only surviving 
sister of Judge Rodman, and likewise the only surviving 
child of William Wanton and Polly Ann Rodman. 

Judge Rodman was born in the town of Washington, 
N. C. , on the 29th day of June, 181 7. His teachers, 
before entering college, were Mr. George W. Freeman (an 
uncle of the late Mr. Edmund B. Freeman, late Clerk of 
our Supreme Court), afterwards Bishop Freeman, of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church; Mr. Sanford and Mr. May- 
hew. He evinced at an early age an ardent love for study, 
a quick perception, and an easy mastery of his lessons. His 
deportment was excellent, and marked for its ready obe- 
dience and respectfulness. The following note from his 
teacher, Mr. Sanford, to Mr. Blount, his grandfather, will 
be interesting reading, and will show his character and 
deportment, as a boy, and the esteem for him entertained 
by his teacher. He was not then ten years old: 



Sketch of Judge William B. Rodman. 211 

Washington Academy, May 25, 1822. 
Mr. John G. Blount, 

Sir : — Having understood that you are about to withdraw your patron- 
age from the Academy, I have taken the liberty to address you, for the 
purpose of informing you that I am grateful for the very liberal support 
you have given the institution since it has been under my charge, and 
should be pleased to have 3'ou continue it, provided you could do so con- 
scientiously. I certainly regret to lose William very much. I have 
become very much attached to him from his respectful behavior, his 
manly deportment, and his rapid progress in his studies. I have never 
been under the painful necessity of inflicting the least punishment upon 
him for improper conduct — and I presume that any candid person, who 
was acquainted with his attainments when he first commenced with me 
and is acquainted with them now, will say that he has made rapid prog- 
ress in his classical studies. When he first came to me he knew nothing 
about scanning Latin, and could translate but indifferently. He now scans 
correctly and translates fluently. I could qualify him for admission into 
any college in the United States in eighteen mouths, and if I did not I 
would refund his tuition money. He is a youth of very fine talents, and 
is an ornament to the Academy. I presume that you intend to give him a 
college education, as he certainly possesses talents worthy and susceptible 
of the highest cultivation — and I do much regret to part with him. 
I am, dear Sir, yours very respectfully, 

James I. Sanford. 
John G. Blount, Esq., Washington. 

Judge Rodman entered the University at Chapel Hill in 
1832, at the age of fifteen, and graduated in 1836, with 
the first distinction, at the age of nineteen. He was a 
close student during his collegiate course, and devoted his 
spare time to general reading. His habits and deport- 
ment, so noticeable during his school-boy days, were more 
strikingly manifested during his four years at college. He 
was a member of the Philanthropic Society, as most of the 
Eastern boys, at that time, were. Among his college class- 
mates were Ralph H. Graves, William W. Hooper, Benja- 
min I. Howse, Thomas Jones, Fred N. Williams, Henry 
K. Nash, Charles Iy. Pettigrew, Lawrence W. Scott, 
Thomas and William h. Stamps, John G. Tull. Only 



212 University Magazine. 

four of the class of 1836 now survive — Dr. W. L. Stamps, 
Henry K. Nash, Thomas Jones and John A. Downey. 
Dr. W. L. Stamps said a few days ago: "I never saw 
Judge Rodman after we left Chapel Hill, but I recollect 
well his appearance at that time. He was the brightest 
man in the class, and easily led it, taking the highest dis- 
tinction." 

In the class of 1835 was the present gifted and courtly 
editor of the Economist-Falcon, Richard Benbury Creecy, 
Esq., a close and true friend of Judge Rodman, at college 
and through life, and is, I think, the only surviving 
member of the class of 1835. Moore's History, Vol. II, 
p. 34, speaking of the Legislature of 1836, says: "In 
this Legislature was seen for the first time Frederick C." 
(probably Fenner B.) "Satterthwaite, of Beaufort, who 
was achieving position at the bar, where young William 
B. Rodman, who that year left Chapel Hill, was, ere long, 
to grow famous." Page 324, referring to a later date, 
says: "Judge Rodman is an elegant and cultivated gentle- 
man, and one of the greatest jurists in our history." 

The following letter, written by him from Chapel Hill, 
when just sixteen years of age, to his uncle, General Wil- 
liam A. Blount, who was the father of Mrs. General 
Branch, of Raleigh, and William A. Blount, Esq., of 
Beaufort county, will be read with interest. It is well 
expressed, and creditable to one of his age. It is copied 
from the original, just as written and punctuated, and there 
is not a blot on the pages, nor a word left out, or an inter- 
lineation made: 

Chapei, Hm Sept 8th 1838. 
Dear Uncle. I am ashamed to acknowledge that I have received two 
letters without having yet sent an answer. Bnt when I assure the authors 
that I snatch every seasonable moment for this most agreeable occupa- 
tion, I know they will excuse me. 



Sketch of Judge William B. Rodman. 213 

I do not wish you to judge from this that I am the hardest student in 
college by any means, for there are many here who do nothing else. On 
first seeing Chapel Hill you will undoubtedly think it one of the idlest, 
noisiest places in the world, but you will soon observe many who never 
stir out of their rooms but to their meals, and never go to sleep but with 
a book under their heads. Besides my studies the attractions of a large 
library are great, and the gentle restraint prevents your reading too much 
at one time and becoming satiated. 

The variety rather than the difficulty of our pursuits makes it necessary 
to divide time into regular and minute intervals, and these fly away much 
quicker than when it is devoted in a bulk to one object. 

It sometimes seems to be true as you have often said that in a day there 
was only time enough to get up, turn around, and go to bed again. 

If you will please to tell Aunt Patsy that her letter was unnecessary as 
I had already commenced doing what she spoke of, but that I shall never 
think myself too old to receive what she calls her lectures or too good to 
profit by them. I shall be glad to receive another though twice as long. 

I have sent copies of the Harbinger to Mrs. Grimes and yourself. 
Dr. Caldwell appears very much interested in its success. In the 2nd 
No. are a couple of articles on Gama Grass by Hardy Croom and 
Mr. Mitchell. If either of you determine on subscribing I will give your 
names to the editor. A slight shock of earthquake was felt here a few 
days ago. 

My letter is making up for being so late. Give my love to all the 
family and 

believe me your grateful and affectionate Nephew, 

Will B. Rodman. 

After leaving college lie studied law under Judge Wil- 
liam Gaston, of Newbern, N. C. , and was licensed by the 
Supreme Court to practise law in 1838. He settled in his 
native town of Washington, where his talents, accom- 
plishments and association enabled him soon to secure a 
large and lucrative practice. He was a strong and forcible 
speaker. His manner was easy and pleasant. He was 
not an orator, or what might be termed a fine speaker, and 
yet a good speaker; but his style of speaking was so sim- 
ple and entertaining — his arguments so clear, powerful 
and convincing — using as few words as possible to convey 



214 University Magazine. 

his meaning, that he was always listened to with the 
closest and most fixed attention. His first duty was to his 
clients, and they placed the utmost confidence in his coun- 
sel and advice. He would lend his best energies and 
would exercise the fullest scope of his legal acumen to 
gain his client's cause. He had large farming interests, 
and it is said of him that he once appeared' for and 
defended and acquitted a man who had stolen his own corn. 
The man wanted his legal services, and he did not feel at 
liberty to decline. This is said to have happened in his 
practice before the war. 

In 1842 he was a candidate for the Legislature — House of 
Commons, but was defeated. He was a Democrat, and at 
that time the county of Beaufort was largely controlled by 
the Whig party, yet he was beaten only by a small majority, 
and, it seems, in consequence of election frauds prevailing. 

The Republican, a newspaper published in Washington, 
N. C. , of date August 25, 1842 (second edition now before 
me), contains a long editorial headed "Election Frauds," 
and gives the entire account of fraudulent proceedings at 
Bath, by which "a Justice of the Peace, acting under the 
law as returning officer, destroyed enough votes to defeat 
W. B. Rodman for the House, and General James O'K. 
Williams for the Senate." It further says: "The deposi- 
tions of thirty-nine persons have been taken, who swear 
that, on that day and at that box, they voted for Rodman 
for the Commons. In addition to this is the testimony 
of Joseph B. Clark, one of the inspectors, proving the 
vote of Roland Dixon, who was unfortunately killed on 
the same day, making forty votes cast at that box for Rod- 
man. The names of the persons who have so deposed, 
with reference to their depositions, will be found in the 
following list of names and certificates. The general 



Sketch of Judge William B. Rodman. 215 

respectability of their character will not be denied in a 
community where they are known." (Here follow names 
and certificates). From this paper it appears that forty 
votes were cast at the Bath box forjudge Rodman, and only 
twenty-eight returned. 

It would seem that the purity and freedom of elections 
were not held fifty odd years ago, in that day and genera- 
tion, by ministerial officers as sacred and free from inva- 
sion as might have been supposed. The sensible words of 
the caustic Junius may here well be recalled: "The min- 
ister, who, by secret corruption, invades the freedom of elec- 
tions, and the ruffian, who, by open violence, destroys that 
freedom, are embarked in the same bottom. They have 
the same interests and mutually feel for each other." 

Up to the breaking out of the war he never again ran 
for any political office, but confined himself to the practise 
of his profession, giving such spare time as he could to his 
farming interests. Though he kept aloof from the excite- 
ment and turmoil of political contests, yet he was much 
interested in them, and felt a keen and lively interest in 
the leading political questions of the day, both in Europe 
and America, and was well versed and informed upon the 
leading issues of the time. In fact, he was one of those 
rare men, but seldom found in a generation, that could tell 
you something, and intelligibly, about any matter or sub- 
ject that might incidentally arise in conversation or debate. 
He kept pace with the leading issues, and was much 
interested in the foremost and most eminent men in both 
countries. Though political matters and events interested 
him, yet the natural bent of his mind was purely scientific 
and legal, and the most abstruse scientific subjects afforded 
him the greatest interest and pleasure. It may be safely 
said that rarely in the State's history has her borders con- 



216 University Magazine. 

tained one more thoroughly gifted in legal and historical 
attainment, and combining so blendingly those qualities 
that go to make up the einphatical rounded man. He was 
always a State's Rights Democrat, and in all National elec- 
tions, except for General Grant, voted the Democratic 
ticket. 

He practised law principally in the courts of Beaufort, 
Pitt, Martin and Hyde counties, and in the Supreme 
Court. He was a fine practitioner — a splendid pleader — 
giving his cases the most thoughtful study, and when 
they reached a trial he always had them in full preparation. 
He would appear only on the side of the defense in crimi- 
nal cases. He was looked upon as the leading lawyer of 
the Eastern section. 

One of the most important criminal cases in which he 
appeared as counsel for the defense was the case of the 
State vs. George W. Carawan, made famous at the time by 
its tragical ending. This case was tried before Judge 
Bailey, in Washington, N. C, at the Fall Term of Beau- 
fort county, in 1853. George Washington Carawan was a 
Baptist preacher, living near Swan Quarter, Hyde county. 
He was also a well-to-do farmer, owning two or three good 
farms, and was successful and thrifty, and possessed con- 
siderable influence among his people. He was a man of 
much power of mind, a fine preacher, and had charge of 
churches in Hyde, Beaufort, Tyrrell and Craven counties. 
He was tried for the murder of Clement H. Lassiter, a 
Gates county man, who taught school near his house. 
Fancying a grudge against Lassiter, and observing him 
coming along the main road and about to pass his house, 
he took his gun, under pretense of taking a hunt, went 
through the woods, getting ahead of Lassiter, secreted 
himself in a thick place near the main road, and when he 



Sketch of Judge William B. Rodman. 217 

neared the secreted place Carawan shot him down dead. 
He then carried the body a short distance in the thicket, 
and that night he took one of his negroes, in whom he 
reposed great confidence, and buried the body about a 
mile from the place of the killing. After several days 
searching the body was found, and Carawan being sus- 
pected ran away and remained in Tennessee nearly twelve 
months. Returning secretly back and under partial dis- 
guise, the barking and growling of the dog awoke this 
trusted negro, who saw his old master, late in the night, 
enter the dwelling. He ran off and acquainted the neigh- 
bors, who surrounded the house and captured him the 
next morning and lodged him in jail. His case was 
removed for trial to Beaufort county. 

The counsel for the State were Solicitor George S. 
Stevenson, Edward J. Warren and David M. Carter. Mr. 
Carter had just come to the bar. The counsel for the 
prisoner were W. B. Rodman, F. B. Satterthwaite, James 
W. Bryan and R. S. Donnell. The trial was a long one, 
occupying several days in its progress. Judge Rodman 
made, in this case, probably the finest criminal speech of his 
life. It was a speech of great power, feeling and eloquence. 
It created a profound sensation. Mr. Warren (afterwards 
Judge Warren) closed the argument for the State in a speech 
remarkable for its strength, clearness, closeness and skill. 
It is questionable if an abler speech for the prosecution 
has ever been delivered in any court in North Carolina. 
During its delivery the prisoner would stand up and talk, 
though suppressedly, yet in an excited and passionate 
manner, to his counsel, showing the effect Mr. Warren's 
speech had upon him. As a matter of interest, and being 
the most tragic event ever occurring in a North Carolina 
court, the closing scene, as reported at the time, is herein 
inserted : 2 



2i8 University Magazine. 

VERDICT OE THE JURY AND CLOSING SCENE. , 

Wednesday, November 30th. 

At half-past eight o'clock this morning the jury entered the court -room 
in charge of the officer to whom their safe-keeping had been entrusted 
and took their seats in the jury-box. His Honor Judge Bailey shortly 
after took his seat on the bench and ordered the prisoner to be brought 
into court. In a few moments the prisoner was brought in, in custody of 
the jailor and deputy sheriff, accompanied by his wife and three children. 
He looked anxious and somewhat pale as he entered the court-room, and 
on his passage from the door to the head of the stairway to the prisoner's 
box cast a quick and involuntary glance towards the jurors and took his 
seat in the box. His wife took her seat, with the three boys, on the end 
of a bench on the inside of the bar, a little to the prisoner's left, and com- 
menced sobbing bitterly. His Honor instructed the Clerk to call the 
jurors by name and ask them if they had agreed upon a verdict. They 
all answered to their names, and replied that they had agreed. The Clerk, 
Mr. Jollie, then said to the jury: "Who shall say for you? " They replied: 
"Benjamin Patrick, the foreman." 

The Clerk then addressed the prisoner: "George Washington Carawan, 
hold up your right hand." The prisoner rose and looked calmly upon 
the foreman of the jury. 

The Clerk then said to the jury: "Look upon the prisoner, you that 
have been sworn: what say you — is he guilty of the felony whereof he 
stands indicted, or not guilty?" 

Mr. Patrick, the foreman, with his eyes fixed on the prisoner, solemuly 
responded, ' ' Guilty. ' ' 

The prisoner took his seat without moving a muscle, and bending over 
the railing of the prisoner's box, whispered to Mr. Satterthwaite, one of his 
counsel. Just at this period Mr. James W. Bryan and Hon. R. S. Dou- 
nell, two of the prisoner's counsel, arrived in court and took their seats 
directly in front of the prisoner. 

Mr. Bryan rose and complained to the Court that the verdict had been 
taken before all the prisoner's counsel had arrived, and asked, in a voice 
betraying much emotion and concern, that the jury be polled. The Judge 
remarked that Mr. Satterthwaite had been in attendance, and that the ver- 
dict had been rendered. Mr. Bryan insisted that it was a right which the 
prisoner was entitled to, as the verdict had not been recorded. The 
Judge conceded the right, and ordered the jury to be polled. 

The Clerk called each juror by name, and asked him, "Guilty or not 
guilty?" The prisoner fixed his gaze intently on each juror, as he 
responded to the question, "Guilty." 



Sketch of Judge William B. Rodman. 219 

The Clerk entered the verdict, and said to the jury: "Gentlemen of the 
jury, hearken to your verdict, as the Court has recorded it. You say that 
George Washington Carawan is guilty of the felony and murder whereof 
he stands indicted. So say you all? " 

While the Clerk was reading the verdict to the jury the prisoner, who 
still looked calm, was observed, with great deliberation, to unbutton his 
vest and open his shirt-bosom, but his countenance betraying no evil pur- 
pose, the movement excited no suspicion. 

His Honor, turning to the jury, remarked: "Gentlemen of the jury, 
you are discharged." Then turning from the jury to the bar, he said: 
"The Court will take a recess of one hour." 

A this moment the prisoner drew a single-barrelled, self-cocking pistol 
from his bosom, rose from his seat in a half-standing posture, leaned for- 
ward, thrusting his arm between the heads of Messrs. Bryan and Satter- 
thwaite, took deliberate aim at Mr. Warren (who, with Mr. Solicitor 
Stevens, was standing six feet in front of him), and fired. The ball 
struck just above the heart, and passing through the lapel of his coat 
and cutting the cloth on the breast, struck the padding and fell to the 
floor. 

The prisoner dropped this pistol, and instantly taking another, applied 
it to his temple. Mr. Joseph J. Hinton, deputy sheriff, observing the move- 
ment, seized his arm and pulled it down to the railing of the box, but 
could get it no further. During this struggle the prisoner, with great 
coolness, leaned his head against the muzzle of the pistol and fired, the 
ball entering the right side of the skull considerably and somewhat above 
the ear, and traversing the brain until it lodged just over the left eye. 
The prisoner dropped on his seat in the prisoner's box, with his right 
arm hanging over the railing and his head fallen upon his bosom, bleed- 
ing profusely — dying instantly. 

His Honor left the bench and the jury their seats, everything being in 
the wildest confusion. 

In 1854, Honorable B. F. Moore and Judge Rodman 
were appointed a commission to revise and print the 
Revised Code of North Carolina. This was an important 
and laborious undertaking, and the task was well per- 
formed. Mr. Moore was recognized as being at the head 
of the bar of the State, was much impressed by his asso- 
ciation in this work with Mr. Rodman's legal knowledge 
and ability, and often spoke of him as one of the quickest 
and best equipped lawyers in the State. 



220 University Magazine. 

On September i, 1858, Judge Rodman married Miss Car- 
rilla D. Croom, of Greensboro, Alabama, a lady of high 
social position and mental endowment. Their married 
life was congenial and happy until severed by the death of 
Mrs. Rodman, which occurred at her home in Washington, 
N. C.j on the 26th day of May, 1887. The surviving 
issue of this marriage are William B. Rodman, attorney 
at law; Dr. John Rodman, Willie Croom Rodman, Mrs. 
Owen H. Guion, of Newbern, and Lida T. Rodman. 

It was in the home circle and around the family fireside 
that the beautiful character of Judge Rodman was most 
distinctively portrayed. His home, of all places on earth, 
was the most attractive to him, and when not profes- 
sionally engaged, at his home he would always be found, 
and he never left it at night. Thoughtful, sympathetic, 
and indulgent to his children — ever alive to their wishes 
and wants, with a heart as warm and unselfish as was ever 
implanted in the human breast, and impulses responsive 
to love and tenderness — it can well be conceived how joy- 
ous was the family tie, and how intense the sorrow when 
death had broken it. 

In the beginning of the war he was captain of a com- 
pany of heavy artillery, a company he raised himself, and 
was stationed on the river defenses of Pamlico River. 
After this he was Brigade Quartermaster of Branch's 
Brigade: but from the spring of 1863 to the close of the 
war he was, together with John M. Patton and Colonel 
D. M. Carter, a judge of a military court connected with the 
Army of Northern Virginia, with the rank of Colonel, and 
held this position to the close of the war, when he surren- 
dered with General Lee at Appomattox. 

After the war he moved his family from near Greens- 
boro, N. C. , where they lived during the war, to Wash- 



Sketch of Judge William B. Rodman. 221 

ing, N. C. , and resumed the practice of the law, and seeking 
to reclaim his landed property, laid waste by the fate of 
four years of struggle and strife. 

In 1868 he was elected a member of the Constitutional 
Convention, and took his seat in that body, with the hope, 
in a measure at least, of shaping legislation conducive to 
the State's good, but the eager trend of that memorable 
body to hasty and unwise legislation was so combined 
and wayward, his purpose was only in part accomplished, 
and he was carried headlong, with only measured success, 
in the resistless tide. 

In 1868 he was made an Associate Justice of the 
Supreme Court. The Court was then composed of R. M. 
Pearson, Chief Justice, E. G. Reade, W. B. Rodman, 
R. P. Dick and Thomas Settle, comparing favorably with 
any Court of former years. Judge Settle resigned in 1871, 
and Governor Caldwell appointed Nathaniel Boyden to 
succeed him. Judge Dick was appointed U. S. District 
Judge in 1872, and Governor Caldwell appointed Judge 
Settle in his place. Judge Boyden died in 1873, an( ^ 
Governor Caldwell appointed W. P. Bynum to the vacancy. 
Judge Settle resigned in 1876, and Governor Brogden 
appointed W. T. Faircloth in his stead. 

Judge Rodman remained on the Supreme Court Bench 
from 1868 to 1878, and on retiring he returned to the 
practice of the law. His oldest son coming to the bar a 
few years afterwards, a partnership was formed under the 
name and style of W. B. Rodman & Son, which con- 
tinued to the time of his death. 

Judge Rodman was considered by the profession as the 
equal of any member of the court. His opinions were 
strong and forcible, and were the masterpieces of the 
English language. His style was ornate and easy, and 
impressive in its power and simplicity. 



222 University Mag a sine. 

His logical reasoning in his dissenting opinion in the 
case of Watts v. Liggett, 66th N. C. R., p. 200, as to the 
rights of children under the homestead act, would alone 
make a lawyer's reputation. I quote the powerful lan- 
guage of the closing paragraph: 

I cannot concur in that construction of an act, which was intended as 
beneficent and been applauded as such, which takes out of it all benefi- 
cence to the children; which makes it give to them a shadow instead of a 
substance; an estate to begin at the death of another and to expire when 
they come of age, which is called, as if in mockery, a homestead sacred 
"from turret to foundation stone"; a contingent homestead in reversion; 
a house, beneath whose roof they may never sleep, and land upon which 
they cannot tread without a trespass. That is neither the popular or the 
constitutional idea of a homestead. 

An eminent ex-judge, and now one of the ablest practi- 
tioners of the North Carolina bar, upon reading this opin- 
ion, wrote to Judge Rodman, expressing his high appreci- 
ation and endorsement, and thanking him for his very- 
clear and conclusive reasoning. 

His dissenting opinion in the case of the State v. Hos- 
kins, 77th N. C. R., p. 549, will rank with any opinion 
emanating from the Supreme Court in the annals of its 
history. I copy from a part of an editorial of the News 
and Observer, of date July 14, 1877, referring to this 
opinion: 

But we have not had time to examine the opinions, except in the most 
cursory manner, * * * * and we have only to say further this morn- 
ing that the reasoning of Judge Rodman, who files a dissenting opinion, 
is exceedingly clear and forcible, and meets every aspect of the question. 
He tells the whole story in the following brief sentences that deserve to 
be written in letters of gold: "The States must have jurisdiction to try 
offenses against their laws or they cease to be States. It is a power nec- 
essarily inherent in a State. It alone makes a State." 

For some time before his death his health was fee- 
ble, but his excessive will-power and endurance enabled 



Sketch of Judge William B. Rodman. 223 

him to appear in his office almost daily up to a few days 
preceding his death. The death of his wife had a very 
depressing effect upon him, but he bore this misfortune 
with that meekness and fortitude characteristic of a noble 
mind and tender heart. 

A few days before his death he had a fall, the effects of 
which it was feared would cause his death in a few hours, 
but he rallied from it, and shortly resumed his library and 
sought occasional reading; but suddenly the threads of life, 
weakened by age, and worn by the impress of inward care 
and affliction, were broken, and the end came, though it 
seemed but a tranquil, reposed and undisturbed sleep, so 
serenely did the ebb of life pass out, and was gone. He 
died at 4 o'clock on the morning of March 7, 1893, at his 
home in Washington, N. C. 

The meeting of the Bar of Washington, held May 31, 
1893, t° honor his memory, presided over by Chief Justice 
Shepherd, who appointed a committee of three, consisting 
of Judge G. H. Brown, C. F. Warren and E. S. Simmons, 
"to prepare a memorial sketch, with appropriate resolu- 
tions," performed their work acceptably and well, with 
language fit and tasteful, and in feeling deep and impress- 
ive. 

I copy from a part of the preamble to these resolutions 
the following: 

He was elected a delegate to represent the county of Beaufort in the 
Constitutional Convention of 1868. In this convention Judge Rodman 
was distinguished for his conservative views. These, however, did not 
always prevail, but it is probable that his influence contributed to the 
defeat of at least some of the extreme and unwise provisions which were 
sought to be engrafted upon the fundamental law. He always felt a pride 
in being the author of that provision in the article on revenue and taxa- 
tion which faxes the proportion between the tax on property and that on 
polls, which it seems had not previously appeared in the Constitution of 
any State. Also the provision which fixes the proportion between State 
and county taxes, and that which provides that no income tax shall be 



224 University Magazine. 

levied upou the property from which the income shall be derived, and also 
that which prohibits the Legislature from chartering private corpora- 
tions by special act except in certain cases. Judge Rodman was appointed 
by the Convention as one of three commissioners to prepare and report to 
the Legislature a Code of the laws of North Carolina. As the Constitu- 
tion had substantially abolished the existing law of practice and proced- 
ure, it was necessary that they should be promptly supplied by legislation, 
and the commissioners agreed to adopt the Code of Civil Procedure of 
New York, which had been in use for several years in that and other 
States. Alterations were necessary to adapt it to the judicial system of 
this State, and these were principally made by Judge Rodman. Other 
important laws were prepared by him, some of which were adopted and 
now form a part of the present Code. At the election for Justices of the 
Supreme Court in 1868 he was elected an Associate Justice, and remained 
on the bench until the expiration of his term in 187S. His opinions may 
be found in volumes 63 to 79, inclusive, in the Reports of the Supreme 
Court, and constitute a fitting and lasting memorial of his great learning 
and industry. Though a lawyer of the "old school," he gave a liberal 
construction to the new laws, and the profession is particularly indebted 
to him for his intelligent interpretations of the Code of Civil Procedure. 
His opinions upon constitutional questions were perhaps the most impor- 
tant rendered by the Court of which he was a member, while those relat- 
ing to other subjects are replete with the learning and manifest the acute- 
ness of intellect for which he was so much distinguished. It was a transi- 
tion period in our judicial history, and many novel and perplexing ques- 
tions necessarily came before the Court. Many of these concerned the inter- 
pretation of the new Constitution, and their decision was of far-reaching 
importance. It may be said without fear of contradiction that the opin- 
ions of Judge Rodman upon such questions were regarded by the profes- 
sion as exceptionally able, and a perusal of the Reports will illustrate the 
great services he rendered at this important period in the history of the 
State. 

The memorial and resolutions were presented to the 
Court, then in session, and his Honor Judge Bynum 
directed that "they be spread upon the minutes of the 
Court as a part of the record. ' ' 

Judge Rodman's name will be honored and respected for 
his high reputation and ability, and his memory will be 
revered for those qualities of head and heart which adorn 
and dignify human character and elevate and refine worth 
and culture. Pulaski Cowper. 



HEART THOUGHTS. 

Oil that I could in that mysterious gloom 
Of unrevealed realities catch a glimpse 
Of life unshackled from this clay-wrought tomb 
And lost to mortal ken in darkling mist! 
Oh, shall I rest absorbed in that Great Whole, 
The content of all earth, all air, all sky; 
Or shall I, while infinite epochs roll, 
Distinct exist, full wise, or wander blind? 
Ah, Soul, 'tis thou from silent inner depth 
Assuring sweetly — as in hours agone — 
Didst whisper to him groping after truth, 
This self — this me — this spirit must live on 
And thrive toward perfectness and realize 
That Ideal which complete beyond doth rise. 

Thomas Bailey Lee, '94. 



LIFE AT THE NAVAL ACADEMY. 

It is with a grand idea of his own importance and what 
he intends to do that the newly-made " Plebe" reports to 
the Commandant of the Naval Academy for duty, and pro- 
ceeds to the store to be fitted out for his first summer's cruise. 
The new Fourth Class, of which he is one of the forty-five 
or fifty members, is quartered on the old " Santee " during 
the latter part of May, and prior to the sailing of the prac- 
tice ship Constellation is drilled about eight hours each 
day. These cadets are all between the ages of fifteen and 
twenty, and have come to the Academy, some for the edii- 
3 



226 University Magazine. 

cation, some to earn a livelihood, and others in hope of 
making names for themselves. There is always a newness 
in the appearance and manner of a " Plebe " that invites 
criticism and questioning, especially on the part of the 
first year men, hardly out of their plebhood, and each arti- 
cle of his civilian's dress is commented upon many times, 
and he is jeered at unmercifully. The First, Third and 
Fourth Classes, after the graduation exercises, embark on 
the Constellation, which has a detachment of officers from 
the Academy and has a regular crew of about one hundred 
sailors. After a cruise down the Chesapeake Bay the Con- 
stellation puts to sea, and generally goes up the Atlantic 
coast to New England. The cadets on board do most of 
the work and soon become accustomed to the routine work 
and to being on deck one-half of the time, day and night. 
After a few weeks the novelty of life on shipboard disap- 
pears and the " Plebe " is made acquainted with his infe- 
rior rank by the Third Class men; is taught to sing songs, 
stand on his head, and write essays. 

Much has been said and written against hazing at the 
Naval Academy, and every year courts-martial are con- 
vened to try Third Class men for hazing, but the custom bids 
fair to last as long as they have practice cruises. The 
Third and Fourth Classes have little but the manual work 
to perform, but the First Class are given duties similar to 
those of the officers of a regular sea-going ship; they have 
practical work in Navigation and fill the responsible posi- 
tions at drills, target practice, and boat exercises. When 
near any port the cadets have liberty to go ashore for one 
or two afternoons each week, a privilege of which they 
always take advantage. Crowded hammocks and quarters, 
poor fare and sea-sickness become monotonous, and all on 
board are heartily glad when the three months' cruise is 



Life at the Naval Academy. 227 

over and the ship returns to Annapolis. The Second Class 
has gone on leave, and the First and Third soon follow. 
During the month of September the second half of the 
Fourth Class enters, and all are drilled at setting up exer- 
cises, swimming, and in the gymnasium. 

The academic term opens on the first of October, and 
within two days all of the three classes on leave have 
returned and are installed in new quarters, two cadets in a 
room, and the work for the first month is well under way. 

Reveille is sounded at 6 a. m., but those who are especially 
ambitious or are aspirants for foot-ball honors get up an hour 
earlier. 

Formation for breakfast takes place at 6:45 a. m. The 
Officer-in -charge makes the morning inspection of the bat- 
talion, and the conduct report for the preceding day is 
read by the Adjutant. This report contains the names 
and the offenses of all those guilty of infractions of the 
regulations, of which there are several hundred. After 
breakfast the rooms are cleared up for inspection by one of 
the occupants, and if any articles are found out of place, 
or if any dust is visible, the name of the occupant in 
charge of the room is placed on the conduct report. 

The time from 8 a. m. until 12:30 p. m. and from 2 p. m. 
until 4 p. m. is taken up by three recitations of one hour 
each and by three hours of study. Except on Wednes- 
days and Saturdays the four companies of the battalion 
are drilled from 4 until 6 p. m. at Infantry, Artillery, Sea- 
manship, Gunnery, Fencing, Rowing, Steam Engineering, 
Dancing, etc., depending upon the time of the year and 
the condition of the weather. 

Supper is at 6:30 p. m. , and it may be mentioned here 
that the fare of the Naval Academy is excellent in quality 
and a credit to the Commissary. At 7:30 p. m. the bugle 



228 University Magazine. 

sounds the evening study call, and for two hours all are 
busy preparing the lessons for the next day. The half 
hour before taps is spent in skylarking and visiting the 
"Plebes," and during this time the reading, music and 
bath-rooms are well patronized. At 10 p. m. the cadets in 
charge of the different floors inspect the rooms to see that 
the lights are out and the occupants turned in. 

The first year's work is elementary in character, but 
fully one-third of the Fourth Class are dropped after the 
Semi-annual and Annual Examinations in February and 
June, most of them being found to make 62.5 per cent, in 
Mathematics or French. 

The second year is the easiest of any of the four, and 
only a few are dropped for being deficient in Physics or 
Conic Sections. Mechanical Drawing, English Studies, 
French, and German or Spanish as an elective course, 
form a part of the second year's work. 

The Second Class spend the summer at the Academy, 
and this is the most pleasant part of the course, as well as 
the most practical. The class work in the machine shops, 
have boat races and target practice every day, and learn 
how to run a marine engine, take it to pieces and repair it. 

The third year at the Academy is the most difficult, 
being almost altogether mathematical in character, and 
very few ever get through this year without being deficient 
at some one time in Mechanics or Steam Engineering. 

The last year is principally taken up with technical 
studies, such as Seamanship, Naval Construction, Gunnery, 
Navigation, and Marine International Law, and more atten- 
tion is paid to drilling. 

The monthly examinations for all classes are thorough 
and practically cover the ground passed over during the 
month, and as so much depends upon relative standing 
the bulletin-boards are watched with eager interest. 



Life at the Naval Academy. , 229 

Out of the total number of cadets who enter about two- 
fifths graduate. Before graduation the first three or four 
men of the class file applications to be transferred to the 
Construction Corps, and to be sent to the Paris Polytechnic 
Institute, to the Royal Naval College, Greenwich, or to 
the University of Glasgow to study Naval Architecture. 
The other members of the class prepare for their two years' 
cruise and are sent to the different ships of the Service for 
duty. The strict discipline and necessary close application 
and careful performance of every duty tend to make the 
many pleasures of the four years at the Naval Academy 
more enjoyable than they would otherwise be. The Sat- 
urday night hops and the Thanksgiving, New Year's and 
June balls attract many friends from the neighboring cities 
of Baltimore and Washington; and entertainments and 
' ' cadet teas " are of frequent occurrence at the homes of 
the officers. But athletics furnish more amusement and 
recreation to the great mass of the students, and a sketch 
of life at the Academy would be incomplete without spe- 
cial mention of the progress recently made in this line. 
Athletics have done more to create good feeling between 
officers and cadets and to abolish class prejudices than all 
other agents combined. Each class has its foot-ball and 
base-ball teams, and games are played every year for the 
championship. A new gymnasium has been built, race 
tracks laid out, and shells for rowing provided, principally 
through the efforts of the Officers' Auxiliary Athletic Asso- 
ciation. Medals are given for excellence, and at present 
two cadets at the Academy have the world's record for 
swimming fifty yards and for high kicking. The foot-ball 
team has done excellent work considering its opportunities, 
and nowadays if a " Plebe" can play foot-ball he receives 
many kind words of encouragement from instructors and 



230 University Magazine. 

upper classmen, it being rightfully considered that he will 
make a good officer to work or to fight. 

That the best students take an active interest in athlet- 
ics is proved by the fact that the first honor men of the 
last five classes that have graduated from the Academy 
have been good all-round athletes, three of them being on 
the foot-ball team. 

After graduation the junior officers have advantages 
rarely possessed by young men, as they have a large amount 
of leisure time, and nearly all of them will visit the prin- 
cipal countries of the world. Thus an unlimited field is 
open to them for the study of scientific subjects, languages, 
or history, and the Government is willing to materially 
assist any officer who has the determination and energy to 
carry on such studies. 

Homer L. Ferguson, '92, U. S. N. 



PEACE INSTITUTE OF RALEIGH. 

It is exceedingly interesting to trace the history of a 
great educational institution from its beginning through its 
different phases, and perhaps changes of location. 

The writer recalls the pleasure afforded in reading a book 
called the "Log Cabin," by the Rev. Archibald Alexander, 
D. D., showing that the first "literary institution, above 
the grade of common schools in this country," was the 
Log College, situated in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, and 
which to-day is recognized as having been the mother of 
Princeton Theological Seminary. 

Peace Institute of Raleigh, now easily ranking as one of 
the foremost among the institutions of the South for the 



Peace Institute of Raleigh. 231 

education of young ladies, may in like manner be traced 
back for fifty-seven years, to the time when the Rev. Rob- 
ert Burwell and his wife opened a school for young ladies 
in the town of Hillsboro, N. C, in the year 1836. 

Continuing with a fair measure of prosperity, after some 
years, the school was moved to Charlotte, N. C, where it 
enjoyed a much more extended patronage, and occupied a 
more commanding position. In 1872 the school was again 
moved, this time to the property known as Peace Institute, 
in Raleigh, N. C, and was conducted by Rev. Robert 
Burwell, D. D., and his son, Captain John B. Burwell. 

Among the teachers transferred to Raleigh were Pro- 
fessor Albrect Baumann and his estimable and cultivated 
wife, both of whom had been in charge of the musical 
department of the institution, and who were for years to 
come to exert such a marked influence in adding to its 
prosperity in its new location. 

The property known as the Peace Institute of Raleigh 
has itself had an eventful history. The first subscription 
made for the purpose of buying the land, a handsome tract, 
in the northern suburbs of Raleigh, and for erecting a 
suitable brick building, which will be more particularly 
described later on, was made in July, 1859, when a "Miss 
Marsh" is recorded as paying the sum of twenty-five 
dollars. 

The late lamented Governor D. G. Fowle was Treasurer, 
and the book he kept is now before me. He continued as 
Treasurer until May, 1861, and during the two years he 
held office the sum of $20,025.60 was collected for the 
establishment of the institution. 

The undertaking was to establish a first-class school for 
young ladies, to be under the control of the Presbyterian 
Church in the Synod of North Carolina. The war inter- 



232 University Magazine. 

rupted the scheme, but not until a noble structure, a four- 
story brick building, had been erected and partially com- 
pleted. 

During the last three years of the war this building was 
placed at the disposal of the Confederate Government, and 
was used for hospital purposes. The writer well remem- 
bers when a small boy, often accompanying the members 
of the ladies' societies of Raleigh, assisting them in carry- 
ing comforts to the sick and wounded soldiers in Peace 
Institute. 

The Rev. Joseph M. Atkinson, D. D., subsequently 
raised several thousand dollars, which, added to money 
raised by mortgaging the property, completed the build- 
ing. 

The institution was named after William Peace, Hsq., 
of Raleigh, an alumnus of the University of North Caro- 
lina, whose oil portrait now hangs on the walls of the 
chapel of the Institute. Besides gifts from Mr. Peace, sub- 
scriptions were received from some of the most prominent 
men of North Carolina of the Presbyterian faith. 

After the full completion of the building, and before it 
was leased to the Messrs. Burwell, the Trustees found it 
impossible to repay the loans secured by mortgage, and 
after refusing an offer of a handsome sum made by the 
founders of what is now Shaw University; the entire inter- 
est of the old corporation passed in due form to R. S. 
Pullen, of Raleigh. This gentleman was very liberal in 
his management of the matter. Although belonging to a 
different church (the Methodist), he recognized the intent 
of the original subscribers, and at once proceeded to organ- 
ize a new corporation, in which he generously offered the 
largest amount of the stock to Presbyterians. 

The present Board of Directors and officers of this new 
corporation are as follows: 



Peace Institute of Raleigh. 233 

PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD: 

W. S. Primrose, Raleigh, N. C. 

VICE-PRESID ENT : 

General Rufus Barringer, Charlotte, N. C. 

SECRETARY AND TREASURER: 
W. C. Stronach, Raleigh, N. C. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE: 

R. S. PULLEN Raleigh, N. C. \ 

R. S. Tucker Raleigh, N. C. j 

C. H. Belvin Raleigh, N. C. I 

E. Burke Haywood, M. D Raleigh, N. C. \ 

D. E. EvERiTT, D. D. S Raleigh, N. C. / Dtredors - 

John B. Burwell Raleigh, N. C.\ 

Ed. Chambers Smith Raleigh, N. C. \ 

V. B. Moore Raleigh, N. C. 

George Howard Tarboro, N. C. / 

It would doubtless be of interest to give some fuller 
account of the school in its earlier days, under the man- 
agement of the Messrs. Burwell, but such matter would 
make this article too long. 

The children and grandchildren of its earlier pupils 
have been educated at the institution. Thus, an influence 
beneficent in its results has permeated many Southern 
States, and a well-earned reputation is the outcome of 
many years of loving devotion and faithful teaching. 

The Senior Principal, the venerable Rev. Robert Bur- 
well, D. D., who is still living, some years since gave up 
the management of the institution to his son, Captain John 
B. Burwell, who conducted it until the close of the spring 
term of 1890, when he retired from the work which he 
had for so long a time and so honorably conducted. 

At this juncture Professor James Dinwiddle, M. A., 

4 



234 University Magazine. 

University of Virginia, a gentleman of marked ability, of 
decided force of character, and possessing high attainment, 
both of education and by past experience, leased the prop- 
erty from the corporation for a term of fifteen years. 

Professor Dinwiddie was born in Campbell county, Va. 
His preliminary education was received at the Samuel 
Davies Institute, at Halifax Court House, after which he 
went to Hampden Sidney College. Entering the Univer- 
sity of Virginia in 1858, he graduated in 1861, taking the 
deo-ree of Master of Arts. 

o 

For ten years Professor Dinwiddie filled the Chair of 
Mathematics in the South Western Presbyterian Univer- 
sity, at Clarksville, Tenn., and from 1880 to 1885 he was 
Professor of Mathematics in the University of Tennessee, 
at Knoxville. In 1885 he founded the Central Female 
Institute, at Gordonsville, Va. , which was successful from 
its beginning. 

In the removal to Peace Institute, Professor Dinwiddie 
found a larger scope of work, and with an experience of 
over a quarter of a century, possessing enthusiasm for his 
chosen avocation, with broad and liberal views, with great 
energy and force of character, there could be no doubt as 
to the success of this undertaking. 

Assisted by his accomplished wife and daughters, with a 
full corps of the best teachers to be had, the young lady 
pupils not only receive ample and skilled mental training, 
but at the same time all social graces and accomplish- 
ments which fit them to adorn any station in our South- 
ern society, which is as refined as any in the world. 

The following schedule will show the different branches 
of study and the number of teachers in each department, 
viz. : 

Mental and Moral Philosophy and Evidences of Chris- 



Peace Institute of Raleigh. 235 

tianity, one'; Mathematics and Sciences, three; Chemistry 
and Physics, one; English Literature and Criticism, two; 
Latin and Greek, one; French and German, one; Music — 
Instrumental, Piano, Organ and Violin, and Vocal, five; 
Fine Arts, Drawing, Painting in Water-colors and Oil, 
and Modeling, two; Physical Culture and Elocution, one; 
Book-keeping, one; Stenography and Type- writing, one; 
Primary Department and also Cutting and Fitting. 

From the above it will be seen that young ladies are pre- 
pared also for the practical avocations of life. 

The faculty is an exceptionably strong one. In Music 
it is presided over by Professor K. Schneider, a full graduate 
of the Conservatory of Leipsic, Germany, which statement 
carries its own commendation. An accomplished assistant 
enjoyed the best training in this country, and afterwards 
four years under distinguished Masters in Berlin, while the 
remaining teachers in this department have had fine oppor- 
tunities of study in this country. 

The Department of Fine Arts is conducted by a teacher 
who is a graduate of the Philadelphia School of Design 
as well as being a member of the "Life and Portrait 
Classes" of Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and one 
who has proved herself to be a thoroughly capable instruc- 
tor. 

In Chemistry and Physics, instruction is given by a 
"Fellow of Cornell University." 

Especial attention is paid to Physical Culture, and this 
department has not only been fascinating, but of great 
benefit to the pupils. 

The remaining departments are all ably filled, and 
it seems strange, when the advantages of such an insti- 
tution as Peace Institute are fully considered, that South- 
ern girls should be sent to Northern schools. There, 



236 University Magazine. 

it may be, in the sciences, more costly apparatus and 
appliances can be found; but in all the essentials which 
go to make up good, accurate scholarship, and well- 
developed womanly character, such a school as Peace 
Institute is as good as need be sought by parents for the 
education of their daughters. 

A passing notice of the buildings, grounds and location 
will complete this sketch. 

Situated in a noble growth of white oak tress of origi- 
nal growth, now in their prime, the grounds occupy a tract 
of rather more than six acres, bounded on every side by a 
street. They are laid off with walks and drives, and have 
ample space for Croquet and Lawn Tennis. 

The original building of four stories, to which several 
important additions have been made, includes a remarkably 
well-arranged Chapel and Audience Room, Studios, Class 
Rooms, Parlors and Living Rooms, and stands in the 
centre of the Park. The buildings are of brick, have 
every sanitary arrangement and are well furnished through- 
out. A Laundry building is also on the premises. 

The patronage of the school is extensive, its pupils com- 
ing from Texas to Virginia, with a few from States even 
further North. 

Raleigh is proverbially a healthy city, as the uniform 
good health of the two large female and other schools 
attests. Peace Institute has never lost a pupil by death. 

The advantages of the place for such institutions are 
numerous. Among them may be prominently mentioned 
the pulpit ministrations, which are of the very best, and 
from them, as well as from the health}', religious tone of 
the instruction given in the school, it has often been a mat- 
ter of remark that nearly the entire number of young 
ladies at Peace Institute become communicants of the 



Contrast of Carlyle^ Macaulay and DeQuincey. 237 

Presbyterian Church, or of the church in which they 
have been raised, long before completing their course of 
study. 

When one looks at the bright, pretty faces of the pupils 
on their way to Sabbath worship, one cannot help being 
filled, with admiration, not only for the most beautiful 
objects of creation, but also (and in a devout sense) for the 
uplifting and refining influences of the Christian Religion, 
which have been so beneficent in their results to women 
in the entire world. W. S. Primrose. 



A BRIEF CRITICAL CONTRAST OF CARLYLE, 
MACAULAY AND DeQUINCEY. 

A pessimist, an optimist, a Hedonist. These are just 
and appropriate characterizations of the three great writers, 
Carlyle, Macaulay and DeQuincey; men whose personali- 
ties so utterly different appear through contrast the more 
distinct; men who stand for some great idea recognized 
and respected in human life. They have their faults and 
failings, prejudices and hobbies; and to us this is consola- 
tion. Carlyle, the intensely tempered, keenly seeing and 
feeling the u un veracities" and short-comings of life, 
preaches his gospel of work and spares the lash not at all 
to the shallow and superficial idler. He has from his 
height looked down upon men as mortal toys, laughed at 
their foibles, grown serious and laughed again until cyni- 
cism has become the prevailing element in his nature. 

The Scotch Diogenes has studied character so deeply and 
marked its deviation from perfection so often that he con- 
cludes all men to be utterly perverse, and, desponding, with- 



238 University Magazine. 

draws into the silent cloisters of his thought- world. Here in 
this brooding stillness he hears whispered the infinite 
secrets, and, inspired, flashes forth to the creed-bound mul- 
titude the right and revelation of intellectual freedom. 
To him "life is broad and deep, far richer than any the- 
ory." He would have no moulds, no limits, no ecclesias- 
tical decrees to regulate the course of human conduct. 
Upon every one is imposed a duty, and to him Carlyle 
would say: "Do it with all thy might; be submissive, for 
it is your lot superimposed upon you." He would have 
man rise up in the disorder around him, accept his respon- 
sibilities and strive to realize that ideal perfection which 
follows duty well performed. ' ' To thine own self be true ' ' 
is the burden of his message, and this message he thought 
himself sent as a prophet to deliver. He has long hoped for 
an elevation in the life of the race, but improvement is not 
perceptible. To him it is the same fitful, shamming world 
with its ceaseless drama and tinseled actors. He becomes 
a pessimist. 

The jovial hopefulness of Macaulay strikingly 
opposes such a nature. He sees in man vastly more 
than the evil which Teufelsdrockh magnified. He sees, 
beneath the outer covering of self-interest and material 
love, the image of the Creator with its developing attri- 
butes. The good will prevail, for it is good. He takes it 
as a matter of course and gives the thing no further thought. 
Why philosophize over what is evident? The introduc- 
tion of abstract theories and polysyllables will only render 
the real more vague and befool the mind. There is enough 
in life to work upon without going into difficult explora- 
tions of that already fixed. He would picture to us the 
external bright and lively and judge the inner realities 
thereby. "Human nature" to Carlyle "is black." To 



Contrast of Carlyle, Macaulay and DeQuincey. 239 

Macaulay "it is white with black spots here and there." 
Macaulay does not deal with the Infinite as does Carlyle 
and DeQuincey. He is a Christian and interprets every- 
thing in terms of Divine prerogative. Hence in him we do 
not have that awe and reverence for great facts and exhi- 
bitions of nature which so profoundly impress his contem- 
poraries. He is cheerful and takes institutions, architect- 
ure and art as proofs of man's significance and supremacy. 
Incisiveness cannot be ascribed to Macaulay. He, unlike 
Carlyle, cannot reach into the Heart of things, nor, like the 
sensitive opium-eater, distinguish between the finer and 
coarser sounds of life's melody. He is a brilliant artist, 
that is all. 

Nature and the universe reveal their poetic relations 
not to Macaulay, but to DeQuincey dreaming before 
his hearth-stone. Well-fitted, indeed, is the intensely 
imaginative and fastidious disposition of the latter for this 
world of conceptions. The "terror of the Infinite" and 
mysterious which appears throughout his writings is but 
the expression of his drug-excited imagination. He 
"revels in" vastnesses and in a moment "lives through 
epochs" of time. All phenomena furnish food for his 
fancy. The constellations above, the earth-bowels beneath, 
deserts and atmospheric storms are masterly conceived and 
related by the fevered mind of this man. His awe is not 
religion nor his flights the fruits of passion. He only felt 
and dreamed and could none else than give to us his vis- 
ions and experience. In the majority of his productions 
there is a shade of melancholy, the resultant in main from 
reflection over his opium-weakened will-power and from 
the conviction of individual helplessness in the presence 
of law and vague supernatural powers. He accepts life 
for the best and would enjoy truly its noncewhile pleas- 



240 University Magazine. 

ures, enjoining upon others to do the same. Such, briefly, 
are the personalities of these three men. From each we 
may learn a truth. Work, buoyant hope, restraint of desire, 
are all prime requisites for the full achievement of perfect 
existence. 

Knowing the characteristics of these writers, it will 
not be difficult to delineate their styles. We should natu- 
rally expect the impetuous, energetic nature of Carlyle to 
express itself in a manner corresponding. We anticipate 
rugged piled-up clauses illumined by fits and starts, end- 
less original phrases and variety of words, abundance of 
figure and satirical thrust, and we are not disappointed. 
Lack of logical philosophy is not to be wondered at in so 
self-confident and "eruptive" a disposition. We should, 
ourselves, be quite unphilosophic did we seek it. Car- 
lyle' s brilliancy, while not like the steady Macaulayan 
glow, is of the highest intensity, and at times surpasses 
the light of his contemporaries. In descriptions of nature 
and in minute characterizations he is master. He is an 
impressive narrator, wielding pathos, and yet interspersing 
his most serious sketches with grim and caustic humor. 
The sentences, long and intentionally intricate, teem with 
similes and synecdoches drawn from every quarter, and 
there is a deal of coarseness intermingled. But we cannot 
require of him a delicate, silvered diction, for in that case 
he would not be Carlyle. 

Lively, smooth movement and studied clearness in 
exposition are the characteristics of Macaulay's style. 
Endowed with an immense vocabulary and a memory 
reaching far over the field of history and of letters, he is 
well fitted to be the story-teller of his age. His paragraphs 
abound in sentences eloquently balanced and adorned with 
all figures of speech. When the cadence becomes monoto- 
nous a series of short periodic sentences are introduced 



Contrast of Carlyle, Macaulay and DeQuincey. 241 

with stimulating effect. Macaulay does not attempt to go 
into minute details like Carlyle, but like Carlyle he detests 
Kant and generalizes far too much. For this reason 
his pictures are of wholes, such as epochs in history, 
buildings and great armies. The pictures are painted 
with choicest words and often the power of description is 
due to the Saxon element employed. We find that he 
uses but few coined words and note that the Latin share 
does not, as in DeQuincey and Carlyle, predominate. 
As Macaulay's life was hearty and vigorous so is his writ- 
ing. There is nothing cynical about it. If he denounces 
there is generally good reason. Through much of his 
work runs a pathetic vein, and this is contrasted with a 
boisterous humor, in nowise coarse, but not of the finer 
kind distinctive of DeQuincey. 

Some one has said of that nervous, polished Epicure 
that his "very sentences deprived of meaning can 
stand alone." To speak in milder terms, a gorgeous 
stateliness distinguishes the rythmic style of DeQuin- 
cey. He draws indiscriminately upon Philosophy, Sci- 
ence and Classics, building up most graceful para- 
graphs. He uses antithesis to advantage, but not with 
the characteristic effect of Macaulay. His humor is 
irrepressible, his audacity unlimited. The breadth of his 
conceptions startle us; yet nevertheless, clothing them in 
suitable figures, he faultlessly sustains himself and pictures 
to us common incidents in sublimest tones. He compares 
the "undulations of a gathering multitude" to the rolling 
of the Coronation Anthem, and this in turn to the "tread 
of innumerable armies. " He even discourses upon "mur- 
der as a fine art," and we listen charmed. This man has 
power. Naught else than true poetic fancy could birth 
for us the concepts that he proffers. 

5 Thomas Bailey Lee, '94. 



LUTHER'S TRANSLATION OF THE BIBLE. 

In the history of literature only one book can claim that 
its readers belong practically to all the nations of the 
earth. This world-wide book is of course the Bible. 
Having so vast a field, it follows inevitably that the Bible 
has had from the beginning an almost unbounded influence 
upon men's minds. Indeed, if we should attempt to fol- 
low out all of the results of the religious and ethical teach- 
ing of the Bible, the world itself would hardly contain the 
books that would be written. We should have to write a 
large part of the daily mental experiences of every civ- 
ilized human being. 

But there is another sphere in which the Bible has 
impressed itself deeply upon the human mind. It is as a 
purely literary monument, offering by example practical 
instruction in style and diction, in all those matters which 
relate to the use of words and the expression of thought. 
This department of teaching is by no means the main pur- 
pose of the Bible; it is only secondary and incidental, but 
it is important, and its importance grows out of the ready 
access which the Bible has to all classes of society. Its 
words are constantly in the minds and on the lips of the 
pious, and to some it is, perhaps, the only book. It is 
said that the artless and engaging style which Bunyan 
exhibited in his incomparable allegory was learned uncon- 
sciously by the perusal and study of the Scriptures; and 
nearer home almost everybody has heard of instances in 
which the humble and untutored were instructed in mind 
as well as in heart by the remarkable and admirable ver- 
sion of King James. 



* 



Luther' s Translation of the Bible. 243 

But far more striking was the literary influence of 
Luther's German Version of the Bible. It created and 
fixed a literary form which, after more than four hundred 
years, still maintains itself as the language of culture in 
Germany. 

In the winter of the year of 1521, at the age of 38, 
Luther began his great work of translating the Bible. 
On March 3, 1522, the New Testament was finished, and 
in a few months the book was published. The translation 
of the Old Testament was immediately begun, but the 
whole Bible was not given to the world until 1534. 

"Luther reproduced the Greek and Hebrew Scriptures in 
a German form, after having passed them through the 
medium of his own thought. In the Greek portions he 
adhered more literally to the orignal; in the Hebrew he 
allowed himself more freedom, as the genius of the two 
languages seemed to require. In the former he was depend- 
ent almost entirely on his own knowledge; in the latter 
(the Hebrew) he drew more help from his friends. Luther 
was an enthusiastic lover and admirer of his mother-tongue, 
and he spared no trouble to make his translation a monu- 
ment of German style. He devoted himself to the work 
with the greatest seriousness and conscientiousness; he 
tried to absorb the spirit of the original, and his thorough 
knowledge of the popular tongue, together with his firm 
resolution not to write for the court or for scholars, but for 
the people, enabled him to make his Bible a true people's 
book."* 

Luther's version was the first regular and consistent Ger- 
man translation of the Bible, for we cannot count the 
Gothic translation of Ulfilas, who died in 381. That was 



f Scherer, History of German Literature, I, pp. 273 et seq. 



244 University Magazine. 

Germanic, but by no means German. In the ninth cen- 
tury there began to be German translations of the separate 
parts of the Bible. They were very few at first, but con- 
tinued to increase, until, in the fifteenth century, the cen- 
tury in which Luther was born, these isolated translations 
embraced the whole Bible. They were collected and 
printed together in 1466. But coming from so many dif- 
ferent hands, they exhibited very different styles and many 
dialectic peculiarities. They were also rude and filled with 
grave errors. So we are justified in saying that until 
Luther's version came there was no regular, consistent, sat- 
isfactory German translation of the Bible. 

We have now to affirm that Luther's effort was the great- 
est literary event of the sixteenth century. Indeed but few 
books have at any time left such a trace on literature. It 
created the abiding literary language of Germany. The 
German language has always had many dialects, and some 
diverge so much from what we may call the theoretical 
mean dialect as to be foreign to those who are familiar 
with other dialects. Foreigners who to-day learn to speak 
fluently the language of one German State can hardly 
understand the peasants of another State. 

At Luther's time the matter was still worse. There 
were these wide divergencies in the numerous dialects of 
the land, and, besides, each one claimed to be a medium for 
literary production. It is true that High German, the lan- 
guage of the highlands of the South country, laid claim 
to a literary pre-eminence, but the other dialects still 
continued to assert themselves. The two great divisions 
were Low German and High German, the language of the 
low-lying coast lands of the North and that of the high- 
lands of the South; and within these there were several 
minor groups. There was thus no general medium, no 



Luther* s Translation of the Bible. 245 

common literary currency. Suppose that in our country 
each State had stamped or printed money of its own, 
unknown and practically useless in many of the other 
States, what a serious check that would be to commerce! 

There existed in Germany a similar check to literature. 
Books that were made in one part of the country, in one 
form of speech, were practically unknown in other parts. 
Now, Luther was born at Eisleben, in the province of 
Saxony, which is on the border line between the regions 
of High and Low German. He naturally shared some of 
the characteristics of both, and so was fitted by birth to 
reconcile their difficulties. He was also well aware of 
the existing state of affairs, and firmly determined to make 
a version which all the people could read and understand. 
He therefore set to work to avoid all peculiarities of speech 
and all words hard to understand. He had at first adopted 
as good authority the form used in the Saxon courts of law, 
but he gradually freed himself even from that, and there 
issued from his work a new dialect, which was not exactly 
like any of the others, but which was everywhere intelli- 
gible. 

It is full of quaint, genuine, idiomatic German, colored 
by all the fervor of the Reformer's vigorous mind. Some 
passages are doubtless rude and some are inaccurate, but 
these blemishes are scarcely worthy of notice in view of 
the general excellence and beauty of the whole. 

The new German Bible went out among the people with 
every reason for success. The art of printing was not very 
old, so that books in general had the charm of novelty. 
Moreover national pride was justly flattered by the appear- 
ance of a Bible written in the mother tongue. For the 
prevalent Latin version, the Vulgate, was associated with 
learning, with foreigners and perhaps with the abuses of 



246 University Magazine. 

Roman Catholicism; and finally the German people hailed 
the German Bible as a guide to a better faith and as a sig- 
nal for relief from priestcraft and papal domination. 

No wonder then that Luther's book was eagerly read. 
The volumes of tracts and pamphlets which were written 
in the great religious discussions of the Reformation very 
naturally adopted the form of language which Luther had 
introduced. Thus it came about that there sprang up the 
new literary dialect which we now call New High German. 
It is the language of books and of ordinary communica- 
tion all over the country. Now no German scholar need 
fear that his work will be sealed to many of his own coun- 
trymen. There is one language for all. Of course dia- 
lects remain, but they are either for the common people, 
or they are consciously used by others in familiar conversa- 
tion. Nobody would think for a moment of writing a 
book in any one of the dialectic forms. 

Of course the New High German has grown since 
Luther's time. It has greatly enriched its vocabulary and 
modified its .spelling, but it is essentially the same as the 
language which Luther introduced. A comparison of the 
Lord? s Prayer as it was originally printed by Luther in 
1522, with the form which is now used in the churches, 
will show the changes that have been made. They are 
slight: 

1522. — Vnser Vater ynn dem Hymel, Deyn Name sey heylig; Deyn 
Reych kome; Deyn Wille geschehe auff Erden wie ynn dem Hymel; 
Unser teglich Brott gib unns heutt; Und vergib uns unsere Schulde, wie 
wyr unsernn Schuldigern vergeben; Unnd fure uns nitt ynn Versuchung; 
Sondern erlose uns von dem Vbel; Denu de}'n ist das Reych, und die 
Krafft, unnd die Herlickeyt in Ewickeyt. Amen. 

Modem Form. — Unser Vater in dem Himmel. Dein Name werde 
•geheiliget. Dein Reich komme. Dein Wille geschehe auf Erden wie 
im Himmel. Unser taglich Brod gib uns heute. Und vergib uns unsere 



Luther 's Translation of the Bible. 247 

Schulden wie wir unsern Schuldigern vergeben. Und Fiihre uns nicht 
in Versuchung, sondern erlose uns von dem Uebel. Denn dein ist das 
Reich und die Kraft und die Herrlichkeit in Ewigkeit. Amen. 

The translation of the New Testament was begun in the 
beautiful castle of the Wartburg, where Luther was hidden 
by his friends in order to save him from the malignity of 
his enemies. 

This castle is one of the richest and most beautiful 
remains of feudal times. Built on the very summit of a 
steep mountain, it commands a wide and refreshing pros- 
pect, and is easily defended against invaders. The little 
chamber in which Luther lived and worked is said to be 
just as he left it. His table, his great earthenware stove, 
his family pictures, the great bone which he used as a foot- 
stool, his chair and his trunk are still there. There is also 
a great hole in the plastering, marking the spot where he 
hurled his inkstand at the Devil, for the great Reformer 
was very superstitious. He often thought that the Devil 
assailed him in bodily form. At one of these moments, 
filled with anger, he dashed his great inkstand at the arch 
enemy. Let us hope that he drove him away. At any 
rate the ink-stained plaster has crumbled away or been car- 
ried away by the relentless tourist. 

Walter D. Toy. 

University of North Carolina. 



BLUB AND WHITE. 

"Ah, how I love the Blue and White!" 
So spoke I to my sweetest maid, 
As round the dear old 'Varsity 
And 'neath its oaks we strayed. 

"Loved Alma Mater! still she holds 

Her sons, though far they rove apart; 
Her colors flame on every crest, 
Her face in every heart ! ' ' 

At this she turned, my whimsy maid, 
With flashing eyes and flushing cheek: 
"A moment since 'twas /you loved, 
My gage your heart would seek; 

"To love me and the 'Varsity — ? 

Faith! monstrous big your heart must be! 
Traitor! go love the Blue and White, — 
Prate not of love for me! ' ' 

As thus she raged, the pretty scold, 

I caught in mine her little hand, 
Where gleamed beneath the snowy skin 

The blue veins' twisted strand; 

I looked above the red lips' pout, 
Deep in the azure-darkened eyes, 

A moment flashed their starry doubt, — 
Then drooped with coy surmise. 

"The mater pulchra? s dear," I said, 

"Buty£/z'# pulchriar 1 s still more dear; — 
What — do I love the Blue and White? 
Yes — when I clasp it here! ' ' 

A sudden dimple chased the pout, 

A glance doth all my pain requite; 
No more she chides because I love 

The Blue and White. 

Ninety-six. 



BOOK NOTICES. 

J. T. PUGH. 

Within College Walls. By Charles Franklin Thwing. 
16-mo., pp. 184, $1.00. New York: The Baker & Tay- 
lor Co. 

This book is the evident fruit of a long and sympathetic 
study of the various college relations. The author does 
not attempt an elaborate discussion, but gives in concise 
form his opinions on several important subjects. The vol- 
ume contains chapters on the "College and the Home," the 
"College and the Student," "College Life," the "College 
and the Church," the "College and Business," and the 
' ' Pre-eminence of the Graduate. ' ' Each one of these short 
essays is well written and full of thought. The book appeals 
to every one interested in education, to the parent and the 
public, to pupil and professor, giving helpful hints to each. 
The relation of "The College and the Home" is well 
expressed : ' ' The purpose of the best home and the best col- 
lege is identical. * * * They both write character above 
their gates." The college cannot do much in w/zdoing 
parents' training; it can continue the worthy training, but it 
can atone only in a measure for improper training. The 
student side of college-life is well described in the chapters 
on "College Temptations," "College Sports" and "College 
Government. ' ' Especially would we mention the chapter 
on the ' ''Simplicity of College Life. ' ' An extract will show 
the central idea: "Eternal verities are the college stan- 
dards. * * * Brain is the only symbol of aristocracy, 
and the examination-room the only field of honor; the 
intellectual, ethical, spiritual powers the only tests of 
merit; a mighty individuality the only demand made of 
each, and a noble enlargement of a noble personality the 
only ideal." Yet this simplicity must not lead to barren- 
ness. "The life of the college man is to be a life at once 
rich and simple." 

The author's discussion of " The College and the Church " 
is readily inferred from his opening words, on p. 125: "Edu- 
6 



250 University Magazine. 

cation and Christianity are sisters. The discipline of the 
intellectual character is intimately associated with the dis- 
cipline of the moral character. The school-house and the 
church have stood side by side." 

He combats the idea that the college unfits a man for 
business life. On the contrary, he shows that it is help- 
ful and almost essential: "The training of a college course 
becomes more and more important as years roll on and 
business is conducted on a larger scale than formerly, and 
as judgment forms a larger, and luck a smaller, factor than 
in the earlier years of the country's history." This busi- 
ness need is met by the "elective system" of the mod- 
ern college, which enables one to fit himself in college 
for his chosen life-work. 

That the college graduate is pre-eminent in life is clearly 
shown by an investigation of Appleton's Cyclopaedia of 
American Biography, which gives a proportion of two 
hundred and fifty to one in favor of the college man. 

This little book is of great value. Its ideas are good 
and its views modern; the method is clear and the style is 
strong and forcible. 

Essays in Idleness. By Agnes Repplier. 16-mo., 
$1.25. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

We have been enjoying Miss Repplier' s charming essays, 
which are now in the second edition. This little volume, 
entitled " Essays in Idleness," contains eight bright, fresh 
essays on several subjects. Pure and wholesome in their 
ideas, suggestive, and written in elegant style, these essays 
well repay a careful reading. In each of her essays the 
gifted writer shows a wide acquaintance with literature, 
especially with the essayists. Her own thoughts are fresh 
and couched in choice language. A variety of subjects are 
handled in the selections before us. ' ' Agrippina ' ' is the title 
of a charming discourse upon the disposition, habits and 
mission of our domestic cat, "the sphinx of the hearth- 
stone, the little god of domesticity, whose presence turns 
a house into a home." It is a pleasant diversion to listen 
for a while to the recounting of the "provoking antics" 
and habits of the ladies' pet, and of the superstitions about 
the cat. The essay on " The Children's Poets" is full of 



Book Notices. 251 

shrewd observations upon the poetry loved of the young, 
and criticisms of the poets who have kindly tried to cater to 
the little people's poetic love. Most of these attempts fail 
because of the too apparent effort to suit word and thought 
to the intellectual level of the child. The young reader 
does not care for the simple nursery rhymes; he wants 
rather those deeply mysterious lines which tell of things 
on a larger scale. The "Praises of War " is written in the 
same happy style and method. We have not space to com- 
ment upon all the other essays in the volume — "Leisure," 
"Words," "Ennui," "Wit and Humor," and "Letters." 
All of them are entertaining and very suggestive. ' ' Words ' ' 
is in substance a plea for the study of words and proper use of 
them. The writer criticizes the "too common desire to 
surprise us by some new and profoundly irrelevant applica- 
tion of a familiar word. ' ' In the last essay, ' ' Letters, ' ' the 
author discusses the fashionable letters of the eighteenth 
century and of our own, dwelling upon the studied style 
seen in them. We have largely lost this kind of letter, 
but we have yet, and will ever have, the true letter which 
tells of the private feelings and moods of the writer. A 
fair criticism is made, in the essay, of the better known 
letter- writers, showing a good acquaintance with this branch 
of literature. The book is well printed and tastily bound, 
making a very handsome little volume. 

A First Book in Latin. By Tuell & Fowler. 12-mo., 
pp. 259, $1. New York: Leach, Shewell & Sandorn. 

This book is based upon the inductive method, taking 
Caesar's "Gallic War" as the basis. The vocabulary con- 
sists in large part of the words used in " Caesar. ' ' The book 
is well graded, and advances carefully in the treatment of 
syntax. The exercises are arranged to impress the rules 
and principles and fix the words in the pupil's mind. It is 
scientific throughout, and made for practical use. We note 
with pleasure the marking of long vowels in all words. 
We think this book will prepare the pupil to read Latin 
easily. The "Gallic War" should not cause any difficulty 
after this book has been mastered. The publishers have 
done their part well in the general make-up of the book. 
The type is clear and the arrangement good. 



252 University Magazine. 

Authors and Their Public in Ancient Times. A sketch 
of literary conditions, and of the relations with the public 
of literary producers, from the earliest times to the inven- 
tion of printing in 1450. 12-mo. , gilt top, pp. xvii-309, 
$1.50. New York: G. P. Putnam 1 s Sons. 

Notwithstanding a title with so little attraction for the 
ordinary reader, this volume has proved to be a most enter- 
taining book. The author tells us that the book as origi- 
nally written was planned to form a preliminary chapter, 
or general introduction, to a history of the origin and 
development of property in literature, a subject in which 
he has for some time interested himself. "The prog- 
ress of the history has, however," the author tells us, 
"been so seriously hampered by engrossing business cares, 
and also by an increasing necessity for economizing eye- 
sight, that the date of its completion remains very uncer- 
tain." Yet we hope that his plan may be carried out. 
Much of the information conveyed is of course already 
known to scholars, but the book is a blessing to book-lov- 
ers who do not live in the shadow of the largest libraries 
of the country. The "sketch," as Mr. Putnam modestly 
calls it, gives, in a pleasing way, all reliable information 
concerning its theme from the age of Chaldea down through 
Roman times to the fall of Constantinople. 



LITERARY NOTES. 

* 

From THE time when Edgar Allan Poe launched the Southern Literary 
Messenger, at Richmond, to the present day, failure has beset all 
attempts to properly represent the South in magazine literature. Now 
that The Southern Magazine is being read and commented on to such an 
extent in the East and North, the South at last has its "messenger," and 
the world will get true pictures of the storied South. 

When we examine the total number of books that have for their sub- 
ject an Oriental country we are surprised to find how large a proportion 
of them have been written by travelers who were there for a compara- 
tively short period, who did not even understand the language of the peo- 
ple they describe, and whose knowledge must, consequently, have been 
acquired mainly at second-hand. It is a pleasure, therefore, to find in 
Miss Adele M. Fielde's forthcoming volume, "A Corner of Cathay," a 
graphic record of original research concerning the life of the Chinese, by 
one who lived among them for twent}' years, and whose familiarity with 
their language enabled her to enter into their modes of thought, and to 
ascertain from themselves the reasons for their peculiar and amazing cus- 
toms. As an inmate of native households she possessed peculiar facilities 
for a study of their life, domestic, social, and intellectual, from the ques- 
tion of the legal status of the women to the curious games played by the 
children. In her illustrations she was aided by a native artist of wide 
local fame, and his pictures, as winsomely guiltless of perspective as were 
those of the earl}' Italian artists and as charming in tint as Pekinese 
enamels, are skillfully reproduced in colors and present a new feature in 
American illustration. The name of the book is taken from the populous 
and picturesque region about Swatow, in the south-eastern corner of 
China. It will be published in September by Macmillan & Co. 

The Appi/ETONS will publish immediately "The Romance of an 
Empress," in which the author, K. Waliszewski, sets forth the remarka- 
ble career of Catharine II. of Russia. We look forward with pleasure 
for this book, which will be of interest to the general reader as well as the 
historical student. 

William Harbutt Dawson, who has long been a close student of 
German life and institutions, has written a new work entitled "Germany 
and the Germans." The book is timely. It will be published immedi- 
ately by D. Appleton & Co. 



254 University Magazine. 

"The American Humane Education Society," Boston, Mass., 
has published a sequel to the famous "Black Beauty," entitled "The 
Strike at Shane's " [32-mo., paper, pp. 91, 10 cents]. It is a very clever 
story, which teaches the lesson of kindness to all dumb animals. The 
scene is laid in Indiana; the theme is the strike which a farmer's animals 
made because of ill treatment; the resulting difficulties of the farm-life 
are well set forth, and the final victory of the animals is what we wish for. 
The story is well written and will do good. 

This Society has also published the ' ' Autobiographical Sketches and 
Personal Recollections" of George T. Angell, its President and founder. 
This pamphlet [price 10 cents; in cloth, 25 cents] tells of the work done 
by the Society, its aims and principles, together with extracts from 
addresses and papers of Mr. Angell. We recommend both of these book- 
lets to all who are interested in this humane movement. 



AMONG THE MAGAZINES. 

HOLUND M. THOMPSON. 

The Atlantic for February is superior to any recent number. There 
are several stories which are readable and have more life than is usual 
with Atlantic fiction. Mrs. Deland's "Philip and His Wife" is growing 
more interesting. However, the more serious articles are the leading 
features. Senator Dawes gives some personal recollections of Lincoln's 
great War Secretary, showing the immovable determination and obsti- 
nacy of the famous Stanton. He tells some incidents where he refused 
to obey the direct order of the President. J. C. Bancroft Davis writes of 
Hamilton Fish, whom he calls one of the strongest men in the history of 
New York. Oliver Wendell Holmes pays a poetical tribute to the dead 
historian, Francis Parkman. The strongest article, however, is a study 
of Tammany Hall, by Henry Childs Merwin. He says that Tammany is 
neither all good nor all bad; that many good results are achieved, though 
often through corrupt agents. The reasons for the solidity of the organi- 
zation are given. The city government of New York is said to be fairly 
good, and taxation not excessive. The great sums of money raised by the 
organization are not stolen from the public treasury, but come from 
blackmail and the contributions of candidates. But even if the government 
were much better, the general conclusions are unfavorable. The Tam- 
many idea is repugnant to Americanism. It is a government not by and 
for the people, but by Richard Croker for Tammany Hall. 

< < # * * f understand the cohesive strength of Tammany, one must 
understand how Tammany lies in the mind of an ordinary ' average ' mem- 
ber of the organization. In the first place he glories in its history. He 
is obliged to admit, of course, that Tweed and his gang were the leaders 
of Tammany in their day; but so is a Catholic forced to admit that some 
of the Popes were bad men, but in neither case is the former existence of 
corrupt leaders a sufficient reason for giving up the organization. Besides, 
were they not also Tammany men who, with Tilden at their head, purged 
the Society and overthrew Tweed? 

»# * * And such is the character of the whole government of the 
city of New York. Is it as good, as effective, as honest a government 
as Mr. Croker can afford to give the citizens without doing what he would 
consider injustice to himself and to his political constituents? 

<«* * * it is wonderfully organized and disciplined. Its rank and 
file are mainly honest men. Tammany has great resources; it has the 



256 University Magazine. 

patronage of the city officers, and of all the laborers employed by the 
city, directly or indirectly; it collects enormous sums by assessment of 
candidates and office-holders, by blackmail of corporations and indi- 
viduals, by tolls laid upon liquor dealers and criminals." 

The January number of the Southern Magazine is the holiday issue. 
The cover is tastily designed. There are no continued stories, but the 
short ones are fairly good, some of them verjr good. ' ' The South in the 
Intellectual Development of the United States" is a well-written article, 
illustrating some statistics gathered in reply to Mr. Henry Cabot Lodge's 
"Distribution of Ability in the United States." Mr. Baird makes his 
case. In "Comment and Criticism" Harriet C. Cooper discusses the 
evils of "Commencements " in schools for girls, attributing to them much 
of the strain of school-life. But the article which is of chief impor- 
tance to the Southern collegian is "Foot-ball in the South," by J. Breck- 
enridge Robertson, of the University of Virginia. As a history it is a 
failure, as it is unjust to all other colleges. Indeed, a foreigner would 
wonder if the University of Virginia was the only school of importance 
in the South. If the title had been " Foot-ball at the University of Vir- 
ginia" the effect would be different, though it cannot be claimed that it 
is a candid presentation of Virginia's record. Mr. Robertson writes as a 
Virginian rather than a historian. Virginia's victories are magnified, 
while her defeats are slurred. The North Carolina colleges may well 
feel piqued at their treatment. The '92 North Carolina team, which 
is, by consent of all, pronounced the strongest ever in the South — the 
team which was scored against in but one game during the season, and 
which humbled haughty Virginia when she could be met on neutral 
ground — is dismissed with seven lines. Again, a misstatement is made 
when it is said that all except two of the '92 team returned in '93. The 
invincible '91 Trinity team, which swept the country and stands second 
only to the '92 N. C, is treated almost as contemptuously. No mention 
whatever is made of Wake Forest, except to say that she is plucky. 
However much Virginia may regret the fact, it remains true that the two 
best teams ever in the South were from another State. The '92 North 
Carolina and the '91 Trinity hold the first places. 

IT is needless to say that the Reviezv of Reviews is full of valuable 
matter. All of the departments for February are strong. To one who 
has access to the magazines of this country, however, the greatest mis- 
sion of this publication is to give correct ideas of foreign politics and 
discoveries. The situation in England is discussed at length. The often 
repeated saying that this is an age of young men is shown to be partially 
true only. Mention is made and portraits are given of Gladstone, 
84; Bismarck, 79; Crispi, 75; Pope Leo XII., 84; Susan B. Anthony, 74; 



Among the Magazines. 257 

DeLesseps, 89; Dr. McCosh, 83, and many others. Dr. Albert Shaw 
continues his report on the relief measures adopted by American cities. 
The cities reporting are from all sections and give a very good idea of the 
nature and extent of the distress and of the measures adopted to relieve 
it. The gratifying fact in all this misery is that the destitution in the 
South is neither so extensive nor so terrible as in other portions of the 
Union. This may be attributed partly to the fact that few of the South- 
ern mills shut down and partly to the extreme mildness of the winter. 
The character-sketch is of the late Prof. Tyndall, by Grant Allen. Like 
many of England's prominent men Tyndall was an Irishman, and to his 
warm, impulsive, obstinate Celtic nature many of his peculiarities maybe 
attributed. He is considered in regard to his position in the great trium- 
virate — Spencer, Huxley, Tyndall. A striking portrait accompanies the 
sketch. In regard to his acceptance ot the theory of evolution, when 
first published, Mr. Allen says: 

"The new ideas were in the air. At last, in 1859, the wave which had 
been so long advancing curled and broke visibly. Darwin, on the crest 
of the movement, published in that year his 'Origin of Species.' It was 
the greatest epoch in science since Newton launched the theory of gravi- 
tation. Immediately the thinking world was divided into two sides. 
* * * At this crisis it was highly important to the evolutionists that 
the students of biology and geology should not seem to stand alone in 
their acceptance of the new doctrines. Tyndall came boldly out among 
the physicists at the moment of need as the ally and champion of the 
rising movement. His aid was invaluable and did much to help forward 
the triumph of that school of thought, which is now, for all practical 
purposes, universally adopted. A few elder men still higgle and doubt; 
the younger generation, whatever science they may take up, are to a 
man evolutionists. Indeed, the very rapidity and certainty of the victory 
has made the men who gained it half outlive their fame; thousands of 
people who now implicitly accept modern views of life hardly know how 
much they owe them to Darwin, Spencer, Huxley, Tyndall." 

The McClure for Februar}' is possibly the best of the class of maga- 
zines to which it belongs. It cannot yet be classed with the best, but 
is approaching that goal. The whole make-up seems to lack something, 
a certain indefinable touch arising from consciousness of success, which 
characterizes the best. The illustrations could be improved, but such 
matters can be easily remedied. This number deals principally with men, 
and opens with a conversation between James Whitcomb Riley and 
Hamlin Garland, written by the latter. It is pleasant reading and gives 
an insight into the poet at home. Otherwise it is not important. " Human 
Documents" this month contains likenesses of Philip D. Armour, 



258 University Magaziiie. 

Hamlin Garland and Robert Louis Stevenson. The frontispiece is a very- 
fine picture of the last, who, in collaboration with Lloyd Osbourne, begins 
a serial, "Ebb Tide." Philip D. Armour, the public-spirited man and 
thorough philanthropist, more generally known as Phil. Armour, the rep- 
resentative, keen Chicago business man, is written upon by Arthur War- 
ren. The "substance of Mr. Armour's philosophy" is stated to be, when 
speaking of the good done by the Armour Institute, he says: "We run the 
packing business, the grain business, the glue factory and the railroad to 
make money for these boys and girls." To one interested in recent 
astronomical exploits an account of the Observatory on Mt. Blanc will 
be interesting. The article tells under what difficulties it was erected, 
and what problems in astronomy are expected to be be solved through it. 
"Nervousness, the National Disease of America," is treated by Edward 
Wakefield, the ideas being those of Dr. Weir Mitchell, the great specialist. 
It tells some novel and rather unwelcome facts. The Doctor believes that 
climate has something to do with the alarming frequency of this disease 
in America. We quote some striking extracts: 

u* * * What is certain is that people coming from the phlegmatic 
races undergo a change of temperament here and become excitable, emo- 
tional and irritable to a degree that is unknown in any other part of the 
world. 

"The Anglo-Saxon Americans are the greatest sufferers from the 
national disease, and especially those in the higher walks of life. Females 
are more under the influence of this terrible scourge than males, and town 
dwellers than country folk. 

"The flower of American womanhood is wilted by overculture before 
it comes into bloom. 

"It is often pointed out with pride that America is the country of the 
young men; and so it is. We quite usually see here labors and responsi- 
bilities borne by mere boys, which nowhere else would be undertaken by 
many under middle age. * * * The prematureness of business responsi- 
bility, the frantic haste to be rich and powerful, produces in plain sight 
what is nothing short of a frightfully general social evil." 

So much has been written concerning the late Parliament of Religions 
at the World's Fair that many people wish to know something authoritative 
concerning it. There have been several books issued containing the pro- 
ceedings, more or less full. The Werner Company, of Chicago, publishes 
in eleven pamphlet parts full proceedings, including verbatim reports of 
all papers and addresses delivered. From a reading of these a correct 
idea may be formed. There are also portraits of many of the leading 
speakers. The whole eleven parts are sent for one dollar. 



Among the Magazines. 259 

THE COLLEGE MAGAZINES. 

The college magazines have begun to recover from the demoralizing 
effects of the holidays and come pouring in by every mail. From the 
great number received only a few representative ones can be noticed. 
There has been a decided general improvement since the beginning of the 
year. This is to be attributed, perhaps, to the greater experience of the 
editors. 

The Wesleyan Lit for January contains some good work. The editors 
themselves write an unusually large proportion of the number. The depart- 
ments, however, are not extensive. "American Literature's Debt to the 
College" shows some study and thought. Some of the sketches are 
well drawn. 

The Peabody Record is a creditable publication. Some of the articles 
are a little stilted as regards style, but the departmental work is carefully 
done. 

The Wake Forest Student improves with each issue. The departments 
are well filled. "Alumni Notes " is extensive and can but bring former 
students into closer relations with the undergraduates. By the way, the 
North Carolina magazines compare very favorably with those from 
schools having greater numbers. They are all much above the average. 

The Georgetown College Journal is always read with pleasure. It 
claims no other office than to be a means of communication between 
alumni and to chronicle the news of the college. The exchange editor 
is one of the best we know. His criticisms are just and discriminating 
and his praise is not nauseating. 

The Tennessee University Student is another exchange that is steadily 
improving. There is a quantity of student work; some of it is of good 
quality. The appearance could be improved by use of better paper and 
different sizes of type. 

The article in the Roanoke Collegian on ' ' Intercollegiate Foot-ball ' ' 
was written, we suppose, by Dr. Dreher. It is well written and thoughtful. 

The Erskinian has sprung full-fledged into the arena. In the latest 
number we notice a long editorial on foot-ball. As we understand that 
the game has never been played at Erskine, and very little in South 
Carolina, we wonder that the writer speaks with so much confidence. 
We suggest that whoever wrote the article investigate and not write so 
decidedly until he has had some experience. 

The Phillips Andover Mirror is better than many college magazines 
received. This preparatory school sends out a periodical which does it 
much credit. The typographical appearance is excellent. 



CURRENT COMMENT. 

There is a deep-seated feeling in the student-body that injustice is 
constantly being done through lack of uniformit}' in grading. Now, 
marks are not the end and aim of college-life. In fact, they are and 
should be simply incidental; but no one will be rash enough to say that 
the fact that a man has taken honors in college will not be of benefit to 
him upon entering upon certain professions. Again, some men whose 
records in preparatory schools have been good work harder here than 
there, hoping to secure the coveted honor, but find themselves unable to 
make a respectable showing upon a few subjects. Is it just or fair for a 
few professors to decide that they will prevent the securing of the desired 
honors ? Some instructors here will give a man grade III, or even IV, 
for an amount or quality of work which would secure grade I or II from 
other men, and will throw those who, under others, would pass creditably. 
The reason must be, either that the course offered is beyond the ability of 
the average student attempting it; or that his paper is marked with such 
painstaking precision that the end for which examinations were instituted 
is defeated; or that the teaching is such that the student is unable to grasp 
the subject. If the course is too difficult to be properly mastered in the 
length of time which the student can justly give to it, ought it not to be 
made easier ? If, on the other hand, the trouble lies in the grading, should 
it not also be remedied ? This article would be needless if all were alike 
exacting, and if it were considered an honor to pass; but while the 
inequality exists it should be noticed. Of course, absolute uniformity is 
impossible, but a nearer approach to it is desirable. The objections would 
not be so serious if the hardship fell upon every student alike, but the 
arrangement of courses is such that it affects some very little, while the 
effect upon others may be read upon their reports. H. M. T. 

Our life here in some directions is full and well-rounded, but in others 
there could be much improvement. There is as much thorough work 
done on the subjects directly in the curriculum as is done anywhere, but 
it is in work outside of the courses that we are lacking. There is too 
little original investigation and research. The love of learning for learn- 
ing's sake is not strongly developed. We neglect facilities and opportuni- 
ties which we will not always have. The college publications do not 
receive the united intellectual support of the students, and the under- 
graduates do not write enough for outside papers and magazines. What 
are the reasons for this apathy ? When one thinks upon the subject four 
causes present themselves. The first may be called a lack of ambition. 
It is a sort of contentment with present acquirements and surroundings, 
and is the chief reason with some. The second might be termed "false 
modest}'." That our men can write good verse, careful criticisms, and do 



Current Comment. 261 

work in history is proved by the quality of the papers received by the 
Magazine. Some men, fearing that they cannot do so well, do nothing. 
Perhaps this is as well as for every Freshman to think that he ouly needs 
recognition to win fame. But there are men here who can express them- 
selves well and who should often do so. The amount of grinding required 
may be given as the third reason. There is too little time for the self 
when other demands are satisfied. Possibly, however, the most impor- 
tant of all the causes is the abnormal development of our social natures. 
Too many hours are spent talking with friends in our rooms. No man 
should cut himself entirety from the sympathy and companionship of his 
fellows, but there is a mean. These daily and nightly conversations are 
pleasant; but do we not give them too much time? Do we do ourselves 
justice? H. M. T. 

WE Think a series of lectures ought to be given here at the University 
for the students and the village. There is a great need of such aids to 
culture. Every one appreciates the worthy organizations we now have — 
the Shakspere Club, the Historical Society and the Mitchell Scientific 
Society. These are doing valuable work in their line. But they are 
limited in influence by their very nature and object. True, they do last- 
ing service in popularizing the subjects treated and in training the student 
to a clear exposition of his best thought along these several lines. But 
they do not reach as large a number of men as we could wish. They do 
not answer for a system of lectures on topics of general interest. They 
need to be supplemented by studies of a less technical aim and character. 
They cannot cover all the various lines of work in which the student is 
interested, and the student-body is not affected by them. 

There is clearly a need for something which will reach all our men and 
keep them in S3'mpathy with every subject and every teacher in the Uni- 
versity, and we know of no better means than the lecture system. We 
had last year some lectures given, upon invitation of the Dialectic Society, 
by distinguished speakers, but lack of funds necessarily limited this sys- 
tem, and the lecture has been largely a desideratum since then. 

Why not cast about us for our lecturers ? We need not go abroad to 
invite speakers. We have here among us men who are in great demand 
as public orators elsewhere. Can we not induce them to give us their 
learning and eloquence? There are others whose departments are not 
widely known; why not popularize them while giving valuable thought 
to the hearers ? We see no valid reason why we should not have a public 
lecture from every department in the University. 

We need not enlarge upon the benefit of such lectures. They will give 
the student a healthful recreation, and prove a powerful stimulant to work. 
They will bring the results of ripe scholarship to many who would not 
otherwise get them. They will quicken the minds of all, and bring stu- 



262 University Magazine. 

dent and professor into a broader social relation; and, best of all, they 
will make for a larger general culture and a higher intellectual standard. 

Let us have the lectures, then, Mr. President, and let them begin at 
once. The students ask this, and the Magazine; would press their plea. 

J. T. P. 

We have learned that no elective courses can be given in the Modern 
Languages next session, unless an assistant is provided in that department. 
The Professor is burdened now with large primary . classes, and next 
term, with the additional increase of students, his time will be too limited 
to permit him to give advanced courses in third year French and German. 

This elective advanced work should be given by all means. There are 
several men who desire such work, and their impetus to go forward into 
the advanced stages of study, research and criticism should not be 
checked, but rather encouraged. This comparative method of study is 
true university work. It is essential to sound scholarship. Its value, in 
language studies especially, is being more and more recognized. We can- 
not fail to encourage it here. 

This advanced work, however, cannot be given, and the demands of the 
more aspiring cannot be met, unless an assistant teacher is provided for 
the lower grades of work. We can easily secure a capable assistant in 
college. There are men here who would be glad to assist in the primary 
classes while pursuing advanced work. We think this should be done, so 
that the Professor can give elective courses as he wishes and as the Uni- 
versity needs. We hope the Trustees will not overlook this important 
matter. J. T. P. 

On The 8th of this month (January) letters of incorporation were 
issued to the "North Carolina Society oe the Sons of the Revo- 
lution, " which was instituted last fall at Raleigh. The Society is organ- 
ized for the purpose of perpetuating the memory of those men who were 
in the civil, military or naval service of the Colonies during the Revolu- 
tion, and its membership is limited to persons who can prove by docu- 
mentary or historical evidence that they are descended from a participant 
in that war. There are now over fifteen State branches of the General 
Society, while many more are being organized. The following is a list of 
the officers of the Society in this State: President, Governor Elias Carr; 
Vice-President, Hon. Kemp P. Battle; Secretary, Mr. Marshall DeLancey 
Haywood; Registrar, Prof. D. H. Hill; Treasurer, Dr. H. B. Battle; 
Chaplain, Rev. Robert Brent Drane, D. D. The members of the Board 
of Managers are as follows: Governor EHas Carr, Hon. Kemp P. Battle 
(Chapel Hill), Mr. Marshall DeLaucey Haywood, Prof. D. H. Hill, Dr. 
H. B. Battle, Rev. R. B. Drane (Edenton), Capt. S. A. Ashe, Dr. P. E. 
Hines, Col. A. Q, Holladay, Dr. W. J. Hawkins, Col. Thomas S. Kenan, 
Maj. Graham Daves (Newbern), Mr. F. B. Dancy, Capt. J. D. Myers 
(Washington, N. C), and Mr. B. C. Beckwith. D. H. 



COLLEGE RECORD. 

FRED. X,. CARR. 

AT a recent meeting of the Faculty the following important changes in 
the regular courses of study were inaugurated: 

ist. Junior Physics required in all courses except in the Literary course. 

2d. Junior English elective in Scientific course. 

3d. Biology, Chemistry and Geology inter-elective in all courses except 
Scientific. 

4th. Geology or Biology substituted in place of History in Scientific 
course. 

5th. Freshman year in Classical or Philosophical courses may be sub- 
stituted for Freshman year in Literary course. 

6th. Physiology required in all courses. 

7th. All Senior studies made elective in each course. No elementary 
study allowed as elective in Senior j'ear. 

Such an aggregation as the "Torbett Concert Company" rarely 
favors Chapel Hill with its presence. One of the unfortunate results of 
the wisdom (?) of the fathers in locating the University so far from the 
wickedness of the great "world" (even if, perhaps, "the flesh and the 
devil" do not entirely share in that remoteness) is that the artistic and 
aesthetic side of our being gets a comparatively slim chance during the 
annual nine mouths of our seclusion "on the hill." So every really 
good opportunity to hear music of a high order is gladly welcomed 
among us. 

Miss Ollie Torbett proved herself an artist of no ordinary attainments. 
In breadth and sympathy of tone, in mastery of bowing, in highly devel- 
oped technique, and in many of the tricks of pyrotechnic effects for 
which skilled violinists are noted, she proved herself to have a thorough 
control over her instrument and over herself. Indeed, the subjective ele- 
ment in her playing was such as to prevent it from being a mere exhibi- 
tion of mechanical excellencies; and when, in response to hearty encores, 
she played, among other dainty gems, a stirring arrangement of " Dixie" 
of her own composition, she disclosed where lies the real secret of her 
success, not in the fingers, but in the musical soul. 

Mr. Theodore Moquist is an accompanist of that delicate sympathy that 
gives such a charm to any concerted music. His powers as a brilliant 
solo performer on the piano and composer are well known, and were well 
attested in two or three selections. No doubt Mr. Moquist is used to 



264 University Magazine. 

playing such works as Chopin's "Grand Valse in A flat " on a "grand" 
piano, and so may be excused for substituting for that number on the 
programme one of the rather more popular air-and-variations trifles 
though at the cost of keen disappointment to some in the audience. A 
"concert grand" in Chapel Hill is a rarissima avis. 

A large place on the programme was occupied by the famous Lutteman 
Swedish Sextette, who sustained their well-deserved reputation. They 
were heard to special advantage in Hebbe's bewitching "Polska," Shat- 
tuck's arrangement of "Love's Old Song," and Dudley Buck's celebrated 
arrangement of " Annie Laurie "; but enthusiastic and repeated encores 
proved their entire control of the audience throughout. Long practice 
together has done its work with this sextette; it can be seen in their pre- 
cision of attack, their perfect subordination of parts, and their marvel- 
ous mastery of dynamic effects. Most of the individual voices have 
marked excellence, but only in the case of Mr. C. Froholm was such 
excellence given a chance for separate exhibition. His rendering of 
Schubert's "Serenade" with violin and piano accompaniment proved 
him a pure tenor soloist of power, accuracy and sympathy. 

Dr. Winston has been appointed a commissioner by President Cleve- 
land to examine and test the weight and fineness of the coins of the 
various mints of the country. The commissioners will meet at the mint 
in Philadelphia, February 14th. 

F. S. Brockman, a member of the International Committee of the 
Y. M. C. A., lectured in the Chapel Sunday afternoon, February 4th, on 
"The Claims of Foreign Missions Upon the College Men of To-day." 
At night he lectured on "College Associations." 

Dr. Tolman lectured on "Corea" at the Baptist Church Wednesday 
night, February 7th. 

Dr. Winston delivered an address to the students of the A. & M. 
College, Raleigh, N. C, Friday night, February 2d. 

Dr. Kemp P. BaTTeE has been requested to prepare the article on 
North Carolina for Johnson's Universal Cyclopedia. The request comes 
from President Charles Kendall Adams, of the University of Wisconsin, 
formerly of Cornell, editor-in-chief. Among the editors are G. K. Gil- 
bert, B. L. Gildersleve, David S. Jordan, Simon Newcomb, Ira Remsen, 
A. R. Spofford, and many of our most eminent men. 

E. C. Gregory has been elected Sophomore Editor of the Magazine 
to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of H. A. Grady. 

Holland M. Thompson, '95, contributes to The National Magazine, 
a monthly journal of American history, for January, an able article on 
"The Tuscarora Conspiracy in Carolina." 



College Record. 265 

Fred. L. Carr has been elected Editor-in-chief of the Hellenian; 
Harry Howell, G. R. Little and J. A. Gwynn, Business Managers. 

AT a recent meeting of the Athletic Association Charles R. Turner 
-was elected President of the Association; W. R. Kenan, Jr., Mauager of 
the Base-ball Team; W. R. Webb and F. C. Harding were elected Editors 
of the Tar Heel to fill the vacancies caused by the resignation of Walter 
Murphy and J. T. Pugh. 

G. R. Little has been elected Captain of the Foot-ball Team for next 
season; Charles Baskerville, Manager. 

Nine of the fraternities of college have organized themselves into the 
Pan-Hellenic Tennis Association, with the purpose of giving an annual 
tournament for a silver championship cup to be won three seasons in suc- 
cession by one fraternity before becoming its property. The first tourna- 
ment of the Association ended on Thursday, January 25th, Zeta Psi win- 
ning first place, K. A. second. 

On the 19th of January Dr. Hume delivered an address before the 
Literary Society of Converse Female College, Spartanburg, S. C, on the 
"Woman-Poet-Prophet, a Poetical Name for Mrs. Browning." The 
Spartanburg Herald has to say of the address: "Dr. Hume took as his 
subject, 'Mrs. Browning, Her Life and Character,' and delivered a beau- 
tiful address on the great poetess. The speaker commended especially 
the efforts of high-minded persons to redeem love from that light and 
airy sentimentality that so often surrounds it. He spoke admiringly of 
Mrs. Browning's sonnets and read several of them." 

The following have been chosen as representatives for the Com- 
mencement of '94: Phi. — H. H. Home, '95; L. C. Brogden, '95; J. O. 
Carr, '95. Di. — Herbert Bingham, '95; J. C. Eller, '96; A. S. Dockery, '96. 

The FIRST of the series of monthly sermons, under the auspices of 
the Y. M. C. A., was delivered in the Chapel Sunday night, January 28th, 
by the Rev. S. B. Turrentine, '84, pastor of the Methodist Church at 
Winston. His sermon was entertaining as well as instructive, and proves 
the good work of the Y. M. C. A. in this direction. 

E. W. Myers, '95, has been elected Chief Marshal for Commencement, 
and W. A. Graham, Chief Ball Manager. The Sub Ball Managers are 
Harty, Armstrong and Scott from the Di. Society; Mattocks, Wharton 
and Gregory from the Phi. 

At the State Convention of Superintendents of Public Schools Prof. 
Alderman delivered an address on the "Philosophy of Education." It 
was well received and made a fine impression. 



266 University Magazine. 

A German was given at the Gymnasium by the University German 
Club on Wednesday night, January 24th. J. L. Patterson, as leader, 
gave general satisfaction. The Floor Managers were E. W. Myers and 
W. R. Kenan, Jr. 

Dr. Battle delivered his address on "St. Paul at Athens" to the 
students and Y. M. C. A. of Salem, Friday night, January 26th. 

The annual midwinter concert by the University Glee Club was given 
at Gerrard Hall, Friday night, February 2d. Below we give the pro- 
gramme as rendered: 

PROGRAMME. 
Part I. 

1. The Way It's Done at Yale Yale Glees 

2. Integer Vit^e Yale Glees 

3. Rub-a-Dub Vincent 

4. Romeo and Juliet Yale Glees 

Solo, Mr. McKenzie. 

5. Come, Rally To-night Yale Songs 

Warbler, Mr. ManGUM. 

Part II. 

1. The Way It's Done at Harvard Harvard Songs 

2. Little Johnny Arr. by Berry 

Solo, Mr. McKenzie. 

J a. The Miller's Song, » u„„„,„„j <?„„„, 

3 " \d. My Flo, f Harvard Songs 

4. The Party at Odd Fellows' Hall Atkinson 

Solo, Mr. Webb. 

5. Dutch Company Yale Songs 

Warbler, Mr. ManGUM. 
Part III. 

1. The Way It's Done at North Carolina K. P. H. 

2. A Cannibal Idyl Taber 

3. The Song of the A. B U. N. C. Song 

4. Cradle Song Harrington 

5. My Old Kentucky Home Foster 

Solo, Mr. McKenzie. 

* 

SHAKSPERE CLUB. 

The first regular meeting of the Shakspere Club for the spring term 
was held in the Chapel Tuesday evening, January 30, Dr. Hume presiding. 
After a few remarks by the President papers were read as follows: 

"The Antigone of Sophocles," by J. W. Canada. After a brief sketch 
of the plot he portrayed vividly the conflict between civil law and the 
higher moral law, which demanded burial for the dead. The interest of 



College Record. 267 

the tragedy centers in Antigone, who is contrasted with her father, 
CEdipus. She dared to violate the laws of the sovereign and appealed to 
the gods for justification. Duty actuated and sustained her. Yet after 
all she was only human, and disliked to die unwept, unloved. The 
play is one of real life, in which the power of the Fates is recognized. 
CEdipus acted with hasty mind and had to bear the penalty of his rash 
deeds. That he felt this his bitter words testified. 

Dr. Tolmau next gave a concise description of the evolution of the 
Greek drama, from its earliest beginning in hymns and festivals. He 
described the Diouysiac feasts, and traced the dramatic idea from the 
Iliad and Odyssey down to Sophocles. 

"Marlowe, the Inventor of Blank Verse and the Father of English 
Drama," was presented by C. L. Van Noppen. He read extracts from 
three of Marlowe's dramas — Tamberlaiue, Dr. Faustus and Edward II. — 
tracing the history and development of the English drama. His char- 
acterization of Marlowe as shown in his writings was true to life, his 
metrical analysis instructive. 

Mr. T. B. Lee treated of Ben Jouson and discussed him in a lively and 
humorous vein. 

Dr. Winston made a few remarks on the modernness of the works of 
all great masters, due to the universal character of thought. Great 
minds seize what is true to life, and what is once true to life is forever so. 

Dr. Hume briefly compared Ben Jonson and Shakspere. Owing to 
the lateness of the hour several papers, which were to have been read, 
were deferred until the next meeting, and the Club was adjourned after 
one of the most successful meetings ever held. 

PHILOLOGICAL CLUB. 

The regular meeting of the Club was held Friday evening, January 26, 
1894, Dr. Hume in the chair. Professor Tolmau compared Cypriate and 
Hittite Syllabaries, using cyclostyle illustrations of various recently dis- 
covered Hittite character. In the Hittite Syllabary only about 120 hiero- 
glyphics existed; and these must have represented syllables, not whole 
ideas. The Cypriate Syllabary, containing only fifty-four signs, is the 
only one to help us much in interpreting the Hittite language by compari- 
son; but probably old Turkish and Mongolian will ultimately be of service 
in determining completely the meaning of the inscriptions. 

Dr. Hume discussed the influence of Latin Syntax on English, an influ- 
ence exerted both directly and through the French. In the participle 
absolute, for example, Wyclif was under the influence of the Latin Vul- 
gate, as is seen by many examples in his translation of the Bible. Other 
illustrations were shown in the Accusative and Infinitive, which was rarer 



268 University Magazine. 

in early English, in wider use of the relative, in the plural of abstracts, 
in the inversions, balanced periods, etc. Light on this subject would be 
afforded by a study of the classical simile in our English poets. 

Professor Harrington called attention to the wide variety of cognate 
accusatives in Persius, quoting some representative examples, and show- 
ing thereby the general tendency in Persius to strain a construction almost 
to the point of a caricature. 

HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The N. C. Historical Society was called to order by Dr. Battle, in the 
history-room, Tuesday night, February 6th. After a few remarks by 
the President on the history of the Society the following papers were 
presented: 

"The Tuscarora Conspiracy in North Carolina," by H. M. Thompson. 
He said it was unknown how the Tuscaroras came to settle in North Caro- 
lina. They belonged to the same family as the Five Nations of New 
York, a nation of fighters as well as, in a way, statesmen. The conspiracy 
was an attempt at self-preservation. North Carolina was, at this time, 
governed by a deputy from South Carolina. The people were rebellious 
and refused to pay the taxes levied on them. When Queen Anne came 
to the throne new oaths were required of the colonists. These were 
refused and civil war broke out. Such was the condition of affairs when 
the great Conspiracy was formed and the conflict began. The war was 
marked everywhere by the greatest cruelty. On account of the dissen- 
sions of the settlers there was no organized defense, and it was only by 
the aid of South Carolina that the Indians were put down and their 
power finally broken by the destruction of Fort Nokoroca, in what is 
now Greene county. The remnant of the Tuscaroras removed to New 
York and became the sixth member of the confederacy of the Five 
Nations. 

T. R. Little next read a paper on the North Carolina Gazette, published 
at Newbern. He contrasted it with the newspapers of to-day, noticing 
that it lacked the sensational headings so characteristic of modern times. 
He commented on the great difference between the dates of the letters 
and that of the paper, due to the difficulty of transmitting news in 
those days. The advertisements are of much interest to us, giving an 
idea as to the custom then in vogue. Mr. Little read several of them. 

Prof. Alderman talked very entertainingly on the condition of slavery in 
early North Carolina. He said there were three sorts of slaves — red, white 
and black. The right to enslave Indians was not questioned, but the}' 
made poor slaves. The white slaves were of three classes: those who were 
kidnapped and brought over, those who were unable to pay their way over 



College Record. 269 

and so hired themselves out to pay for their passage, and lastly the rough 
element of the European cities who, instead of being sent to prison for 
misdemeanors, were sold to the colonists. He read extracts from the 
first set of laws published in North Carolina in codified form, bearing on 
the condition of slaves. 

After the election of Prof. Alderman as a Vice-President of the Society 
the meeting was adjourned. 

ELISHA MITCHELL SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY. 

The January meeting of the EHsha Mitchell Scientific Society was held 
Monday night, January 29th, in the chemical lecture-room. The first 
paper was read by Professor Cobb on "Topography of the King's Moun- 
tain Region." He showed that King's Mountain was formerly an island 
in a deep sea, supporting his theory by photographs of various portions 
of the region. The difference in the kinds of erosion showed that this 
mountain had been an island above the sea, while the surrounding lower 
mountains were underneath the sea. 

Dr. Venable gave next an abstract of an article in Science on 
" Absorption of Insoluble Material by Roots and Plants." If, on thor- 
ough investigation, it is found that this new idea holds true, it will no 
longer be necessary to render fertilizers soluble. Thus it will become 
unnecessary to treat phosphate rock with sulphuric acid to render it availa- 
ble if it is only grouud fine enough. This will greatly influence the manu- 
facture of fertilizers, at present one of our greatest industries. 

ALUMNI NOTES. 

Peter M. Wilson (i865-'67), late of the Executive Commission for North 
Carolina at the World's Fair, now holds an important position at Wash- 
ington, D. C, under Gen. W. R. Cox, Secretary of United States Senate. 

F. B. Dancy, 1881, late President of the Caraleigh Phosphate Mills, at 
Raleigh, has resigned and accepted a position as chemist of the Old 
Dominion Guano Co., at Norfolk, Va. 

R. S. Tucker, 1848, received the premium for the best wool exhibit at 
the World's Fair. 

W. R. Kenan (i86o-'6i) has been appointed by President Cleveland 
Collector of Customs for the Wilmington District. 

At a recent meeting of the Grand Lodge of Masons at Wilmington, 
N. C, John W. Cotten (i86i-'63), of Tarboro, N. C, was elected Most 
Worshipful Grand Master, and Francis M. Moye (1857-58), of Moyeton, 
N. C, Right Worthy Deputy Grand Master. 

Hon. Victor C. Barringer, 1848, whose term as Judge of the Interna- 
tional Court of Appeals, at Alexandria, Egypt, expired at the beginning 



270 University Magazine. • 

of the year, has decided to make a trip up the Nile before his return to 
America. He graduated at the University in 1848, with the reputation of 
the finest orator in his class. He was one of the commissioners to revise 
the statutes of the United States. Then going abroad, he resided for 
many years in Europe, until his removal to Alexandria. He sustained 
with credit the honor of his high position. 

St. Clair Hester, 1888, is assistant pastor of the Church of the Messiah, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

N. H. D. Wilson, 1886, is now pastor of a church at Frankliuton, N. C. 

Ernest P. Mangum, 1885, has charge of the Normal Department of Cul- 
howee High School. 

Kirby S. Uzzell, 1886, is a most prominent lawyer in Houston, 
Texas. 

R. T. Bryan, 1882, of the mission corps of the Southern Baptist Con- 
vention at Shanghai, China, is now in North Carolina. 

John B. Parkinson, Law 1893, is a professor in the Florida Agricul- 
tural and Mechanical College at Lake City. 

Rev. J. E. Fogartie, Ph. D., 1893, pastor of the Presbyterian Church, 
has accepted a call to Greenwood, S. C. 

The following members of the Law Class were granted license by the 
Supreme Court February 1st: H. R. Ferguson, Waynesville; H. W. 
Whedbee, Greenville; L. J. Moore, Whitakers; Victor H. Boyden, Salis- 
bury; O. H. Sumpter, Hot Springs, Ark.; Cooper, Asheville; J. A. 

Narron, Fayetteville; W. W. Vass, Jr., Raleigh; A. E. Kearn, New York, 
N. Y.; Walter Murphy, Salisbury; L. V. Grady, Wallace; F. W. Thomas, 
Asheville; L. C. Van Noppen, Durham; Frank Armfield, Monroe; J. R. 
McCrary, Lexington, and E. Y. Webb, Shelby. 

Macmillan & Co., of New York, have just issued "The Study of the 
Biology of Ferns by the Collodion Method," for advanced and collegiate 
students, by Geo. F. Atkinson, Ph. B., Associate Professor of Cryptogamic 
Botany, Cornell University. Professor Atkinson was Associate Professor 
of Natural History in the University of North Carolina from 1885 to 1888, 
and Mrs. Atkinson is a daughter of our Professor W. C. Kerr. 

MARRIAGES. 

Zebulon Vance Walser, 1884, was married to Miss Estella Adderton, at 
Lexington, N. C, January 31, 1894. 

Alpheus Paul Branch (i888-'89) was married to Miss Annie Harriss, at 
Wilson, N. C, January 31, 1894. 

George Warren Gaskill, Med., 1893, was married to Miss Pattie Styron, 
at Durham, Wednesday, January 31, 1894. 



College Record. 271 



DEATHS. 

James S. Battle, 1868, died January 27, 1894, at Spring Hope, Nash 
county, aged forty-eight years. Mr. Battle left the University in 1864 to 
join the Confederate army, but after the war returned to Chapel Hill and 
graduated in 1868. 

James S. Headen, 1839, died at his home in Pittsboro, N. C, on January 
26, 1894. Mr. Headen, after receiving his degree in 1839, returned to the 
University in 1848 and took the degree of A. M. 

Samuel E. Westray, 1858, died at his home in Nash county, near Rocky 
Mount, on February 15, 1894. Mr. Westray was a capitalist and finan- 
cier, and contributed much to the material prosperity of his section of 
the State. 

E. Burke Haywood (i843-'46) died January 18, 1894, at Raleigh, N. C, 
aged 69 years. After leaving the University Mr. Haywood studied medi- 
cine at the University of Pennsylvania. In 1861 he entered the war, and 
in the same year organized the first military hospital established in North 
Carolina. In 1868 he became President of the Medical Society of North 
Carolina. In 1870 he was one of the organizers of the Raleigh Academy 
for Medicine, of which he afterwards became President. In behalf of the 
insane of the State his work has been very important. For over twenty 
years he was one of the directors of the asylum. In his practice he had 
the highest reputation for professional skill. 



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UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



FACULTY. 

(Jeorge Tatloe Winston, LL. D., President, and Professor of Political and 
Social Science. 

Kemp Plummer Battle, LL. D., Professor of History. 

Francis Preston Venable, Ph. D., Professor of General and Analytical 
Chemistry. 

♦Joseph Austin Holmes, B. S., Professor of Geology- and Mineralogy. 

Joshua Walker Gore, C. E., Professor of Natural Philosophy. 

John Manning, LL. D., Professor of Law. 

Thomas Hume, D. U., LL. D., Professor of the English Language and Litera- 
ture. 

Walter Dallam Tot, M. A., Professor of Modern Languages. 

tEBEN Alexander, Ph. D., LL. D., Professor of the Greek Language and 
Literature. 

William Cain, C. E., Professor of Mathematics and Engineering. 

Richard Henry Whitehead, M. D., Professor of Anatomy, Physiology and 
Materia Medica. 

Henry Horace Williams, A. M., B. D., Professor of Mental and Moral Sci- 
ence. 

Henry Van Peters Wilson, Ph. D., Professor of Biology. 

Karl Pomeroy Harrington, A. M., Professor of the Latin Language and 
Literature. 

JCollibr Cobb, A. B., Professor of Geology and Mineralogy. 

Edwin Anderson Alderman, Ph. B. , Professor of the History and Philoso- 
phy of Education. 

Herbert Gushing Tolman, Ph. D., Professor of Sanskrit, Acting Professor 
of Greek. 

INSTRUCTORS AND ASSISTANTS. 

Charles Baskerville, B. 8c, Instructor in Chemistry. 

Thomas Roswell Foust, B. E., Instructor in Mathematics and Drawing. 

James Thomas Pugh, A. B., Instructor in Latin. 

Charles H. White, Assistant in Physical Laboratory. 

William Rand Kenan, Jr., Assistant in Chemical Laboratory. 



OFFICERS. 



J. W. Gore, Secretary and Registrar. 

E. A. Alderman, Librarian. 

F. C. Harding, Student Librarian. 
W. T. Patterson, Bursar. 



♦State Geologist, on leave of absence from the University. 
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zine by addressing 

THE UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE, 

CHAPEL HILX, N. C. 



1844. GOLDEN JUBILEE NUMBER. 

THE 

University © Magazi 

WILL CELEBRATE ITS 

FIFTIETH BIRTHDAY ON MARCH 

BY ISSUING A HANDSOMELY ILLUSTRATED 
JUBILEE NUMBER. 

Portraits of the Faculty of 1844 and the Fa 
of 1894, Views of the University Grounds, and 
interesting Articles prepared especially for this 
ber will make it peculiarly valuable to 
alumnus and to every intelligent North Carol 
We have a most remarkable offer to make yo 
connection with The Southebn Magazine. 



Address 



THE UNIVERSITY MAGAZI) 



CHAPEL. HILL, 



GOLDEN JUBILEE NT xBER 
Vol, XIII. MARCH-APRIL, 1894. Nos. 6 & 7. 




ICopyri/rlit, 1894, by Collier Cobb, lor the Diabetic and Philantroplc Societies.] 



DOUBLE NUMBER. 



PRICE 50 CENTS. 






NORTH CAROLINA 

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE. 

(Founded in 1844.) 
CONTENTS FOR MARCH-APRIL, 1894. 

PAGE. 

University of North Carolina Frontispiece. 

The Magazine for Fifty Years. Holland M. Thompson, 'ps 273 
Illustrations: The Cover designs of different series — Editors of 

the Magazine, 1894. 

The University for Fifty Years. Kemp P. Battle, '49 289 

Illustrations: Faculty of 1844 — Front view in 1844 — -View from 

Athletic Field in 1854. 

Zebulon B. Vance. A Poem. Henry Jerome Stockard 319 

Vance. A Poem. Leonard C. Van Noppen, '92 319 

102 West Hargett Street. Perrin Busbee, '93 320 

Desdemona. A Poem. Leonard C. Van Noppen, ' '92 324 

The University of To-day. Geo. T. Winston, {1866-' 68) 325 

Illustrations: Faculty and Instructors of 1894 — View from At£ 

letic grounds — Looking Fast on Cameron Avenue. 

The University in 1805. Stephen B. Weeks, '86 328 

Acme and Septimus. Poem. Herbert Bingham, '95 340 

Progress of Science 341 

The Earth's Interior. Chas. H. White, '94. 

Origin of Coal. L. JV. Hickerson, '94 343 

Illustrations: "Modern Language Notes." 

Book Notices .' 346 

I/oyola — Burg Neideck — Morceau Choisis d' Alphonse 
Daudet — Parisian Points of View — Myths of Greece 
and Rome — Whittaker's Anatomical Model — Iron Ores 
of North Carolina — Centennial Celebration of Raleigh. 

Hymn to Apollo. 252 B.C. In original Greek 354 

Translation of Hymn to Apollo. H. C. Tolman 355 

Among the Magazines. Holland M. Thompson, '95 356 

Current Comment. Caswell Ellis, ^94 359 

College Record. Fred. L. Carr, '95 361 

Philological Club — Flisha Mitchell Scientific Society — 
Shakespeare Club — Alumni Notes. 

Entered at the Chapel Hill Post-office as second-class mail matter. 

CHAPEL HILL, N. C: PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



north carolina 

University Magazine. 

Old series, ifoi. xxvi. nos. 6 1 7— march-april, \m. new series, vol nil. 

THE MAGAZINE FOR FIFTY YEARS. 

Though it has been fifty years since the first copy of 
the University Magazine was given to the public, 
continuous existence must not be understood. That exis- 
tence has been interrupted and broken. No less than 
four different times has The Magazine been sent 
forth. Its financial history has been much like that of 
similar publications everywhere. The securing" of 
sufficient money to pay the regular bills of the printer 
has vexed the soul of the business editor. Colleg-e 
periodicals have never paid very heavy dividends, and 
our magazine does not make an exception to the honor- 
able rule. 

1844. Before 1840 the influence of the University was 
growing- with each year. The class of 1844 contained 
some strong men, but by common consent Edmund De- 
Berry Covington of Richmond County was considered 
the brightest and most versatile. The determination to 
start a literary periodical was due to his enthusiastic 
efforts. A prospectus was issued and was followed 
shortly by "The North Carolina University 
Magazine, By a Committee of the Senior Class. ' ' The 
first number was issued in March, 1844, just fifty years 
ago. 



274 



The Magazine for Fifty Tears. 



i 



There were six editors, all from the senior class with 
the exception of one graduate. Five of the men who 
had control of this experiment are known. They were 
Robert H. Cowan of Wilmington, ID. DeB. Coving-ton, 
of Richmond county, and Samuel F. Phillips, of Chapel 
Hill, from the Dialectic Society; and James S. Johnston, 
of Halifax county, and L. C. Kd wards of Person 
county, from the Philanthropic. It has been impos- 



sible to fix 

ft- = 



definiteb 



the name of the other editor. 
Probably either George B. Wet- 
more, John H. Bryan, or Wm. 
H. Hinton filled the place, but 
accounts differ as to which one. 
The editorial staff was strong" 
and the co-operation of the Fac- 
ulty was assured. In fact, 
Governor Swain was an enthu- 
siastic friend of the enterprise 
from the beginning - and was al- 
ways ready to lend a helping 
hand. It was thoug'ht that the 
establishment of this magazine 
was the dawn of a brighter in- 
tellectual day for North Carolina. 

Thomas I/oring, a Raleigh printer, assumed the risk 
of publication and was to have the profits, if any. 
The subscription price was three dollars per annum 
and twelve numbers were to be issued. The first num- 
ber was received with mingled feelings of pride and 
disappointment. Forty eight pages had been promised, 
and as the editors had not sent down sufficient material 
the publisher made up what was lacking. He filled 
several pages with news items suitable for a weekly 




The Magazine for Fifty Tears. 275 

paper but not, as the mortified editors thought, consis- 
tent with the dignity of a literary magazine. 

The numbers followed in regular succession until 
July when the first board took leave of their readers 
expressing fears for the future. They had hoped to 
have a subscription list of nearly or quite five hundred 
names. They really had two hundred, ' 'more than half 
of whom have failed to comply with the terms of pay- 
ment in advance." The rejection of sundry contribu- 
tions had frightened, the writing portion of the students 
and few articles had been lately received. 

The prophesies of the editors seemed about to be 
realized. The August number did not appear, but in 
September a consolidated number of ninety-six pages 
was sent out. The issues then were regular, each con- 
taining an editorial lamenting lack of support. In De- 
cember the last farewell was spoken, and it was an- 
nounced that at the request of the publishers, numbers 
eleven and twelve would be "Indexes to Colonial Doc- 
uments," (which documents we now have as our Colo- 
nial Records) and ' ' Proceedings of the Safety Commit- 
tee." Mr. L/oring - lost heavily by his venture, thougdi 
it is said that Governor Swain reimbursed him, partially 
at least. In the closing editorial appears the follow- 
ing: 

"The history of The University Magazine of which this is the 
concluding - number may be told in a few words. Projected at an 
unfortunate epoch in the history of public feeling-— commenced with 
an insufficient patronage to justify publication without hazardous 
responsibility — confined to a contracted sphere of circulation — 
deprived of kind smiles and encouraging sympathy of friends it 
has lingered on through successive stages of existence, until having 
reached the contemplated goal of its short-lived career it takes its 
place among the 'things that were.' Its brief but eventful career 
contains an instructive lesson, a warning moral to all subsequent 
adventurers in the paths of literary glory. Reqtiieseat in Pace.'" 



276 The Magazine for Fifty Tears. 

1852. For seven years The Magazine slept. 
Meanwhile the University maintained a steady growth. 
The catalogue for 185l-'52 shows the largest number 
of students in attendance up to that time. A mass- 
meeting of the students possibly engineered by Gov- 
ernor Swain, was held in Chapel in 1851 and J. J. 
Slade moved the re-establishment of The Magazine. 
A prospectus was sent out in November or December, 
1851 and in Februar}^ 1852, the first number of the 
second series appeared. The editors were chosen by 
the senior class and all elections up to the next suspen- 
sion were by the junior class just before commence- 
ment. It was decided to print ten numbers and to 
lower the subscription price to two dollars a year. 
The editors went to work with a will and contributions 
were in plenty. There were no channels except the 
Societies and The Magazine through which whatever 
of intellectual activity there was could find expression. 
Before the end of the year there were five hundred and 
twent}^-five subscribers, which were enough to defray 
expenses of publication. The publisher was W. D. 
Cooke, of Raleigh, who printed it for a fixed sum and it 
was expected that all profits should go to the society 
libraries. (It may be stated here that there is no record 
of any money being turned over). 

The subscription list was large enough at all times 
up to the next suspension; but then, as now, some peo- 
ple forgot to pay their bills. In 1856 it was stated 
that there was $5000 unpaid on the books and that Mr. 
Cooke had not been paid regularly. He refused to print 
longer and to prevent legal proceedings the subscription 
books were given to him. The place of publication was 
removed to Chapel Hill where first it was printed by 
James M. Henderson, at the Gazette office, and later 



The Magazine for Fifty Tears. 



277 




by John B. Neatliery, who owned a printing- office here. 
The printers demanded pay in advance and money was 
often difficult to secure. There 
was no fixed sum upon which 
the management could rely and 
this hampered operations, un- 
less, as was occasionally done, 
a board assumed personal re- 
sponsibility. 

In the spring- of 1859 a motion 
that the Societies subscribe for 
a copy for each member was 
made but was lost. A substi- 
tute g-uaranteeing- payment for 
the subscribing- members was 
passed, however, and the bene- 1, 
ficial effects were seen immediately. The size was 
increased from forty-eight to sixty-four pages and 
other improvements were made. An examination of 
the books of the Societies shows that nearly all the 
members subscribed. 

There were 376 matriculates during the year 1860- 
'61. At the beginning of the next year scarcely a 
hundred returned. It was at once seen that further 
continuance of The Magazine was impracticable. 

The history of the University during the war is well 
known. When a few students began to come in dur- 
ing the years from 1865 to 1868, motions regarding 
re-establishment were made in the Societies at differ- 
ent times, but lack of members and a debt contracted 
in 1861 for furnishing the Halls forbade the attempt. 

1878. When the doors were again opened in 1875 
steps were taken to begin publication, but it was not 
deemed wise at that time. In September, 1877, the 



278 The Magazine for Fifty Tears. 

question was again brought up and reported favorably. 
The Societies elected the editors with no law as to 
class, but assumed no further responsibility. The 
first board was composed of F. D. Winston and J. B. 
Lewis, from the Philanthropic Society; and N. H. 
Street and ID. B. E^ngdehard, from the Dialectic. More 
is perhaps due to F. D. Winston than to any of the 
others. The price was fixed at two dollars and fifty 
cents for ten numbers which was soon reduced to two 
dollars. The number of students then in college was 
small and the number subscribing was smaller. The 
sympathy and co-operation of the Faculty was alien- 
ated, the second volume of this series was never fin- 
ished and the creditors were left hoping. 

1882. The students were not satisfied to remain 
long without an organ. Three suspensions stared 
them in the face but in 1881 the matter was again 
brought up. In September it was reported to the 
Societies that Rev. J. F. Heitman, then publishing the 
North Carolina Educational Journal here, would fur- 
nish four hundred copies of a 16-page journal for 
twenty dollars a month, and that the committees 
thought that two hundred and fifty subscribers at one 
dollar would suffice at the beginning. Editors were 
elected as follows: Dialectic Society, K. A. Alderman, 
C. W. Worth, T. M. Vance; Philanthropic Society, 
H. H. Williams, A. W. Long, T. W. Mayhew. In 
February the first number appeared. The editors 
knew the risk and therefore began very modestly, so 
modestly that they did not appropriate the honored 
name of the University organ. So the venture went 
forth as The University Monthly. 

An interesting circumstance is here related. The 
chairmen of the conference committees of the societies 



The Magazine for Fifty Tears. 279 

were elected editors. When they took the copy for the 
first number to the printer, they found him in great 
trouble on account of the drunkenness of his workman. 
A young- man who had learned the "art preservative " 
was visiting- his father in the villag-e. Attracted by 
that fascination which the types always hold over one 
who has learned their mystery, he came in and offered 
to take the place of the absent workman. This young- 
man put into type the first number of the fourth series. 
Eleven years afterward these three men met ag-ain at 
Chapel Hill. The Phi. Editor is Henry Horace Wil- 
liams, our Professor of Philosophy, the Di. editor 
is Edwin A. Alderman, Professor of History and Phil- 
osophy of Education, and the compositor, Collier Cobb, 
is Professor of Geology. 

In March each society agreed to give five dollars a 
month toward the expenses, and in September this 
amount was increased to seven dollars and a half each. 
This monthly appropriation of fifteen dollars was con- 
tinued until October, 1886, when each society agreed 
to give fifteen dollars monthly. This was a free gift 
entirely independent of the subscription list. 

Some dissatisfaction with the management arose 
during- 1887, and committees to sug-g-est another plan 
of operation were appointed. The committees reported 
in favor of what is the foundation of the present stipu- 
lations. The societies and the faculty each agreed to 
subscribe for at least one hundred copies for their use, 
and a member of the faculty was placed upon the 
board. 

The return to the old name took place in November, 
1884. There had been great improvement, and it was 
felt that the old name was not inappropriate. From 
this time the number of issues varied from ten to six, 



280 The Magazine for Fifty Tears. 

and the appearance likewise varied, with the ability 
of editors and managers. The first numbers contained 
sixteen pages, and the regular number was about 
thirty-two, though sometimes as many as sixty were 
printed. 

In November, 1892, the stipulations regarding editors 
were again changed. A managing editor was substi- 
tuted for the faculty editor and the election by each 
society of an editor from each of the three higher 
classes was instituted. The junior editors serve two 
years, so that only two places become vacant yearly in 
each society. The elections resulted in the selection of 
Prof. Collier Cobb for managing editor, and to his zeal 
and ability is due much of the success attained during 
the past year, as well as the establishment of The 
University Press. The Magazine is larger than at any 
time, except immediately preceding the war, and has 
the largest subscription list in its history. The num- 
ber of issues has been increased from six to eight, the 
whole typographical appearance has been improved 
and its influenced widened. It is taking its old place. 

II. MAGAZINE IDEALS. 

The purposes and aims of the Magazine have not 
always been understood, and some criticisims have been 
received on this account. This arises from different 
beliefs as to what a college magazine should be. There 
are some who think that a college paper should appeal 
to the student body alone for its audience and therefore 
would exclude all matter not directly interesting to 
it. With such a policy the subscribers are necessa- 
rily the students and possibly a few of the young- 
alumni whose interest in the routine of college life 
has not besrun to cool. 



The Magazine for Fifty Tears. 281 

The policy of The Uuiversity Magazine has 
always been different. It has been the belief that 
alumni generally, and outsiders as well, would subscribe 
if matter of interest to them is printed. That this is 
true the subscription list of to-day shows. Again 
what is interesting - to the undergraduate now is not so 
entertaining ten years hence and many preserve the 
numbers for the sake of the articles of value. Many 
articles of solid worth and merit have always been 
printed. The historical contributions are especially 
valuable. Much is contained in these numbers which 
can be found nowhere else. It is for these that The 
Magazine is regularly taken by Historical Societies 
and complete files are eagerly sought by the large 
libraries of the country. In short, the management 
has always tried to make a literary magazine for the 
State, though controlled and permeated by the spirit 
of the University, and full enough of the news and 
thought of alumni and college to be interesting to the 
students. 

1844. These ideals have not always been realized. 
It is possibleto see now why the 1844 volume failed. 
The articles smacked too much of the learning of the 
writers and there was too little of interest to any one 
who did not contribute. These were "Thoughts" 
upon the new-old question of influence of circumstances 
upon a man's career; the destiny or the duty of man 
was discussed in a stately manner; the immortality of 
brutes was considered, or the influence of woman was 
debated. The poetry is generally that of love addressed 
to some young lady whose heart had been proof against 
the sighs of the writer. The short stories were few 
and not of a high order, editorials were not extensive, 



282 



The Magazine for Fifty Tears. 



personals were unknown, and all names, even of the 
editors, were studiously concealed. 

There is one well written letter,, however, that is as 
interesting" now as then, because the subject is a live 
one. It is "The College Bore" and a good account of 
his customs and personality is given. The habits of 
the creature have not changed in fifty years. The 
historical articles begun in the first number alone 
make it valuable. 

1852. When the second series was begun the contri- 
butions were decidedly more entertaining. Subjects of a 

light nature were often chos- 
en. There are good descrip- 
tions, careful criticisms, an 
occasional attempt at dialect, 
some nature sketches, though 
historiceal pisodes and in- 
cidents are more frequent. 
The "Editor's Table" began 
to be a feature and matters 
pertaining to the college and 
the students were discussed 
with some degree of inde- 
pendence and sprightliness. 

There were many men in 
college from 1852 to 1860 and a place on the staff was 
considered an honor by the strongest. Some resorted 
to politics to secure the coveted place while others 
wrote to prove their fitness. Everything in those da} T s 
was unsigned but the students generally learned the 
authors. This rivalry was of much benefit to the 
magazine as the number of articles submitted was 
large and there was much variety. The editors being 
freed from any distracting cares as to what was to 




The Magazine for Fifty years. 283 

appear in the next number could give their time to 
making the "Editor's Table" readable. 

There is one class of articles during this period 
which deserves especial notice. This class is composed 
of the articles upon North Carolina History, written 
or inspired by Governor Swain. To him belongs the 
credit of doing the first effective work upon this neg- 
lected subject. Through marriage he secured many 
of Governor Caswell's papers, and through the His- 
torical Society he secured many manuscripts, letters, 
records, and newspapers, some of which are now almost 
priceless. The Society was chiefly composed of the 
Governor, himself, though subordinate offices were 
assigned to some members of the Faculty. From the 
material thus secured many papers of permanent inter- 
est and value were prepared. Governor Swain was 
not an easy writer and he often employed the pens of 
others to put his researches into shape. Professors 
Deems and Hubbard, and others from the Faculty, 
helped in this way. These articles are sign-posts 
toward our far-away goal, an exhaustive State history. 

During this period began also the graceful sketches 
of one who has since proved herself a friend to the 
University and a valued contributor to The Maga- 
zine. I refer to Miss Cornelia Phillips, afterward the 
wife of one who was among the best editors our peri- 
odical ever had. The occasional contributions of our 
present Professor of History were as interesting then 
as now, while the scholarly but beautiful productions 
of Professor Hubbard and Dr. Wm. Hooper added 
brightness to the pages. The South Carolina histo- 
rian, Joseph Johnson, also wrote his accurate though 
turgid historical sketches. These are only a few of 
the writers of the day, but at this time the authorship 



284 



The Magazine for Fifty Tears. 



of many contributions cannot be ascertained. During 
the latter part of the period each number contained a 
magnificent steel engraving* of some distinguished 
North Carolinian, generally an alumnus or Professor. 
It is enough to say that the proportion of light and 
heavy was so blended that when in 1860 the editors 
declared that they had the largest and best college 
magazine in the United States, their claim was not 
unfounded. 

1878. There is little to re- 
mind one of the ante-bellum 
magazine in the third series. 
The old custom of having some 
more serious article was par- 
tially kept up, but the two vol- 
umes of this series were more 
for the careless student than 
for the more sober alumnus. 
The "Personal Department" 
had a firm hold upon this series 
and much injured it. There 
were numerous allusions which 
could be understood by none 
except those knowing all the circumstances, and any 
one ignorant of the joke instinctively feeis that some- 
thing improper is veiled and is disgusted accordingly. 

1882-1892. The editors themselves did not claim 
any great merit for the little coverless waif of 1882, 
but the spirit with which it was conducted is deserving 
of the highest praise. Though the size was small and 
the subscribers few, yet the old time ideals were not 
forgotten. There was a constant striving for some- 
thing better. To 1884 there was constant improve- 
ment in quality together with the increasing subscrip- 





Chas. H. White. 



W. D. Carmichael, Jr. 





Collier Cobi 



James T. Pugh. 




Caswell Ellis. 




E. C. Gregory. 




Fred. L,. Carr. 
EDITORS OF THE MAGAZINE. 



The Magazine for Fifty Years. 285 

tion list. After that time quality varied with each 
new board. There are some valuable contributions 
during- this period and some faithful work was done by 
certain editors, but too often it was necessary to use 
Representative speeches or Mangum orations to fill the 
pages. There are some fine engravings in these num- 
bers. 

Of the quality of the later magazines the subscribers 
can themselves best judge, as they have the evidence 
of their own taste. 

III. THE EDITORS. 

Up to 1861 the editors were chosen, as mentioned 
above, by the junior class just before the end of the 
year. The positions were eagerly sought by the 
brightest men in each class, and it is not surprising 
that many have reached prominent positions. They 
are to be found in many states and in many professions. 
Some died before they could prove themselves. There 
seems to have been a close connection between college 
honors and an early death in those days before college 
athletics. The list taken from the Rolls of Confeder- 
ate Dead comprises Charlton W. Yellowley, Daniel W. 
Johnson, Wm. C. Lord, Edward S. Bell, George B. 
Johnston, Samuel P. Weir, George P. Bryant, Wm. 
T. Nicholson, John T. Jones, Oliver T. Parks, and 
David W. Simmons. It is to be noticed that the last 
three were all members of the Dialectic Society, of the 
class of 1861, killed before they began life. 

Some of those who have died after enjoying the 
respect and trust of their countrymen are Col. J. Irving 
Scales, of Greensboro, Maj. Joseph A. Englehard, 
Governor Vernon H. Vaughn, of Utah Territory, and 
R. C. Badger, of Raleigh. 



286 The Magazine for Fifty Tears. 

Among - the living" may be mentioned, first, our hon- 
ored Senator, £ebulon B. Vance, Prof. J. J. Slade, of 
Georgia, and W. D. Barnes, now closing- an honorable 
career in Florida, all of the 1852 staff. Judg-e H. R. 
Bryan, of Newbern, Hon. Clement Dowd, of Char- 
lotte, and A. H. Merritt, of Chatham, of the class of 
1857, are now living-, while Justice A. C. Avery, of 
the Supreme Court, and Hon. B. F. Grady, M. C, 
represent 1857. T. W. Mason belong-s to 1858, and 
Hon. C. W. McClammy, to 1859. 

There are two men who graduated during- this period 
who deserve mention, not so much for what they accom- 
plished as for what they promised. Both were cut off 
too early to show what they mig-ht have done. These 
two were Leonidas F. Siler, of Macon county, 1852, 
and James M. Spencer, of Alabama, 1853. Their work 
upon the Magazine, in the class room and the Di 
Society stamped them as men much above the ordinary. 

It is yet too early to speak with certainty concerning 
the men of recent years, but F. D. Winston, of Wind- 
sor, Supt. M. C. S. Noble, of the Wilmington Graded 
Schools, Hon. C. B. Aycock, of Goldsboro, and Revs. 
R. P. Pell and Alex. Phillips, are deserving of notice. 
In the fourth series Profs. H. H. Williams and ID. A. 
Alderman, of Chapel Hill, and A. W. Long, English 
Master at Lawrenceville, N. J., are worthy of men- 
tion. H. A. Latham, of Washington, now a success- 
ful journalist, deserves a place, while Dr. S. B. Weeks 
did much of that excellent work for which he is now 
so well known. Prof. W. J. Battle, of the University 
of Texas, Supt. Logan D. Howell, of Goldsboro Graded 
Schools, and Hunter L. Harris, whose tragic death is 
a matter of sorrow to many, have all recently left the 
desk. 



The Magazine for Fifty Tears. 



287 



CONCLUSION. 



NORTH 
CAROLINA 
UNIVERSITY 
MAGAZINE 



It will be seen that The Magazine has not always 
had such favorable surroundings as at present. There 
have been times when further publication seemed 
utterly impracticable, but there have been also men 
who were willing" to give time, talents and money to 
keep it alive. In ^.11 the 
troubles, financial and other- 
wise, though aid has some- 
times come from alumni or 
Faculty, yet the undergradu- 
ates have always been the 
staunchest and most sincere 
friends. They have given their 
money and sympathy when both 
were needed. The publication 
has been the charge of the So- 
cieties and without their help 
it could not have lived, and 
still owes much to them for its 
present prosperity. This series 
has lasted longer than any other and there is no proba- 
bility of an early suspension. The present position of 
the University representative among college periodicals 
generally, is a sufficient vindication of what has been 
the settled policy for its whole existence. 

Hoeeand M. Thompson, '95. 

University of North Carolina. 




TO ALMA MATER. 

As when, above the lowering - tempest cloud, 

Arises high the lighthouse crest serene, 

Triumphant o'er the frenzied intervene 

Of whirling" strife and breakers dashing- loud; 

So Alma Mater stands n'erewhile more proud, 

Unscathed, secure, with venerable mien, 

And bids the sons of Carolina glean 

Wisdom and truth from fields virtue-endowed. 

O, Mother, loved! — be still our guiding- star 

Soft shedding through the long and drear arcades 

Of weary years, — through mists and shades, 

Clear beacon glow to light us from afar; 

To cheer the yearning hearts that o'er this land 

Their vigils keep, awaiting thy command. 

Thos. Bailey Lee, '94. 



"FULL FIFTY YEARS." 

Full fifty years have flown since first there came 

To mirror college life this Magazine — 

Years that the birth and growth and death have seen 

Of genius rare, such as our annals name — 

Years that- have added honor to our fame 

And shed their lustre on the college green 

Where once our grandsires played. A war between 

Has swept, alas! with all-consuming flame. 

Such is the past of those long fifty years 
Which with the glory of this present 's crowned. 
Now Fortune guides the helm and far she steers 
Into the sea of hope, now runs aground. 
The winds propitious blow and all appears 
To augur here a University renowned. 

Leonard C. Van Noppen, '92. 




Elisha Mitchell. 



James Phillips, 





J. DkB. Hoopek. 



Manuel Fetter. 




William M. Green, 



Ralph H. Gravj 



Chas. M. F. Deems. 
THE FACULTY OF 1844. 



RECOLLECTIONS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF 
NORTH CAROLINA OF 1844. 

EXPLANATORY. 

My father became a citizen of Chapel Hill in 1843 
and my school days were spent here until I entered 
Freshman in 1845. I therefore write about the Univer- 
sity of fifty years ago from my own recollection, sup- 
plemented by the Faculty Records of' that year and 
the printed programmes of the commencement exer- 
cises. My readers will see that I have written cur- 
rente calamo. My aim has been to give some idea of 
the inner as well as the outer life of the University of 
1844. I confine myself chiefly to the differences from 
the life of 1894. 

TRUSTEES OR 1844. 

In 1844 there were 64 Trustees. They were then 
chosen by the General Assembly for life. It was con- 
sidered to be a grand honor to be a member. It was 
truly a noble body. At the head was Judge Potter of 
of the United States District Court, elected in the year 
in which Washing-ton died. Next to him was Judg-e 
Gaston of the Supreme Court elected in 1802, and then 
came John D. Hawkins, father of Dr. W. J. Hawkins 
of Raleigfh, and Judg-e Nash, both chosen in 1807. 

The Trustees in attendance on the Commencement 
of 1844 were the following: 

John M. Morehead, Governor and President of the 
Board; 

3 



290 University Magazine. 

George K. Badger, Simmons J. Baker, Wm, H. 
Battle, John H. Bryan, Weston R. Gales, Wm. A. 
Graham, James Iredell, Andrew Joyner, Charles Man- 
ly, Secretary and Treasurer of the Universit}^, Samuel 
P. Patterson, Thomas Ruffin, James Webb, and Jona- 
athan Worth. It would hardly be possible to get 
together an abler bod} 7 of men. As a rule they were of 
imposing physique. Most of them had already attain- 
ed or were destined to attain high office. Morehead, 
Graham, Iredell, Manly and Worth occupied the Gov- 
ernor's chair; Badger and Graham were Secretaries 
of the Navy and Senators of the United States, 
Iredell likewise a United States Senator, Ruffin was 
Chief Justice and Battle Judge of our Superior 
and then of the Supreme Court; Bryan member of 
Congress, elected at the same time to this office and 
to the State Senate; Hinton, Patterson and Worth, 
State Treasurers, and Baker a State legislator, and 
he and Webb very prominent physicians; Joyner speak- 
er of the Senate. Gales, editor of the leading" news- 
paper and Mayor of Raleigh. "Old Dr. Baker," as 
he was even then called, wore an old fashioned cue. 
They sat on the rostrum, with President Swain and 
each student felt that, whenever in coming years he 
could be elevated to similar honors, his noblest ambition 
would be realized. 

Judge Wm. Gaston, one of the greatest "all around" 
men this state ever had, was absent from the Commence- 
ment of 1844. He died suddenly on January 23rd 
previously. A Faculty committee, Judge Battle being 
chairman, reported resolutions on the subject. They 
declare that his death was "a great loss to the Union, 
to the State and to this University," that "as mem- 
bers of an institution of which he was more than forty 



The University Fifty Years Ago. 291 

years a guardian and benefactor, we feel ourselves 
called upon in an especial manner to honor his memory, 
and to propose to the youth committed to our trust his 
life and character as a noble example of the legitimate 
results of a pure, well-regulated and virtuous ambi- 
tion." 'This is hig-h praise and it is well deserved. It 
was on his motion, seconded by another active and 
sagacious Trustee, Judge Duncan Cameron, that the 
Board in 1804 resolved to have a President of the Uni- 
versity, instead of a ''Presiding' Professor," and unani- 
mously elected the first President Rev. Joseph Cald- 
well, twelve years afterwards honored with the degree 
of Doctor of Divinity. 

THE FACULTY OF 1844. 

President David L. Swain held the chair of National 
and Constitutional Law ; Rev. Klisha Mitchell, D. D., 
was Professor of Chemistry, Mineralogy and Geology; 
Rev. James Phillips, A. M., taught Mathematics and 
Natural Philosophy; J. DeBerniere Hooper, A. M., 
was Professor of the Latin Language, and French; Man- 
uel Fetter, A. M., was Professor of the Greek Language 
and Literature; Rev. Wm. M. Green, A. M., was Pro- 
fessor of Rhetoric and Logic; Rev. Charles M. F. Deems, 
A. M., was Adjunct Professor of Rhetoric and Logic; 
Wm. H. Owen, A. M., was Tutor of Ancient Lan- 
guages and Literature, and Ralph H. Graves was 
Tutor of Mathematics. 

There were two important changes made in the Fac- 
ulty during 1844. In January Ashbel G. Brown, (1843) 
was chosen Tutor of Latin and Greek in place of Wm. 
H. Owen, (1833) resigned, and Charles Phillips, (1841) 
in place of Ralph H. Graves, resigned, father of our 



292 University Magazine. 

late lamented Professor Graves. All of these were 
good teachers. Mr. Phillips, afterwards Rev. Charles 
Phillips, D. D., LIv. D., continued in service of the 
institution, with the exception of the period 1868-'75, 
when he was a Professor of Davidson College, until 
his death in 1889. 

It may interest the students of the present to know 
the nick-names of the teachers of half a century ago. 
The President was "Old Bunk," shortened form Bun- 
combe, the county of his birth. Dr. Mitchell was 
"Old Mike," given on the supposition that Mitchell 
and Michael are the same name, which is probably 
correct. Prof. James Phillips, because he emigrated 
from England, was "Old Bull," or "Old Johnny." 
Mr. Fetter was always called "Fet," or "Old Fet." 
Mr. afterwards, Bishop Green, was known as "Par- 
son." Mr. Graves was "Ralph"; Mr. Brown, "Ash,". 
Mr. Charles Phillips weighed about 235 lbs. and was 
always styled "Fatty." I think Professor Hooper 
was shortened into "Hoop," and Professor Deems was 
known on account of his youth and slender stature as 
"Little Deems." He afterwards dropped the M out 
of his name, and was only Charles Force Deems. 

President Swain, never so called, but always Gover- 
nor Swain, was at the height of his powers mental and 
physical. He was bright in conversation, fond of pun- 
ning, had a powerful memory stored with genealogies 
of North Carolina families, facts of our history and 
anecdotes of public men. He did not read much. His 
figure was tall and exceedingly ungainly but imposing. 
He had a kind heart and was very popular. His resi- 
dence was that next to the Episcopal Church, now 
occupied by Prof. Wilson. 

Dr. Mitchell had a big frame and a big brain. He 



The University Fifty Tears Ag~o. 293 

might have been very distinguished if he had not aspir- 
ed to be universally learned. He could teach in any 
department. He was Bursar. He was a town com- 
missioner and a Justice of the Peace. He was then 
finishing the gra}*stone walls which enclose our cam- 
pus and the Professor's homes belonging to the Univer- 
sity. He was one of the Chapel preachers. His pray- 
ers appeared to the youthful mind, eager for the sup- 
per table, portentously long. They were always the 
same petitions in invariable order. How anxious we 
were to hear "line upon line, precept upon precept, 
here a little and there a little," for we knew he was 
then half through, and the rest would be on the home 
stretch to the finish! His sermons were strong and 
sensible, but, as he read from manuscript and did not 
look at the audience, they were rather dry for the 
young. 

Prof. James Phillips, not -D. D. until 1850, was a 
very strong mathematician. The students were much 
afraid of him. They thought he was an expert boxer, 
and fencer, and fighter with single-stick. He was not 
familiar with them as were Governor Swain and Dr. 
Mitchell. But though rough in appearance, his heart 
was large and kindly. As a preacher he was exceed- 
inglj earnest and often eloquent. His prayers were 
as if he actually felt himself in God's presence. 

Professor Fetter, although his students teased him 
in his recitation room, had a warm place in their 
hearts. He was well versed in the reading and pars- 
ing of Greek, but had the defect of most classical 
teachers of his day, that of not calling attention to the 
literary excellencies of the books he taught. It was 
in 1844 that he refused to pass nearly all the junior 
class on the Medea of E^uripedes. Whereupon the 



294 University Magazine. 

unfortunates dressed the book in black crape, marched 
by the Professor's home in solemn procession, and then 
back to the great Davie Poplar and buried it with 
funeral honors. Over it was a slab of sandstone on 
which was inscribed Hie Jacet Medea. On the 
corner in small letters was "E. Hinton, sculpsit." 

Professor Hooper was a man of peculiarly gentle 
manners, but he gave the impression of possessing great 
reserved power. The noisiest students were quiet in 
his presence. He was regarded as a broad and accu- 
rate scholar. He was possessed of an excellent Eng- 
lish style. His accomplishments in the classics was 
recognized, but his pronunciation in French' was 
thoug'ht to be such as is learned from books, rather 
than from conversation with a native of France. 

Professor Green, afterwards Bishop of Mississippi, 
combined in great degree suavity of manners with 
strength of character. He was a good teacher, as far as 
he went, but his heart seemed to be in his clerical duties 
more than in his department. He divided with Dr. 
Mitchell the office of University preacher, officiating 
on alternate Sunday mornings. He held prayers every 
morning and Dr. Mitchell every afternoon. Both care- 
fully refrained from inculcating doctrines peculiar to 
their denominations. Professor Green's sermons were 
always sensible and interesting, but he could not be 
called eloquent. His delivery was smooth and grace- 
ful. 

Prof. Green, in 1844, had inaugurated two enter- 
prises which he was prosecuting with energy. The 
first was the .building of the Episcopal church, the 
first in the village, which he succeeded in finishing 
after expending largely of his own means. The 
second was allowing students the option of attending 



The University Fifty Tears Ago. 295 

divine service in the village, instead of in the Univer- 
sity Chapel (Gerrard Hall). This was resisted with 
acrimony by some members of the Faculty but after 
several years was authorized by the Trustees, at first 
in favor of church members, and afterwards the privilege 
was allowed to all. The whole system of compulsory 
attendance may sound well, but in practice it did not 
conduce to edifying". There are very many more 
actively religious men under the voluntary plan. 

Professor Deems, in addition to his worth in his own 
department had a class in Latin. He did not care for 
the niceties of parsing and grammar, but brought out 
the literary power of the work studied remarkably 
well. He was not much over twenty-one years old, 
was admired as a preacher of clearness, force and 
eloquence. He seldom officiated before the students 
but preached often at Orange church in the country, 
and was pastor of the Methodist congregation of the 
village, whose church, named Bethesda, was a plain 
room above a store, with only backless benches for 
seats. 

The tutors were all good teachers. They were 
equal to their professors in this regard, though, of 
course, not so learned. I was not under the tuition of 
Graves and Owen, but I remember that Brown and 
Phillips were uncommonly zealous and successful. 
Man}^ thought Phillips the best teacher we had. 

STUDIES AND HONORS. 

. The instruction was chiefly in Latin, Greek and 
Mathematics. For example, Chemistry, Geology, 
Mineralogy, Botany, Zoology, occupied only three 
hours a week for nine months ; Metaphysics, Political 



296 University Magazine. 

Economy, Constitutional end International Law occu- 
pied the same time. 

No laboratory work was required in Chemistry or 
any other science, but the Professors of Chemistry and 
Natural Philosophy performed experiments before 
their classes. The teaching was generally quite 
thorough but theoretical in its character. Much 
attention was paid to pure Mathematics, less to its 
application. In the classics there was no instruction 
in Latin and Greek composition, but there was required 
a minute acquaintance with the meanings and deriva- 
tions of the words, the cases and gender of nouns, the 
tenses of verbs, and the rules of grammar and prosody. 
The effect was to make these languages odious to the 
averag'e student. Recitations were exceedingly tedious, 
and consequently disorder was not infrequent in one or 
two of the rooms. 

The impression on the mind of the students was 
that the chief object of the professors was to ascertain 
whether they had learned the lessons assigned. The 
rule was to mark the value of the answers as soon as 
the catechising ceased and the average of these showed 
the standing. There were seven grades, "very good," 
"good," "very respectable," "respectable," "toler- 
able," "bad," and "very bad." Those who obtained 
"very good" in all, or nearly all, their studies had the 
first distinction. Those who averaged "good" obtain- 
ed the second distinction. The "very respectable" had 
third distinction. The .students, however, classed 
these as 1st, 2nd and 3rd "might" men. I have been 
unable to discover any institution where this word 
"might" was used in the sense prevalent at Chapel 
Hill. 

The examinations counted hardly more than single 



The University Fifty Tears Ago. 297 

recitations. Sometimes tliey were oral, sometimes in 
writing - , lasting - one hour or an hour and a half. It 
was not considered dishonorable to cheat, provided the 
cheater only "passed." If he used his sharp practices 
to obtain one of the three honors the student body 
frowned on him. 

DIPLOMAS. 

Diplomas were easily gained, They were, in fact, 
nothing - else than certificates of attendance on the Uni- 
versity exercises. In this class of 1844 one student 
obtained his degree of A. B. whose grades in the senior 
year were "very bad" in Latin, "tolerable" in Chem- 
istry and in Constitutional Law. Another equally for- 
tunate was "bad" in one study, "tolerable" in two 
studies, and "respectable" in the fourth. Nor was 
the man "very bad" in Latin passed through because 
of his orderly behavior. It is recorded that during - his 
senior year he was absent from prayers 227 times, from 
recitations 137, and from church 19 times, while there 
were charged against him 44 demerits. The Faculty 
Journal shows that a special committee of two profes- 
sors were requested to call on this gentleman, about 
three months before graduating day, and warn him 
that his absences from duty were jeopardizing his 
chances of obtaining a diploma. It was not deemed 
necessary to" hint to him that the "very bad" standing 
in Latin should be improved. 

By common consent the scholarship was attested by 
the distinctions awarded. These were read out pub- 
licly and published in the newspapers. Those who 
obtained them did faithful work. While the minimum 
standard of scholarship needed for obtaining a diploma 
4 



298 University Magazine. 

now i. e. much higher than in old days, I do not think 
that the better scholars study harder now than then. 
Those of to-day, however, have the advantage of supe- 
rior methods of teaching, and opportunities of labora- 
tory work and more free access to good books. They 
have also a far wider range of subjects taught. 

THE BURSAR. 

Dr. Mitchell was the Bursar of the University. It 
was popularly supposed that he carried the accounts in 
his head but this was a slander. In addition to the 
other duties of a Treasurer he had charge of all repairs. 
Kach student paid four dollars as "deposite money," 
and all injuries to University property, not traceable 
directly to the perpetrator, were paid for out of this 
fund. The residue was to be returned. Of course 
fault-finders declared that there was unfairness. A 
gray horse owned by the g^ood doctor was named by 
the students "Old Deposites," but this did not hurt 
his master's character. It was considered as a joke. 
The whole system was bad. One student at a latter 
date said, "Boys! we won't get any deposites back in 
money, so I'll take mine out in glass." Then he 
smashed out two dozen window panes, which he 
thoug'ht would cover his four dollars. 

THE COLLEGE SERVANTS. 

Next to the Faculty came the college servants, 
Dave Barham, and Doctor November. The name Doc- 
to was in honor of Dr. Caldwell. They were excellent 
servants. They were quick beyond belief in making 
fires, which were kindled always before daylight. 



The University Fifty Tears Ag~o. 299 

One would come into a room, with a basket of dry 
chips on the left arm and a bunch of burning 
"light-wood" in the left hand. Then a large stick 
of wood from the pile in the room was thrown 
to the back of the fire place, followed by one 
of similar size in front, with one smaller in the middle. 
Two or three of the blazing- fragments of the torch 
were placed in the cavity between the front and rear 
sticks, and covered over with chips. Two sticks on 
top completed the fire. I never heard of a failure. If 
only a small fire was required the back log was dis- 
pensed with and the blazing torchlets were placed on 
top of the small stick next to the bricks. 

Dave and Doctor had great tact in that they pleased 
Faculty and students. They made much money for 
themselves, which their masters allowed them to retain. 
Few students blacked their own boots or carried their 
own parcels. The profits of such jobs went to the 
servants. 

Then there were licensed wood-cutters, the chief of 
whom was Tom Jones. Tom kept his axe under the 
South Building. He died suddenly from apoplexy 
without having time to arrange his earthly matters. 
Alongside of his axe was found a quantity of corn 
whiskey, which he had been selling under the name of 
"light-wood." So it came to pass that Tom's memory 
was execrated — by the Faculty. 

GRAVE AND REVEREND SENIORS. 

The Seniors of those days were specially privileged 
and as a consequence responded by superior dignity 
and manliness of conduct. They were exempt from 
attending the most odious recitation, that before break- 



300 University Magazine. 

fast. To them was likewise given a month's holiday 
anterior to commencement. This was preceded by 
"Senior Speaking," original orations being delivered 
in the "New. Chapel," i. e., Gerrard Hall, before the 
public. A student band, generally two violins and a 
flute or two, furnished the music, which was uncom- 
monly sweet and enlivening. Richard, or "Dick," 
Weaver, was a noted flute player. The orations were 
of the usual dig'nity and solemnity, but there was 
always what was called a "Funny." In 1844 Long 
was the comical man. I recall only one passage. He 
began, , 

"You'd scarce expect one of my size, 
Before the public gaze to rise! 
And if I shall chance to fall below, 
Horner high or Duncan low, 
Don't view me with a critic's eye 
But pass my imperfections by." 

As Horner was about six and a half feet in height, 
and "Duncan," i. <?., Alexander Duncan Moore, though 
very active and strong, was only about five feet, two, 
the students rewarded the hit by kicking the uncar- 
peted floor with resounding heels with a noise which 
echoed from McCauley's Mill to Piney Prospect. 

Long speeches were taboed. Sight minutes were 
the extreme limit. Orations by Representatives from 
the two societies were abolished a few years before 
this, and declaimers chosen by the Professor of Rhe- 
toric substituted, because Ferebee insisted on consum- 
ing twenty-five minutes. 

Declamations were required of all, except seniors, 
in the Chapel after prayers, formerly before the Fac- 
ulty and students ; in 1844 only before the Faculty. 




THE UNIVERSITY IN 1844-FRONT. 



UNIVERSITY IN 1854-FROM ATHLETIC FIELD. 



The University Fifty Years Ago. 301 

THE COMMENCEMENT OE 1844 

was exceptionally brilliant. It was tlie semi-centen- 
nial of the series. The graduating- class was the 
largest except that of 1841, 40 in number, one fourth of all 
the students, 160. 

The Chief Marshal was a polished and handsome 
gentleman, Virginius H. Ivy, of the city of Norfolk, 
afterwards a leading- lawyer of Texas. His "Subs" 
were Samuel J. Calvert, Eugene J. Hinton, Thomas 
T. Slade and Leonidas Tajdor. The last named, an 
esteemed physician of Oxford, is the only survivor. 

THE DECEAIMERS. 

The Freshman Declaimers were Thomas I. Sharpe, 
Lionel L. Levy, Eli W. Hall, William H. Manly, John 
A. Benbury, John Pool. Of these Pool became a 
United States Senator. The only living is L. L. Levy, 
a prominent lawyer of New Orleans. William Henry 
Manly, son of Governor Manly, was one of the most 
graceful and imposing speakers I ever knew. He died 
soon after graduating. 

The Sophomore Declaimers were Richard N. Forbes, 
Lucian Holmes, John Napoleon Daniel, Edward H. 
Hicks, Owen II. Whitfield, Richard T. Weaver. The 
Fresh were thought to have carried off the honors. No 
prizes were offered in those days. All the Sophomore 
Declaimers have gone to the spirit land. Holmes, 
while a senior, married a ward of Professor Green, a 
lady of the rarest beauty and loveliness of character, 
Mary Shaw Mitchell, who soon was a victim of pul- 
monary consumption, valde deflenda. 



302 University Magazine. 

GRADUATING ORATIONS. 

The Latin Salutatory oration was delivered by 
George B. Wetmore. Of this one phrase, at least, 
"Formosissimae puellae Septemtrionalis Carolina^," was 
clearly understood and loudly applauded by the only 
method allowed, stamping* of feet. Prompting* and 
referring* to manuscripts were strictly prohibited. 
Wetmore violated the latter rule. Learning* that his 
conduct was condemned by the Faculty, he sent back 
his diploma, but nothing* openly interrupted the har- 
mony of the proceeding's. As a special honor IDdward 
B. Lewis was awarded an oration in French, on Le 
Genie de Voltaire. The third special oration, the Vale- 
dictory, was in 1837 made the hig*hest in dig*nity, the 
Latin salutatory being* second. Whenever, as in 1844, 
there were more than one first honor man they cast 
lots for these two. Stephen Addison Stanfield, had 
the best luck in this, probably the only, game of chance 
he ever played. Sometimes the valedictorian confined 
himself to his "Farewell" to Faculty, Students, Class- 
mates, and others, with thoughts of the past and 
hopes of the future. Sometimes he appended such 
an oration on a different subject. Stanfield chose the 
latter course, his subject being* "Mutual Interests of 
Individual and Society, with the Valedc.tory." 

Only those who obtained a distinction were allowed 
the honor of an oration. It may be interesting to note 
what subjects were chosen by the Seniors of fifty 
years ago; James S. Johnston, spoke on "State Sover- 
eignty," Wm. F. Barbee, on "Genius of Fulton and 
Whitney," John H. Bryan, on "Columbus," Robert 
Cowan, on "Influence of Literature on Society," 
HlfredG. Foster, on "Our Navy," Pleasant H. Dalton, 



The University Fifty Years Ago. 303 

on ' 'Instruction of the Deaf and the Dumb, ' ' John Ballan- 
f ant, on "Influence of Moral Principle on Intellect, " 
Wm. S. Battle, on "Progress of Free Principles; James 
H. Horner, on "Independence of the Judiciary;" E)xum 
L. Whitaker, on "Prison Discipline;" Robert T. Ful- 
ler, on "State of Parties in our Country;" Walter I/. . 
Steele, on ' 'Right of a Legislature to instruct Senators. ' ' 

Of these Messrs. Cowan, Horner, Johnston, Stan- 
field and Wetmore obtained the first distinction; 
Messrs. Barbee, Battle, Dalton, Fuller, Lewis, Steele 
and Whitaker the 2nd, and Messrs. Ballanfant, Bryan, 
and Foster, the 3rd. It may be thought that the rule 
confining the orations to "might men" would not bring 
out the best speakers, but this proved to be a mistake. 
The most successful both as to matter and delivery, 
with rare exceptions, were found on the Commence- 
ment rostrum. 

It was announced by President Swain that James S. 
Johnston had been during four years perfectly punc- 
tual. He had attended about 5000 duties, and never 
had a demerit. The same was true of President Polk. 
Indeed there were in every graduating class one or 
two similar examples. 

President Swain stated that the distinguished men 
in this class were more numerous in proportion to the 
poor scholars than in any other up to that time. With 
it was connected an optional student, a first honor 
graduate of the class of 1841, reviewing some of the 
studies, Samuel Field Phillips, destined to become 
Solicitor General of the United States, the second law 
officer of the government. Of the five first honor men, 
in regular standing, Robert H. Cowan became a promi- 
nent lawyer, Colonel in the Confederate army, Rail- 
road President and legislator; James H. Horner was 



304 University Magazine. 

the eminent head of the Horner School at Oxford. 
Stephen A. Stanfleld and George B. Wetmore were 
able ministers, the former of the Presbyterian, the lat- 
ter of the Protestant Kpiscopal Church. Of the 2nd 
and 3rd honor men, Lewis, a respected teacher, died 
early of consumption, and Whitaker, a Captain in the 
Mexican war, died in service. The others were all 
men of character and weight, two of them, Fuller, as 
Judge of the Supreme Court of Arkansas, and Steele 
as State legislator, as a very active University Trustee 
and as a member of Congress, having distinguished 
reputations. 

Of those who obtained no distinction, L/eonidas C. 
EMwards is recognized as a lawyer of uncommon abili- 
ty and Thomas Ruffin became an eminent judg-e of the 
Supreme Court of our State. 

Of the honor men of the junior class of 1844, J. B. 
Batchelor attained the dignity of Attorney General of 
North Carolina, R. P. Buxton and Geo. V. Strong of 
Superior Court Judges, F. D. Lente was an eminent 
physician in New York. Of the Sophomore class, W. 
S. Bryan is a judge of the Supreme Court of Maryland, 
and S. H. Rogers was Attorney General and a mem- 
ber of Congress. Of the Freshman class those who 
attained most eminent positions in after life were James 
Johnston Pettigrew, confederate General, Matt W. 
Ransom; General and United States Senator and John 
Pool United States Senator. Pettigrew was especial- 
ly honored by always being marked "excellent" in 
Mathematics. It was amusing to see him disconcert the 
Professor of Mathematics by rattling off the demon- 
strations of every problem in the lesson before he 
could be stopped. Ransom, though not equal to 
him in Mathematics, shared the first distinction with 
him and was regarded as excelling* him in oratory. 



The University Fifty Tears Ago. 305 

THE CHIEF MARSHAL, AND HIS SUBS. 

The greatest man at Commencement, except the 
Governor of the State, the President of the University 
and the Orator before the two Societies, was the Mar- 
shal. He was elected from the Junior class, from 
each Society alternately, by all the students. Some- 
times there were two competitors and strong - electioneer- 
ing-, much money spent and dissipation encouraged. 
This led finally to the abolition of universal suffrage, 
but in 1844 it was in practice. Its effect was to 
heighten the interest of the students generally in the 
Commencements and the officers. 

The selections were as a rule excellent. The mar- 
shal was conspicuous for good manners, a handsome 
person and s avoir /aire. He selected six assistants, 
called "Subs," and he took pains to make his term 
successful by having them possessed of qualities simi- 
lar to his own. 

Part of their duties was to ride out on the Raleigh 
road to meet and escort the band into the village. 
Truly it was a gallant sight. All the students and 
Faculty, and all the village turned out to listen to the 
music, and to witness one of the noblest spectacles in 
all the world, graceful young men, skilfully managing 
spirited horses. 

Another duty of the Marshals, now discontinued, 
from which they probably get their names, was form- 
ing and preceding a procession of the men at Com- 
mencement to the Chapel. Standing on the steps of 
the South Building the chief called out 16 classes, 
beginning with the Orators of the Day, then the Gov- 
ernor and President of the University, then the Trus- 
5 



306 University Magazine. 

tees, Faculty and students of the University, and so on, 
ending - with citizens and strangers generally. 

As these were called they were arranged two and 
two by the Subs along what was then a mere road, 
now Cameron Avenue, with the head of the column 
towards the west. The Marshal placed the band in 
front of the east or rear end and marching in front con- 
ducted the column in reverse order by the most conven- 
ient route around the old Caldwell monument, then a con- 
spicious object, but now overshadowed by the New West 
building. As the monument was passed all raised their 
hats. Arriving at Gerrard Hall a halt was called 
and the Marshal, leaving the band to play near the 
door, marched through the column dividing the men 
right and left, with his gold headed cane. He then 
conducted the Orators' of the Day, on Wednesday the 
speakers before the two Societies, and the Historical 
Society, on Thursda}^ the Seniors, into the Hall, the 
the rest of the procession falling in behind them ac- 
cording to the rule of precedence. This imitation of 
martial pomp was kept up successfully until our peo- 
ple became sickened by the results of the great civil 
war. A revival of these processions was attempted in 
1875 but after two or three failures they were discon- 
tinued. 

The Orator before the two Societies, elected by the 
Philanthropic Society was James B. Shepard of Ral- 
eigh, United States District Attorney. His address 
was said to have been successful, in matter and man- 
ner. It was noticed that he spoke with his hands en- 
closed in black kid gloves, an innovation which did not 
meet with imitators. 

In the afternoon there was an address before the 
Historical Society delivered by the Bishop of the Pros- 



The University Fifty Tears Ago. 307 

testant Episcopal church in North Carolina, Right 
Rev. Levi Silliman Ives. Bishop Ives was an eloquent 
orator and .fully sustained his reputation. 

The Alumni Association of the University of North 
Carolina then adopted its constitution and elected its 
first officers. The President was Governor Morehead; 
the Vice-Presidents Charles Hinton, W. A. Graham, 
Hugh Waddell, John D. Hawkins, Lucius J. Polk, and 
William H. Haywood Jr. The Secretary was Charles 
Phillips; the Treasitrer, A. G. Brown. The Execu- 
tive Committee were Rev. W. M. Green, Judge Battle 
and Prof. Hooper. 

THE BAIvL. 

The Ball Managers were likewise elected by all the 
students. Although they had for dancing only the 
large dining room of the Hotel, and the ball was 
closed long before daylight, and notwithstanding cot- 
illons and waltzes and occasional reels were in place 
of Germans and Lancers, there was as much enjoyment 
as now, if not more. Pre~engagements for sets, long 
in advance, were not common. Such a thing as a 
young lady willing to dance not having an oportunity, 
was never heard of. It was the duty of the managers 
to supply beauless ladies with partners. Then as now 
there was panicky terror at the prospect of being 
chained to a "wall-flower." 

The Band was composed of colored men — very much 
colored — mostly black, The leader was famous, 
Frank Johnston. They did not play as artistically as 
the Richmond band of our day but they were more 
enduring and accommodating. Frank's orders to the 
dancers, "Promenade all." "Chassez," etc, floated 
into the night air a mile from the Ball-room. 



308 University Magazine. 

IRRITATING RULES AND DISORDER. 

Tendency to disorder was fostered by the irritating- 
mode of discipline, inherited from ancient times when 
possibly it was expedient. One Tutor was required 
to reside in the E)ast, the other in the West Building - , 
in the 2nd stories, both looking- towards the well. 

All classes recited at the same hours, the first before 
breakfast, the second at 11 o'clock A. M., the third 
at 4 o'clock in winter and 5 in summer. From the 
afternoon recitations all proceeded to the Chapel for 
Prayers. Students were required to be in their rooms 
in "study hours," that is, from 9 to 12, and 2 to 5 in 
the afternoon at one season, and from 8 to 12, and 3 to 
6 at the other. Then at one season at 8 o'clock at 
night, at the other at 9 o'clock, a notice bell was rung, 
and they must be in their rooms eng-ag-ed in study or 
sleep. It was a breach of the rules, for which they 
were liable to be called to account, to visit the village, 
eng-ag-e in any game, or sit on the steps during study 
hours, or sleep hours. A standing joke was, when the 
Freshmen were green and tender, for an idle upper 
class man, usually a Soph, to watch for the appearance 
of one in the area between the buildings, IDast, South 
and West, and shout "Fresh in the Campus;" where- 
upon almost every window facing this area would 
be thrown up, and yelling throats in each would 
take up the chorus. It was trying to the nerves, as I 
well recollect. After the Fresh joke became stale, 
any unusual appearance, except ladies who were gazed 
on in courteous silence, was greeted by similar shouts. 
These were maddening to the Professors and Tutors, 
whose duty it was to preserve order. It was shortly 
before 1844 that one of these college jokers caught a 



The University Fifty Tears Ago. 309 

Tartar. A shabbily dressed, slouchy country boy was 
passing- near the well. 'The smart student shouted 
from his window ba-a-a! The country boy drawled 
out, "Yer looks more like a sheep than yer bleats like 
one !" The discomfiture of his assailant was intensified 
by the jeering - laughter of four score college mates. 
They are merciless always to the under dog - in such a 
fight. This story is authentic. The late Dr. Rich- 
ard B. Haywood of Raleigh told me that he witnessed 
the scene. 

The student conscience regarded lig-htly teasing - , or 
as it was called "devilling - ," certain professors, whose 
defective powers of command made them the target for 
such treatment. This was because the schoolboy 
mode of discipline led to resentments towards the 
Faculty. Besides the rules which I have given the 
members of the class were required to sit in alphabeti- 
cal order, to sit upright on benches, whose backs were 
of rig-id perpendicularity, to stand in front of the pro- 
fessors while reciting - in most departments, while all, 
except classical, books were forbidden to be taken into 
the recitation rooms. All students were compelled to 
attend prayers long - before sunrise in winter, and about 
sunrise at other seasons, besides the prayers held each 
afternoon, except Saturdays. Compulsory attendance 
on divine worship in the Chapel on Sundays at 11 o'clock 
A. M., was insisted on, even in bitter cold weather with- 
out fires. The classes must all sit together, and the roll 
was called by a Tutor beginning with the Seniors in 
in alphabetical order, then with the Juniors, and so on. 
The President sat on the rostrum with the officiating 
minister at Prayers, the other members of the Faculty 
being located so as to enclose the "student body" with 
a* cordon of watchers. In the afternoon on Sundays 



310 University Magazine. 

there was compulsory Bible class, the Seniors a year 
or two afterwards exchanging- the Bible for Wayland's 
Moral Science. 

There were no recitations before breakfast on Satur- 
days and Sundays and consequently students could, 
after attending prayers, sleep until breakfast hour. On 
those mornings particularly the spectacle was by no 
means edifying. Numbers would rush into the Chapel, 
with faces unwashed and hair uncombed, clad only in 
chamber wrappers, great-coats, or counterpanes, and 
as soon as the longed for Amen was pronounced, 
hurry back to bed. One of the Juniors of 1844, 
Napoleon (or Pone) Daniel, being warned by the Fac- 
ulty that his limit of absence, had been reached, took 
his pillow into the Chapel about midnight, determined 
to be at roll-call. He selected a rear pew, and slept 
profoundly through roll-call and the subsequent ser- 
vice. The question is, was he absent from Prayers or 
not? 

It was the duty of the Tutors especially, to watch the 
students to see that they remained in their rooms in study 
hours, and to repress all disorder. Besides this each 
professor was required to take his turn in visiting every 
dormitory at least once during his week of service, 
and remain in the buildings until bed time. A student 
found out of his room in study hours could be ordered 
peremptorily to repair to it at once. There was a sys- 
tem of demerit marks. If Professor or Tutor thought 
the offence too grave to be punished by a demerit 
mark, the sinner was ordered to appear before the Fac- 
ulty. There he was lectured often sharply, the cus- 
tom being for the President to call on the members of 
the Faculty singdy, beginning with the youngest in 
service and ending with Dr. Mitchell, for such censure 



The University Fifty Tears Ago. 311 

as they felt inclined to give. It is easy to see that 
this system led to angry collisions sometimes, and to 
hostile feelings frequently. The crashing of stones 
through a Tutor's window was not infrequent. Know- 
ing that some of the Faculty would leave their warm 
beds and engage in a race after the offenders it was 
piquant fun to ring the bell, which was in a bel- 
fry near the well, shout, fire pistols and make 
other like noises. If caught they were probably 
suspended, or in their own language "rusticated" for 
two or three weeks. Sometimes I grieve to say there 
would be bad corn whiskey among them, which would 
incite to worse actions. The superior temperance of 
the students of 1894 is a source of pride and joy to all 
who love the University and feel a kindly interest in 
young men. 

I select a few of the recorded cases in order to give 
a more vivid idea of the old system of discipline. 

A. was demerited for throwing a bucket of water on 
B. and B. was demerited for shouting too loudly when 
he was drenched. 

S. summoned before the Faculty and reprimanded 
for spitting tobacco juice on the floor of a recitation room 
after being warned not to do so. 

M. reported for blowing a trumpet in study hours. 
Reprimanded. 

C. had before the Faculty for picking up an apple in 
a recitation room, which the professors forbade because 
it had been used for disturbance. C.'s defence was 
that he wished to eat it. Reprimanded. 

P. had before the Faculty for bringing a book into a 
recitation room. Reprimanded. 

M., N., O., P., Q., R., S., T. and U. summoned 
before the Faculty for loud and long shouting, ringing 



312 Uiiiversity Magazine. 

of the bells, firing" of pistols and riding - horses in the 
campus. M., N. and O. acknowledging - they were out 
of their rooms at the time of the disturbance, were sus- 
pended for two weeks. Afterwards this was reduced 
to one week. 

X. Y. was found by a Tutor in the room of another 
after the 8 o'clock bell at night, ordered to go to his 
own room, refused, and was summoned before the 
Faculty. His defence was that he he "didn't like to 
be ordered about." Reprimanded. 

And so on ad infinitum. 

Let me not be understood as stating that the feeling 
of irritation on the part of students was universal. 
Most of them obeyed the laws with true Anglo-Saxon 
loyalty. Warm feelings of friendship sprang up be- 
tween them and their able and kindly instructors. The 
Faculty were hardly responsible for the rules. These 
were probably similar to the rules in all other institu- 
tions. They were the fashion of the age. But they 
were productive of untold evils and when the Univer- 
sity was revived in 1875 they were allowed to lie dor- 
mant forever. The students have responded nobly to 
the change of policy to the "great and endless comfort" 
of all the members of the University. 

THE TWO SOCIETIES. 

The members of the Dialectic Society then occupied 
the West and the south half of the South building. 
Those of the Philanthropic Society occupied the ICast 
building and the north half of the South. The latter 
was of the same size as it is now ; the others were only 
two-thirds as large. The additions to the north ends 
were made in 1848. The New East and New West 
were completed in 1859. 



The University Fifty Tears Ago. 313 

The order and decorum of the meetings were worthy 
of all praise. Not only was parliamentary law learned 
but the power of ex tempore speaking- and written com- 
positions, as well as gracefulness in delivery, were 
acquired. The members were proud of their society 
and afraid 6f its censure. The habit of self-govern- 
ment, of using" their own liberty so as not to interfere 
with the liberties of others, was inculcated. Many 
young men who neglected text-books obtained here a 
valuable education, while those who were candidates 
for honors learned here what they could not learn in 
the class-room — how to manage men. 

In 1844 the two societies held their meetings in their 
library rooms, which were in the third story of the 
South building, the Dialectic occupying the central 
hall on the South, the Philanthropic being opposite. 
These halls were considered attractive. The students 
were proud to show them. Being members of the Uni- 
versity of the State they scorned to begin a conversa- 
tion with a lady by remarking on the state of the 
weather. That was too commonplace. The first 
question after introduction was, "Is this your first 
visit to the Hill ?" The second was, ' 'Have you visited 
the Halls ?" The third, "Are you a Di or a Phi ?" It 
was then fair sailing. If the lady claimed to be of a 
different society from the questioner, a mock quarrel 
followed; if of the same, a sweet bond of sympathy 
was established. From these beginnings there ensued 
hundreds of pleasant acquaintances and ardent loves. 
Commencements were famous for making matches. 
This was aided by the non-accessibility of Chapel Hill 
by railroad or by water. Scores of gentlemen and ladies 
came in carriages and buggies drawn by noble trotters. 
6 



314 University Magazine. 

These were extensively used in the intervals of the 
exercises for flirtation purposes. 

FLIRTATIONS AND COURTSHIPS. 

Our streets and roads into the country were gay 
with handsome equipages. Those who have tried it 
say that there is no better courting time and place than 
in a light buggy drawn by a spirited team. But let 
the amatory youth take Warning from the mishap of a 
friend of mine. He borrowed of his grandfather a 
barouche and pair and took his lady love on a four 
miles ride, determined to bring matters to a focus. 
After skirmishing around with preliminary sweet 
Words he turned his head to gaze into her face while 
he asked her to share his life. As he did so he discov- 
ered that the colored boy, whom he had employed to 
hold his horses at the house of his girl, had jumped 
behind and was listening with grinning delight to all 
tender Words. The shock was so great that the oppor- 
tunity was lost — and as matters turned Out, lost for- 
ever. My readers need not Weep over this story; 
Mrs. Grundy said that the young lady would have 
refused him. Another "smart'* young man, driv- 
ing over Franklin street, saw a cow lying contentedly 
in the way. He thought it would show his skilfulness 
as a driver to run one wheel over her side. Much to 
his grief the animal suddenly rose and turned him and 
his lady love sprawling into the sand. 

Unfailingly Courteous too Were the beaUx of fifty 
years ago. I give one specimen of this: A lady friend 
of mine Was taking a ride with one of them. The 
buggy wheel ran into a deep rut on his side of the road 
and threw the lady with some violence on him. She 



The University Fifty Tears Ago. 315 

said, "I beg" your pardon, sir!" He replied with evi- 
dent sincerity, "Not at all disagreeable, madam!" 

GAMES AND EXERCISE. 

There was no gymnasium and no systematic exer- 
cise. Long - walks and buggy rides were fashionable. 
There was seldom a fair evening- which did not witness 
divers couples of ladies and gentlemen wending- their 
way to a forest path. The favorite route was through 
the grove near President Winston's residence to Ten- 
ney's, then Professor Green's, plantation. The planta- 
tion house was then at the bottom of the hill near the 
creek, so that it was not required to pass through a 
horse lot. It was a beautiful walk, with lovely pros- 
pects, with a branch leading- to Lone Pine Spring. A 
shorter, but more romantic walk, was to Roaring 
Fountain, the water trickling musically from a mossy 
bank into a limpid spring. Piney Prospect was also a 
favorite point, and some ventured as far as Glenburnie, 
Otey's Retreat and Laurel Hill. 

The games were, in summer, marbles, in cooler 
weather bandy, or shinny. The latter was peculiarly 
exciting. It was played at one time back of the rock- 
wall to the South of the Campus, at another on the 
present play-ground. Nearly all the students were 
engaged. The ball was of hard wood, turned round, 
and when struck by powerful arms, spun through 
the air with fearful velocity. Then in the excitement 
the sticks were brandished in disregard of the proxi- 
mity of the bodies of other players. On the whole it 
was quite as dangerous as foot-ball. There were no 
deaths but many severe accidents. According to my 
memory Leonidas Taylor was the best player. In my 



316 University Magazine. 

opinion this is one of the best College games. Kvery 
body can play, and can play much or little at pleasure. 
It exercises the legs, arms and in fact all the body. It 
requires strength and agility. It cultivates dexterity 
and quickness of thought, hardihood and pluck, self- 
possession and readiness « of wit. In one form or 
another it has been in use probably in all nations. We 
played it exactly as it was in the Highlands of Scotland. 
I add that intercollegiate games were not known. 
They of necessity awaited the introduction of railroads. 
1 do not recall that there were any match games 
among the classes. Two champions settled by tossing 
up a coin, or in some other way, as to who should have 
first choice. Then they picked out first one and then 
another alternately until all willing to play were in 
the field. 

THE CAMPUS. 

4 

The Campus of 1844 was a forest just as nature left 
it, with the underbrush cleared off. The trees were 
not thinned out until ten years afterward, nor was it 
until then that the well paved walks and Cameron 
Avenue were constructed. The Campus practically 
extended only to the open space adjoining the Raleigh 
road, to the west of which was a rail fence and thick 
hedge-row, obstructing the out-look towards the IDast. 
This was used as a pasture for the President's cattle. 
On it afterwards browsed his white mule Cuddie, who 
so often paid nocturnal visits to the attic of the South 
Building — frequently painted with stripes like a zebra. 
"It is the courage that marks the assassin!" vehem- 
ently harangued the President. "It is the courage 



The University Fifty Tears Ago. 317 

that marks old Cuddie !" whispered Wm. Knight of 
Edgecombe, afterwards the gallant Colonel Knight. 

In the middle of Cameron Avenue facing the West 
on the brow of the hill was a wooden residence, white- 
painted, with green blinds, called Steward's Hall, 
where for many years tha students obtained their 
nutriment for the inner man. As the population of 
the village increased, the number of boarding houses 
increased likewise, and "living at Commons" was dis- 
continued. 1844 was the last year of its existence un- 
der University authority. The next year the building 
was rented as a private residence, and soon afterwards 
it was sold and now forms part of the village school 
house. 

VACATIONS. 

The vacations were six weeks in summer from the 
first Thursday in June, and the same period in winter, 
beginning about the first of December. There was no 
"University Day." The only certain holiday was the 
22nd of February, with a "skating holiday" if there 
happened to be a sufficiently cold spell. There was a 
good pond on President Winston's land in front of his 
residence, which in 1844 I saw covered with gentle- 
men skating, some "cutting didos," as fancy skating 
was called, others racing, others pulling chairs and 
sleds, on which were seated ladies all the prettier 
because the cool morning air brought roses to their 
cheeks, - • 

Many students remained at Chapel Hill during the 
winter vacations, fewer in the summer. Those who 
went home in winter had dreary times getting back over, 
and under, the miry roads. Eastern students came 



318 University Magazine. 

through Raleigh, Western students through Hillsbor- 
ough. The mail was carried in huge conveyances, called 
stages, drawn by four horses, and reached Chapel Hill 
three times a week from the East and three times from 
the West. The drivers were superior men and very 
popular. When a mile or two from the Post Office they 
were accustomed to blow long tin trumpets, usually 
called horns. It is impossible for a modern student to 
realize how exquisitely beautiful this music was in a 
clear cold night, the rattling of the wheels over the 
stones being a fit accompaniment. Nor can those who 
are accustomed to daily mails imagine the thrilling ex- 
citement which stirred the breasts of their grand fath- 
ers at the opening of the tri-weekly mails of 1844. 

This paper must have an end and I now close. 

My review has brought up many pleasant and more 
sad reminiscences. All the Trustees and all the Faculty, 
except Tutor Brown, and nearly all the students, of 1844 
are no more in this land of the living. Even the tongue 
of the tuneful old bell, melted in the fierce fire of its 
burning belfry shortly before the civil war, is silenced 
forever, unless, as in theory, which is not impossible, its 
waves of melody are even now floating ever onwards in 
the far off ether of infinitude. 

K$mp PiyUMMER Battle, '49, 



2EBTJL0N B. VANCE}. 

They told me thou wast gone! My spirit said: — - 
Though that cold Messenger with silent pace 
Stole in and clasped thee in his dark embrace, 
And drew his smothering mantle o'er thy head; — 

Though far from home and friends thy feet he led 
To lands beyond the bourne of time and space, 
And but a memory fill thy vacant place, — 
To us thou art not dead, nor canst be dead! 

Who would essay thee fitting elegy, 

His song must needs with that of Milton ring — 
Must wake the lyre that has been slumbering 

Since Orpheus played for lost E)urydice: — 

We may not voice our woe; the pines must sing 
Thy dirge, joined with the deeper music of the sea! 
Hbnry Jeromb Stockard. 

Chapel Hill, April 16, '94. 

VANCE. 

What means this sound of woe and sad array, 
This sombre pall, this mournful funeral wreath? 
Great Carolina weeps: alas! the day, 
For Vance is dead. But hold! this is not death, 
Then ye who mourn, come dry your idle tears: 
Here lies his mortal part; his deeds live on. 
And through the whisp'ring gallery of years 
Sound echoes of his great and dear renown. 
O, thou illustrious dead! At last sweet rest 
Comes to the tired heart. The weary soul, 
Its duty done, has flown aWay in quest 
Of joys beyond— far from this earthly shoal. 
Ye Times unborn, as ye our records sean> 
Read this of Vance: He was an honest man. 

Leonard C. Van Noppen 



102 WKST HARGBTT STREET. 

When large towns become small cities, the individ- 
ual houses seem to lose their personality, and you are 
directed — not to the white house with green blinds 
just on the other side of that large brick mansion with 
the high, square tower — but to the common-place, cut 
and dried No. So and So of Such and Such Street. 
So when Raleigh managed to get part of the parapher- 
nalia of a real city, in the shape of free mail-delivery, 
the little office on the corner of the "Old Taylor Place" 
changed to No. 102 West Hargett St., while the 
"house" became No. 104. 

The office is a single-roomed, frame building, with a 
high gable-roof, standing immediately on the corner. 
A single stone step leads into a small, square room, 
well pitched and ceiled throughout with wide, smooth 
boards. A door and a window open on Hargett St., 
while on the opposite side of the room their counter- 
parts look out upon the front-yard of the lot. On the 
Salisbury St. side of the room a row of book-shelves 
extend the whole length of the wall and nearly reach 
the ceiling. The other side contains the fire-place 
with a window on the left. No doubt the office once 
boasted of a coat or two of paint, but there are no 
visible signs of it now. The weather-boards, gray 
and grimy with years, suggest neglect and decay; but 
the thick thatch of moss-grown shingles with its per- 
ennial green seems as if it cherishes the memory of the 
man it once protected, and the ivy clustering around 
the hearth-stone and crowning the chimney-top appears 
conscious of the poem written beneath its shadow. 



102 West Harg-ett Street. 321 

But that was some years ago. The little office still 
stands on the corner but the moss is gone, for the old 
shingles had served their time and are replaced by 
newer ones. The ivy made the chimney smoke a,nd 
has been cut down entirely. 

It is of the poem and the poet that this story is to 
tell; and why the little office should be an exception to 
the unifying process of city-making and retain its in- 
terest and personality simply from the fact that in its 
single room the poet worked and lived; in it he wrote 
the poem which will make his name familiar when per- 
haps his other works and virtues are forgotten; and in 
it he finally died. 

Worthier pens have delineated the life and character 
of William Gaston. It is the writer's chief intention 
to give 102 West Hargett Street its due prominence as 
the home of the Judge when in Raleigh, and to relate 
two little incidents in his history, from a family point 
of view. 

The little office was built by the writer's great 
grandfather, Col. James F. Taylor, who used it for 
his law office. After Col. Taylor's death, Judge Gas- 
ton, who was Mrs. Taylor's guardian, lived with the 
family and occupied the office. The poem, as the 
reader has guessed, is the "Old North State," a song 
familiar and dear to every North Carolinian. How 
Gaston came to write it is repeated here as it was told 
to the writer by his great aunt, who first sang the song 
and who is alive now and still sings it. 

A company of Tyroleans gave a concert at Metro- 
politan Hall in 1835. The programme was made up 
entirely of Tyrolese airs, among them that of the "Old 
North State," which was sung by four brothers and 
with which Miss Louisa Taylor, then a little girl of 
7 



322 University Magazine. 

thirteen, was very much taken. She persuaded a Mr. 
Birdsall, who held some position in the State Execu- 
tive department, to get her the music from the Tyro- 
leans and afterwards learned to play it on the piano. 
One evening" while she was playing the air, her mother 
remarked to Judge Gaston: "Uncle, what an appro- 
priate tune for a National Hymn." The Judge was 
persuaded to write a set of verses for the music and he 
set to work at once. Retiring - to his room, the little 
office, he began the song*. After writing a verse, he 
would come in the parlor and get Louisa to sing it 
over to see if the metre was correct. When all the 
verses were written, Mrs. Mar}^ J. Lucas, who 
boarded with Mrs. Stephen Haywood and taught 
music, arrang*ed the words and the notes. It was then 
rendered for the first time by Louisa Taylor and Fan- 
nie, a daughter of the Mr. Birdsall. 

The last few notes in "Hurrah, Hurrah, for the Old 
North State forever" are sung now somewhat higher 
than in the original score, but the writer is no musician 
and cannot explain that part. But he can show the 
old piano upon which the accompaniment was origi- 
nally played as it still stands in the parlor. 

The other instance to be told, concerns this parlor 
of 104 West Harg'ett St. Judge Gaston was taken 
with apoplexy while on the bench of the Supreme 
Court just after dinner on January 23, 1844. He was 
carried to his room, the little office, where he died that 
same afternoon about six o'clock. The funeral was 
postponed a week on account of his children who were 
away at the time of his death. After all, they did not 
get to Raleigh in time for the burial. The remains 
were placed in the Catholic Cemetery, Raleigh, and 



io2 West Hargett Street. 323 

were removed to New Berne the following - year. This 
was on account of the deep snow and the intensely 
cold weather. 

So much is familiar; what follows, perhaps, is not. 

On each side of the parlor fire-place are two glass- 
doors leading - into a larg-e greenhouse. During - the 
week the coffin remained in the parlor the windows 
were kept open and the cold in the room was as intense 
as it was out of doors. In the greenhouse the furnace 
was kept at a red heat during - the whole of the cold 
snap. After the funeral, the two glass-doors opening - 
into the greenhouse were thrown open and the cold 
arctic air of the parlor, rushing - in on the moist tropi- 
cal atmosphere of the greenhouse, produced a perfect 
but artificial snow-storm — miniature, violent, beautiful, 
of comparatively larg^e flakes and lasting - fully three 
minutes. 

The character of William Gaston was as spotless as 
those snow-flakes. His memory will be far more last- 
ing - than those feathery crystals melting - on the flower- 
petals. 

Perrin Busbee, (93). 



DESDEMONA. 

(Shakespere Club, March 1st, 1894.) 

The angel Death hard by his portal stood, 
Poised for the blow which sought another life. 
The wheel rovolving passed both bad and good, 
Till Desdemona came, marked for the knife. 
Such beauty, virtue, loveliness before 
Ne'er had the angel seen. He paused with dread, 
Then wept and 'gaii Fate straightway to implore, 
"O spare such beauty and mark out instead 
Some other one less fair." "T'was thus decreed,'' 
Relentless Fate replied, "So let it be." 
Death bowed and, trembling like the quiv'ring reed, 
Let fall the stroke, and made no further plea. 
A sadder tale than this love doth not give; 
By dying, Desdemona, thou shalt live. 

Leonard Charles Van Noppen. 

THE DAY OF REST. 

'Tis Sunday morn, my soul, arise, 

Forget the past with all its care; 
Deep and serene expand the skies, — 

Be thine as wide and deep and fair! 

O holy day, the first, the best, 

Day when the human soul may soar, 

Freed from its striving and unrest, 
Unto the spirits' longed-for shore. 

O day, which saw my Love arise, 

Help me to rise in thy new strength — 

To press with vigor toward the prize, 
An endless Sabbath day at length. 

Herman Harreee Horne, '95. 




George T. Winston*. 





Kemp P. Battle. 



Francis P. Venable. 




Joseph A. Holmes. 





Joshua W. Gore 



John Manninc 




Thomas Hume. 





Walter D. Toy. 



Ebe.n Alexander. 




William Caix. 




*% 



; t 




Richard H. Whitehead. 



Hexky H. Williams. 




Henry V. Wilson. 






Karl P. Harrington. 



\ 



James E. Shepherd. 




Collier Cobb. 





Edwin A. Alderman. 



Herbert C. Tolman. 



r 




j^ 








Charles Baskeeville. 



i 





James T. Pugh. 




i^ m 



Fordyce c. Harding, 



W. T. Patterson. 



iW^ 




HlWf v:^ -^i- JH^HRBB 



Thomas R. Foust. 




Chas. H. White. 




r \ 



z&k 




William R. Kenan. 




est'tvSHffli 



UNIVERSITY FROM ATHLETIC CROUNDS. 




LOOKINC EAST ON CAMERON AVENUE. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF TO-DAY. 

As the life of to-day is more exacting-, more complex 
and more all-embracing- than the life of half a century 
ag-o, so the University of to-day, being- both product 
and factor of the larg-er life about it, is broader in 
its field of work, more intense in its training-, freer from 
artificial and conventional methods and standards and 
nearer to actual life than the University of fifty years 
ag-o. There is greater freedom in all thing-s and greater 
system in all things. There is better conduct with 
fewer rules for conduct. There is less compulsion by 
authority and more compulsion by public sentiment. 
There is less moulding and more developing. The 
teacher no longer planes, saws, hammers and chisels 
the pupil into the required conventional shape, but 
teacher and student are both students, both teachers, 
companions, fellow-laborers in the great work of self- 
development. 

The inner life of the University, its very soul, heart 
and essence, rests upon the secure basis of self-devel- 
opment. There is nothing hollow, rotten, or arti- 
ficial within it or underneath it. It is strong, solid, 
self-reliant, and vigorous. It rejoices in liberty but 
not in license. It has driven out artificial vices and 
artificial disorders by driving out artificial restraints 
and artificial morality. The college "patroler" and 
the college rowdy have been banished together. The 
University is a small republic. As the citizens of a 
state are really the state, so the students of a univer- 
sity are really the university. In this university- 
republic the standard of right is the intelligent consci- 



326 University Magazine. 

ence of the student body. Absolute confidence is put 
in the righteousness of that standard, and that confi- 
dence has never yet been shaken. The University of 
to-day is built on the great truth that self-development 
is the only development. 

There, is nothing- narrow or restricted about Univer- 
sity culture. It is as broad as life. It sees the insep- 
arable interdependence of mind and body, and is anx- 
ious no less about physical training - than mental. It 
recognizes the wholesome holiness of health. It 
rejoices in the sports and pleasures that give to youth 
strength, beauty, happiness and self-reliance. It 
proscribes nothing" but vice. It invites to the ball- 
ground and the tennis courts. It thus creates about 
itself a bracing" atmosphere of manly physical energy 
well charg-ed with mental and moral ozone. The gain 
is immense. There is a new and a more healthful 
application of tremendous physical energy formerly 
either dormant or viciously exerted, and also in pur- 
suits intellectual there is a healthier, happier and more 
fruitful labor. 

The University to-day imposes no rigid nor uniform 
curriculum of study. Within reasonable limits each 
student may select, to suit his taste, talents or neces- 
sities. If a degree is soug"ht, the candidate must not 
only lay the broad foundation of general culture and 
learning", but must also demonstrate his power of 
original thoug-ht and prolonged investigation by some 
larger performance than is involved in class-room 
work. The University requires for graduation today 
nearly twice as much work as it did fifty years ago, 
and the quality of work is even more improved. The 
"good old times" are gone when student geniuses 
learned their lessons while walking from the Chapel 



The University of To-day. 327 

to the recitation room, and genius professors could fill 
any chair in the institution. The University of today 
is many-sided in its culture; affording* scope for the 
development of all human faculties, mental, moral, 
physical, social and religious. It is capable of infinite 
expansion, limited only by the possibilities of life. The 
circle of its departments is never complete. Its 
thought is bounded by no horizon. All science, all 
language, all philosophy it hopes to explore. Noth- 
ing is foreign to it that pertains to man or pertains to 
nature. It aims to be a great metropolis of thought 
whose ships shall bravely sail the ocean of life and 
even explore the unknown seas. 

With the larger world about it, with the actual life 
of humanity the University is daily growing into closer 
union. The artificial barriers, the artificial standards 
and the false conceptions which have so long shut in 
Universities like little islands in a human sea, are fast 
breaking to pieces and soon will be entirely gone. The 
University is daily coming into closer touch with the 
life of the State. It realizes that it exists for the good 
of the State. The problems before it are problems 
that confront the State; problems of crime, of pauper- 
ism, of social unhappiness and disorder. It is training 
minds and training hearts and training bodies that will 
solve these problems. Its immediate task, and possibly 
its greatest, is to build up a system of education where- 
by each child in the State may achieve the largest pos- 
sible development of all its faculties. It recognizes its 
right and its duty to be the head and the heart of a 
life-giving system of education which carries cheer to 
the humblest cabin, strength to the weakest child, 
faith and hope to all that love humanity. For this 
task it has girt its loins; in this task it now labors with 



328 University Magazine. 

the zeal that comes from noble impulses and the confi- 
dence that is inspired by the clear perception of a splen- 
did truth. It will not rest until the coals of learning 
from its altars have kindled fires that illumine the 
the State. As the Temple of Vesta kept the sacred 
fire that warmed every hearth-stone in the ancient 
republic, so the day is dawning when the chill cold of 
ignorance will be driven from every home in North 
Carolina by the torch that was kindled in her chief 
sanctuary of learning". Here is investment for philan- 
throphy. Here is where love of humanity and faith in 
human progress and human liberty may kindle flames 
that will glow and shine forever. 

Geo. T. Winston, (1866-'68). 



THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA 

IN 1805. 

A few years ago there came into my hands from Mrs. 
Thomas D. Martin, of Raleigh, some letters and papers 
that had passed between various members of her fami- 
ly, 1774-1807. Among them was the original commis- 
sion given by the Lords Proprietors to Daniel Akehurst 
on Feb. 9, 1692 (1693) as secretary of that part of this 
province north and east of Cape Fear. This commis- 
sion does not appear in the North Carolina Colonial 
Records. J published it with such facts as I could 
gather about Akehurst in The National Magazine for 
August, 1892. Since then I have secured a few addi- 
tional facts which I shall put with my history of "The 
Quakers in Virg-inia, the Carolinas and Georgia." 
This commission has the autograph of John Archdale 
and it is his descendants whom these letters concern. 



The University in 1803. 329 

They are thoug'ht worthy of publication because of the 
light they throw on the life of the infant institution. 
So far as I know they are the oldest letters written by 
a student, that have ever been published. 

I have gathered all I have been able to find about the 
career of Gov. Archdale and published it in The Mag- 
azine of American History for February, 1893. His 
North Carolina career was brief. He was in North 
Carolina in Dec, 1683, Feb., 1685 and March, 1686. 
This was probably all one visit; during- a part of the 
time he was acting" governor. He came out again 
in June, 1695, remained a little while and went on to 
Charleston. He was again in» North Carolina in the 
winter and spring of 1696-'97. He then returned to 
England and we do not know that he came to America 
again. 

He purposed settling a part of his family here. In 
1688 his daughter Ann married Emmanuel Lowe, one 
of the Quakers who sided with Thomas Cary, another 
son-in-law of Archdale, in his rebellion in 1710. Lowe 
was made secretary of the province 30 Nov. , 1710. He 
had a son, Nevil Lowe, who was also a leader in the 
"Rebellion," and was arrested by Governor Spotts- 
wood. He seems to have been a man of attainments 
and culture, for we find that a commission was issued 
him as Secretary of North Carolina, January 31, 1711, 
and this at the very time when the aristocratic or 
church party was again coming into power, under the 
leadership of Governor Hyde. He died before June 
17, 1717. 

Emmanuel Lowe died June 11, 1727, and his wife on 
June 3, 1731. The descent from this couple seems to 
be, as far as I can restore it from Quaker records, and 
other sources, as follows: Their daughter, Anna Luti- 



330 University Magazine. 

tia married Thomas Pendleton. This couple had a 
child named Mary; she was born October 24, 1733, and 
died April 20, 1791. In September, 1750, she and 
Demsey Conner declared their purpose of marriage in 
Quaker meeting'. Her husband died about the close of 
1753 and his will is on file in the Secretary of State's 
office. His wife was made executor. He mentions a 
daughter Anna Lutitia, but no son. The son was 
therefore posthumous; his name was also Demsey, and 
he was at school in Hillsborough, N. C, in 1774. His 
mother married, for her second husband, John Lancas- 
ter, of Pasquotank, who had his seat at New Abbey, 
near Nixonton. He was a prominent man in the sec- 
tion, sided with the British, returned to England, leav- 
ing his family in North Carolina, broke a blood-vessel 
when he heard of the treaty of peace, and so expired. 
He was a man of so much influence that the general 
assembly in 1782 thought proper to confiscate his 
property. 

This second Demsey Conner married Nancy Blount* 
daughter of James Blount (b. 23 January, 1710). His 
will was recorded in Pasquotank county, 11th Sep- 
tember, 1790. He was not a Quaker for he gave his 
horse, whip, pistols, hanger and regimentals to his 
friend, Col. Thomas Harvey. It seems that his madam 
married again, for her son, G. A. L. Conner, speaks of 
his mother as Mrs. Ann Grandy in his will, Demsey 
Conner, second, and Nancy Blount had three children. 
The first was George Archdale Lowe Conner, who 
was evidently a man of education and refinement. His 
health was poor and in June, 1807, he went with his 
younger brother John to Warm Springs in Bath 
county, Va. A letter from this place and a journal of 
his trip indicate an observant character with a 



The University in 1805. 331 

sprightly disposition. He died in Pasquotank, 10th 
of November 1807. A second child was Frances Clark 
Pollock Conner, who married in 1808 her cousin Joseph 
Blount (1785-1822) and in 1734 William Hill (1773- 
1857) Secretary of State for North Carolina, 1711- 
1857. 

The third child was John Laucas Conner who was 
named for the old Tory and who was at the Univer- 
sity in 1805-06. He was prepared for college at the 
Edenton Academy, then under the care of Rev. Jona- 
than Otis Freeman. A certificate dated 30th June, 1804, 
and signed by Mr. Freeman, says that young Conner, 
"for his respectful and urbane deportment, attention 
to his studies, and progress in his education, is enti- 
tled to the approbation and applause of his preceptor 
and friend." Conner does not seem to have remained 
at the University more than a year. This was not 
due to lack of means for the family, was well off. It 
was probably lack of health. He went to Warm 
Springs, Va., with his brother in 1807 to be treated 
for rheumatism. He was still living 23rd January, 
1808, when his brother's will was recorded and of 
whom he was the residuary legatee. He probably 
died prior to 1810. Mrs. Hill died without heirs and 
so far as I know the line of Gov. Archdale is extinct. 

The Following letters are given verbatin. The first 
tells of a student rebellion. From the Raleigh Regis- 
ter of September 16th, 1805, I have gathered the fol- 
lowing facts. It seems that a good deal of damage had 
been done to the buildings by mischevious and idle 
boys. On July 10th, 1805, for the institution was then 
open at that time of year, an ordinance was passed 
imposing an oath on the monitors. They refused to 
be sworn and the trouble began; on 27th August, 



332 University Magazine. 

another ordiance suspended and took the place of the 
former one. This required a promise from the moni- 
tors, which to the faculty did not seem "an unnesces- 
sary or improper regulation." 

This is the facult}^ account. The letter tells how 
the students felt: 

Chapel Hill, Septr., 22nd, 1805- 
Dear Brother, 

I have waited with eager impatience, in hopes of 
receiving an answer to my letter of the 23rd of JuIy; but I have 
waited in vain. However, I should have waited still longer, did not 
the present affairs gblige me to write. If you have received my 
first letter, it will give you some idea of what I am now going to 
write. I there mentioned that the Trustees had passed several 
oppressive, and tyrannical laws, which had cast a damp upon the 
spirits of the students. A copy of these laws you will see in the 
Raleigh Papers of the 9th of September. 

We have been engaged in a very disagreeable business here, on 
account of those severe laws, against which we have thought pro- 
per to remonstrate. Accordingly a remonstrance (signed by 45 
students) was handed to the faculty and trustees, a fortnight 
before the expiration of the monitorial office. The trustees did not 
repeal the laws, but modified them. And in that modification, they 
were also magnified; being still more severe (the oath excepted) 
than before. For the oath was substituted a solemn promise. 
Those who signed the remonstrance, were desired to meet, in order 
to decide the following questions, 1st, Is the promise binding? It 
was carried in the affirmative by a very large majority. 2nd, Is the 
law modified? It was negatived 22 against 19. Of course (by the 
remonstrance and our private obligation), we were obliged to leave 
College. And I will venture to assert, that the legislature of North 
Carolina cannot produce men, of such accurate judgment, resoning 
and fluent language, as was display'd in the debates of our honor- 
able body. For it must be observed, that those who signed, (with 
some exceptions) are the most respectable, both in their class, and 
characters. 

As you are unacquainted with the nature of this business, it is 
necessary for me to mention the reasons, which induced me to sign 
the remonstrance. When I was first asked to sign, I refused: alledg- 
ing, that I could agree to be governed by the laws, but not to be one, 
that should put them in force; that, the law would not much affect 
me, as I boarded out of College; that, I should not be chosen moni- 



The University in 1805. 333 

tor for the same reason; and, that, as I was very seldom among the 
monitors, I did not conceive it necessary. But in this I found I was 
very much mistaken. I found that I was uot only liable to be moni- 
tor, but also to be called in College. At this disagreeable news, I 
was very much chagrin'd, and according!}-, on the second applica- 
tion, I signed. To these, I may also add other reasons, explanatory 
to my conduct in this respect. My aversion to College; for should I 
be taken sick there, I should have very little attendance, and should 
stand in need of every necessary; and in my present situation, (for I 
have had a very severe attack of the rheumatism, and am still very 
much troubled with it,) I could not stand it. The fare also, in Col- 
lege is miserable, forit is common to see skippers in beef, which is 
the only flesh diet they have. In this case they must fast, for by 
the later odinance, they are debar'd from getting a dinner elsewhere. 

I do assure you I should not have signed, had I not thought 
myself justifiable in so doing. But I had not the least idea of its 
terminating in such disagreeable consequences. You will please to 
determine, whether I shall remain here, or return home. But I 
think it is better for me to stay, until November, at least. Because 
the Trustees will then meet here, and shall know what regulations 
will take place. But even, if the law should not be repealed or modi- 
fied, I think it would be better for me to remain. Because I could 
go on privately with the studies of the Class, just as well, as if I 
was in college. • 

Only four students, (who signed the remonstrance,) now remain in 
the village. The rest have returned home to their parents and 
friends, who highly approve of their conduct. They have no idea of 
their sons being purger'd by an extorted oath. The trustees 
have exhibited the affair in as bad a point of view as possible, noth- 
ing more than what was to be expected. However, they have since 
had the generosity to acknowledge an error in judgement. 

The beautiful descriptions which I have had of Salem (a Mora- 
vian town), naturally raises, (in me) a desire and curiosity of going 
there. Three young Gentlemen are going about the 5th of Novem- 
ber. It is about 75 miles distant from this place. The expences 
will not exceed five dollars. I have money enough to carry me 
there, but should want some on my return, which I will be very 
much obliged to you to send, If you have no objection to my going, 
you will please let me know in your letter. — Please present my best 
love to Mama and Sister, and compliments and respects to all 
enquiring friends, 

I remain 

Your affectionate Brother 

J. L,. Conner. 



334 University Magazine. 

P. S. Mr. Caldwell in his last letter to the trustees (which is pub- 
lished) says that the remaining- Students appear satisfied with their 
situation. But the proceedings of last Sunday (when they were on 
the very brink of a revolution) convinced him to the contrary. 

J. L. C. 

After presenting - their remonstrance President Cald- 
well reports in a very pathetic manner that the stud- 
ents "therefore dispersed without gaining* to make 
their statement or application to Trustees." 

The Trustees soon after this had a meeting - and 
made a proposition "that the said students, or those of 
them who shall return with a view of applying to busi- 
ness in the University, will be received and admitted 
to their standing- on the establishment as heretofore, 
on their subscribing" a promise to conform to the laws 
and regulations made for the government of this Insti- 
tution." This was adopted partly because many had 
already paid for board and tuition and "with the view 
likewise of lessening* as far as may be in their power 
the injury like to result to the country, from the seces- 
sion of so large a number of its youth from an institu- 
tion reared by the state for the purpose of educating 
at home the children of her citizens." 

This, I suppose, is the action which satisfied Conner 
and which he accepted in a manly way. The other let- 
ters deal with various subjects. 

Chapel Hill, October, 27th, 1805. 
Dear Brother, 

I have at length had the pleasure of receiving yours of 
the 26th of September, on Wednesday 16th instant, together with a 
pair of breeches, a gown, etc. and according to your request, I had 
endeavoured to make a speedy reply, but was too late for the post. 
As other important affairs, will not permit me to dwell long on my 
own, I shall be very breif. With respect to the late unfortunate 
circumstances of this place, I find upon mature reflection, I was 
entirely wrong. As the examination will commence the 10th of 
next month, I could not possibly be prepared for it. I shall how- 



The University in iSoj. 335 

ever be obliged to undergo a private examination, on the first 
of January before I can again enter my class. 

With respect to cash, I am entirely out, not having as yet received 
from J. Gregory the money which you lent him in July. The terms 
of board next session, will be $40. tuition $12. besides 15 dollars for 
board during the vacation. I wish to spend a day or two in Raleigh, 
(as I have given out going to Salem.) where I shall have an oppor- 
tunity of seeing some of our members, by whom you will please send 
me a few dollars. But to the purpose. The subject which I am now 
about to trouble you with is of that nature which induces me to 
believe you will lend to it a friendly eRr. It is truely worthy the 
attention of the Citizens of Pasquotank (1) and I hope it will be 
treated by them, with that regard which its importance merits. It 
is to recommend to their notice (through your means) a young man, 
who perhaps would take charge of the Nixonton Academy, (1) if the 
Trustees would think proper to repair the Court House for that pur- 
pose. He is a young man of great genius and application, and has 
read a great .deal. He was formerly a student of this place, and 
went through the studies of the Sophomore Class; when his fortune 
not enabling him to continue any longer as such, he became a tutor 
of the preparatory school, but he has ever since gone on privately 
with the studies of his class. He is now in the Senior Class, and 
will undergo a private examination in July next, when I immagine 
he will obtain a degree. 

I had some conversation with [him] on the subject, and I am cer- 
tain he would not hesitate in going, could he obtain- a sufficient 
inducement. In fact, he has declared as much to me. At a sup- 
posed calculation, which we have made, he agrees to take in charge 
twenty-five students at a salary of 5 dollars per quarter, which 
would constitute the sum of $500 a year. I represented to him the 
probability of their not agreeing to give this sum. Upon which he 
made that very true and obvious remark, that it appeared very 
strange to him that men should give such extravagant prices for 
the most useless things, when literature, which would be the means 
of raising their children to future eminence and respectability, 
should receive such trifling rewards. However, he has instructed 
me to say on this occasion, what would be the prospects of a teacher 
in that part of the country ? On such an important question as this, 
the trustees or committee should maturely reflect. They should 
consider that this enquiry is not made by a common country 
teacher, but by one of considerable respectability at this place; by 
one who will receive a college education; by one who will come well 
recommended; finally by Mr. Alexr. Martin Rogers, the nephew of 
the celebrated Governor Martin (3). They havehitherto complained 



336 University Magazine. 

of the difficulty of obtaining - a competent teacher; such a one, now 
offers himself to their service, and I think at a reasonable salary. 
So favourable an opportunity as this, should not be rejected. They 
may regret it, when it is too late. You will please communicate 
this intelligence to Capt. Knox, who, I have understood, is one of 
the committee. I hope also that you will exert yourself in this 
affair, and endeavour, if possible, to repair the Court House. They 
might finish it by the first of July next, if not then, at least by the 
1st Jany, 1807. Should the trustees think the price above stated 
too much, the}' will please name what sum they would be willing to 
give. They will likewise please mention the price of board in Nix- 
onton. 

Give my best respects to Mr. Spence, Mr. Watson and Mr. Smith 
and tell them I should have written them, before this had my mind 
been in proper situation; but I hope they will not wait for me to 
write first and that I may have the pleasure of hearing- from them 
by the first opportunity. Also my best respects to Mr. and Mrs. 
Muse, and with my best love to mama and sister, I still remain 

Your affectionate brother, 

J. L,. Conner. 

P. S. — Tell sister Fanny, she must write me shortly, as I should 
be glad to receive letter from her. Of the rheumatism, I am much 
better, than when I last wrote you. 

J. L. C. 

(1) The seat of the Couriers was near Nixonton in 
Pasquotank county. It was called Lancaster. I pre- 
sume the name was changed from New Abbey, as it 
was called during - the Revolution. Nixonton was at 
this time the county seat of Pasquotank. In 1746 a 
tract of 160 acres was purchased from 2/achariah Nixon, 
a Quaker, for a town and town common. It was char- 
tered in 1758 and there were then "upwards of twenty 
habitable houses" and more than 76 inhabitants. As 
Camden was a part of Pasquotank until 1777 it was 
necessary to have the Court House as near the middle 
as possible and it was then located on the north side of 
Newbegun creek, not far from the present Weeksville. 
I suppose this is the Winfield mentioned in the act of 
1784 which removed the Court House from that point 



The University in 1805. 337 

to Nixonton and provided for a court House, 25-35 feet, 
a prison, pillory and stocks. Elisabeth City was not 
then founded. It was founded about the beginning- of 
this century, was named for Elizabeth Tooley, who 
owned the land and not for Queen Bess, and soon 
became the county seat. My uncle who died in 1891, 
aged 80, told me that when a boy he hauled the logs 
from which the floor of the. first brick house in the 
place was made and after the destruction of the court- 
house in 1862 the second story of this first brick house 
was used for that purpose until a new court house was 
erected in 1882. 

(2) The letter of Conner seems to have had good 
effect. The Nixonton Academy had been incorporated 
in 1803. In November, 1805, new trustees were 
appointed, among them being G. A. L. Conner, Ga- 
briel Bailey, the great-grand father of Professor Cain, 
and William T. Muse, probably the same as the one 
mentioned in the letter. "We do not know what action 
they took in the premises. 

(3) Alexander Rogers is put down in the General 
Catalogue of 1889 as a student of the University in 
1803, from Rockingham county. As his name does not 
appear among the tutors of the University I suppose 
the preparator}' school was distinct. 

Chapsx Hiij,, Nov. 19th, 1805. 
Dear Brother: 

Without waiting- for an answer to my last letter, I 
again seize this favourable opportunity of writing you a few lines 
by Mr. L,ittlejohn, who is now in this village, and by whom I have 
heard, that you lately returned from Aberdeen (1) with mama and 
sister, in tolerable good health, which intelligence I was happy [to] 
hear. 

The hurry in which I wrote my last letter, occasioned me to omit 
some things, which I should otherwise have mentioned. The exami- 

9 



338 University Magazine. 

nation, as I have before informed you, will commence to-morrow, 
and end the lSth. To give you an idea of their close application, it 
is only necessary to mention, that some of the members of our class, 
for three weeks past, have studied until two o'clock in the morning-; 
and for a week past, there has been an instance of one, who studied 
until day break. Their principal dread is Geography, which they 
nearly all get by rote. 

The studies of Junior Class, this session, are Algebra and Geome- 
try. The next session they will study Fwing's Sinopsis, but not 
Cibson's Surveying, which were the two branches of study you 
wished me to pursue with that class. But I shall find it an impossi- 
bility, if I wish to hold a respectable, or even a common standing in 
my class. 

In my last I had forgotten to mention Doctor Hawes's bill, which, 
I imagine will not exceed 6 dollars, also the expences of shoe clean- 
ing which will amount to fi — en (2) shillings this session and two 
dollars next. 

Tell sister Fanny I shall certainly expect a letter from her shortly, 
in which I hope she will give me all news that she knows of since I 
left home. With love to mama and sister, I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

J. I_c. Conner. 

P. S. — There is an error in the date of this letter, which should be 
the 10th, instead of the 19th of Nov. If you could not make it con- 
venient to send the whole of the money for my board, &c. it will not 
make any material difference, as the major will trust me for part. 

J. L. C. 

(1) Aberdeen seems to have been a seat of some fam- 
ily near EMenton. 

(2) Here he held his paper to the candle to dry the 
ink. It caught fire and burned the word fifteen partly 
out. 

CHAPEiv Hai,, February 2nd, 1806. 
Dear Brother: 

I received yours dated to 8th of January, the 20th of 
that month, together with a bank note of $20, which came very sea- 
sonably, as I was very much in want of cash. I should almost have 
been at a loss what method to pursue, (had you not mentioned in 
your letter, that "I might expect a further remittance in a post or 
two,) you not mentioning whether I should continue here or return 



The University in 1805. 339 

home, However, I considered it a sufficient hint, and accordingly, 
a few [days] afterwards joined my class, and entered college, as 
Mr. Caldwell was still opposed to my boarding in the village. The 
subscription balls, (six in number,) which we had during Christmas, 
and the necessary furniture which my room required, have consumed 
nearly all the cash which you sent me in the letter preceding your 
last: and which also prevented me from paying the Major (1) for my 
board, during the vacation. But he will trust me, until you can 
make it convenient to send more. With the money you last sent me, 
I have paid for my tuition, room-rent, and use of the library: which 
amounted to $13. 50c. and $8 to the steward in part for board. Twenty- 
seven dollars yet remain to be paid to the steward, which I would 
thank you to send, as soon as possible. I also owe the Doctor some- 
thing, but I cannot tell the exact amount at present. In my next, I 
will give you his account, together with the Major's. My love to 
mama and sister, and am in a great hurry, 

Your affectionate brother, 

J. h. Conner. 

(1) "The Major" was Maj. — Love, father of Wil- 
liam C. Love, M. C. from N. C, 1815-17, and at that 
time steward of the University. 

The letters all have the same address, Mr. George 
A. L. Conner, Pasquotank county, near Nixonton, 
N. C. 

Stephen B. Weeks. '86. 



ACME AND SEPTIMIUS; A CATULLIAN 
LOVE) LYRIC. 

To his bosom Septimius held 

That Acme whom he loved full well ; 

Clasping- her in fond embrace, 

Thus his love he tries to trace : 

4 'Unless I love you to distraction, 

And am well prepared to prove 

Through years to come my constant love 9 

That I love you with a power 

No girl was e'er so loved before ; 

May I alone on Afric's strand, 

Or on India's burning sand, 

Before the fierce-eyed lion stand.'* 

As this he said, Love, who stood, 

On his left in angry mood, 

On his right took up his station 

And gave him sign of approbation. 

But Acme true with upturned face 

Returned her lover's fond embrace, 

Kissed with those lips of purple hue 

His eyes reflecting- love so true: 

"Septimus, darling of my life, 

So may we serve one God above, 

So may our only God be Love, 

As fiercer in me burns the fire 

Enkindled there by love's desire.'* 

As this she said, Love, who stood 

On her left in angry mood, 

On her right took up his station 

And gave her sign of approbation. 



. Pi'ogress of Science. 341 

Under auspices approved 

They both love and are beloved, 

Septimus values Acme more 

Than all the wealth of Briton's shore, 

And Acme true in him alone 

Love's delights makes all her own. 

Happier mortals who has seen? 

Love more auspicious who has known? 

Herbert Bingham, '95. 



PROGRESS OF SCIENCE. 

THE EARTH'S INTERIOR. 

Scientists have long - coincided in the opinion that the 
interior of the earth is at a very high temperature. 
But since Descartes advanced the idea that the earth 
is a liquid, or molten mass enveloped in a comparatively 
thin crust, there has been much argument, and what 
is more important, much research to determine whether 
the earth is solid throughout or has a rock crust only 
a few miles in thickness. 

The Greeks and the Romans believed in a solid earth, 
although they were familiar with the sight of liquid 
lava flowing from volcanic craters. But evidence fur- 
nished by volcanoes, taken with the observed increase 
in temperature of one degree for every fifty or sixty feet 
of descent in mines and borings, with the crumpling and 
folding and apparent flow structure of the rocks, seemed 
conclusive proof that ours is largely a liquid earth. 
Later, however, it was shown by experiment that 
nearly all rock materials must ' expand on melting, and 
careful calculations show that at a depth of twenty 



342 University Magazine. 

or thirty miles where the heat is sufficient to melt rocks 
under ordinary conditions, the pressure due to the over- 
lying - strata, is so great that the necessary expansion for 
melting - can not take place, except in regions where the 
pressure is relieved by the buckling" up of the rock, or 
near fault planes where the continuity of the strata is 
broken. And the fusion even in those cases is not at 
the hig-h temperature required for the melting- of dry 
rock material alone but at a considerably lower tem- 
perature, due to the presence of water imbedded in the 
rock. That the presence of water aids g'reatly in the 
melting- of rocks is easily proved in the laboratory, and 
that water is present in the earth where the melting- 
takes place is shown by the fact that the matter ejected 
from volcanoes is largely water or the vapor of water. 

The flow structure in the rocks, which was at first 
thought to have taken place when the rock was in a 
liquid state has been proved to be similar to the flow 
which takes place in bending- a tallow candle, a piece 
of candy or a stick of sealing- wax; that is, the flow of 
a solid and not of a liquid, except in case of lavas. It 
appears then that a liquid nucleus is not necessary for 
volcanic action, nor for folding- or crumpling-. Neither is 
it necessarily the result of a hig-h temperature. More- 
over Thompson and Darwin have shown that the ocean 
tides could not be as they are if the earth had a liquid 
interior. 

Althoug-h the problem of the constitution of the 
earth's interior has not received so much attention as 
that of its condition, yet it is no less interesting*. It 
has long- been believed to be metallic because metallif- 
erous veins were thoug-ht to have had their origin in 
the nucleus. But since veins are formed by the depo- 
sition of mineral matter from a water solution, their 



Pi ogress of Science. 343 

origin can not be so deep seated as that of dikes, else 
the heat would expel the water in the form of vapor, 
therefore veins do not furnish so good evidence as to 
the constitution as do the latter. Another reason for 
believing - that the earth's nucleus is metallic is based 
on its high specific gravity. The specific gravity of 
the earth as a whole is about twice as great as that of 
the surface rocks, therefore the interior must be com- 
posed of very heavy material. According to the Nebu- 
lar theory we would expect the heavier elements to fall 
to the center while the mass was gaseous or liquid ; and 
the moon, which, by the theory, was once an outer ring 
of the earth, corroborates this view by its low specific 
gravity, which is only a little more- than half that of 
the earth. 

, Since the percentage of iron as a constituent of the 
rocks increases with their distance from the surface, 
so much so that some dike rocks from a great depth 
are so rich m iron that they -make a very good ore; and 
that meteorites, fragments of planets similar to our 
earth, are highly ferruginous and in some cases almost 
pure iron; it has been suggested that the earth's nucleus 
is solid iron. The problem is a difficult one but from 
the present state of knowledge in regard to it, the ten- 
dency seems to favor the iron earth theory. 

Chas. H. White, '94. 

THE ORIGIN OF COAE. 

The origin of this important element in the world of 
of industry has been the subject of much discussion 
among geologists. The few exceptional facts in regard 
to the accumulation of coal have led to some very 
erroneous theories. Some have thought from the occa- 



344 University Magazine. 

sional occurrence of coal seams without unclerclays 
that coal has been accumulated by the vegetable drift 
of rivers like the rafts now found at the mouths of the 
great rivers of the present day, but the careful micro- 
scopical examination of the coals has proven beyond 
doubt that this theory is incredible. Others have sup- 
posed that coal is made up of minute algae but this 
theory also received no support from eminent scientific 
men. 

The labors of many geologists have shown that coal 
beds nearly always have ill their roofs erect trees, the 
remains of the last forest that grew upon them, and 
that coal rests upon old soil surfaces penetrated with 
roots; careful examination of coal proves that the trees, 
whose roots are found in these underclays and whose 
stems and branches are found in the roof shales, con- 
stitute much of the material of coal. These facts 
being grasped by geologists, the field of discussion is 
much narrowed, and the following" theory which has 
lately been more fully set forth by Sir William Daw- 
son is now generally accepted; that true coal is a 
subaerial accumulation by vegetable growth on soils 
wet and swampy, but not submerged. The imperfect 
coals such as brown coals are found to be intermediate 
between coal proper and compressed peat; this can be 
produced only by accumulation of vegetable matter 
and in a way analogous to our present peat} 7 beds and 
vegetable mucks which are found in ponds. When all 
this is accumulated it requires only pressure and 
putrefaction to be converted into coal. 

The following conditions are necessary for the accu- 
mulation of coal: climatal and organic arrangements 
for abundant vegetable growth, facility for the preser- 
vation of vegetable matter without decay, and com- 



Progress of Science. 



545 



pression and exclusion from air. The great Carbonif- 
erous age was eminently fitted for the above conditions, 
and, according- to Sir Charles Ivy ell, the great Dismal 
Swamp of Virginia and North Carolina represents the 
condition necessary for a nascent coal field. The 
laminations, various tissues, cells and skeletons of fern 
leaves, observed in coal by means of the microscope, all 
aid in establishing - the above theor\ r . The soft fibroiis 
material found in coal known as mineral charcoal, when 
boiled for some time to separate the mineral matter, 
becomes translucent and shows distinctly the tissues 
of wood found in such Carboniferous trees as Cala- 
mities, Cordaites and Sigillariae. If we consider the 
coal as a swamp in situ, we readily see how the vege- 
table matter can be accumulated in pure condition; for 
when it is accumulated it would naturally subside 
owing - to its own weight and become overflowed and 
covered by a rooE shale. Thu^ by slow decomposition 
the vegetable matter would be transmitted to future 
ages chemically and mechanically pure. 

L. N. Hickerson, '94., 



MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. 




Jfii'r^tl 




Simmie Garner , of Izanga, reads the Magazine to G-oosie 
Palmer, of Baltimore. 10 



BOOK NOTICES. 

Loyola and The Educational System oe the 
Jesuits. By Rev. Thos. Hughes. 12-mo., pp. 302. 
$1.00. New York: Charles Sender's. Sons. 

This book is of the series, "The Great Educators." 
The author is a Jesuit and a teacher in the St. Louis 
University. The book has many points of interest. 
Mr. Hughes is a good writer of English. His style is 
uncommon in its clearness. The point is always made 
clearly, and often with skill and vigor. Of course Mr. 
Hughes is a partisan and writes in a partisan spirit 
and for a partisan end. This makes the book tire- 
some. His first point is to identify Church Education 
with virtuous life. The Cathedral School and the 
Cloistral School arose in the interest of virtue. When 
the University arose in Europe, the Cloistral Schools 
lost their function. Life in the University became cor- 
rupt and idle. Hence the educational problem of the 
16th century was that of moral regeneration. The 
low state of morals excited the interest of Loyola, and 
his educational system was elaborated and established 
for the betterment of moral life. The result was two- 
fold, — an impulse and up-lift to moral life and a new 
method of teaching, vastly superior to existing 
methods. 

Mr. Hughes gives an interesting analysis of the life 
of Loyola. It was a life of constant struggle, intense 
and prolonged suffering, and of a degree of patience 
and persistent purpose above the human. Out of this 
life came forth the system and the method of educa- 
tional work. 

It was in this system that Education and Religion 
were identified for the first time. Before this the 
Church had an interest in education in a general way; 
Loyola made it a part of the fundamental plan of the 
Jesuit system. Mr. Hughes says (p. 45), "It is at 
this stage of history, that education enters into the 



Book Notices. 347 

fundamental plan of a Religious Order. This is a fact, 
and an epoch, of prime importance in Pedagogics. " 

It is interesting- to be able to put our finger upon the 
birth place of this idea, so strong- in North Carolina 
to-day, that education is a fundamental part of the 
work of a Religious Body. 

This identity of education and Religion is the key to 
the educational system set forth by Mr. Hughes. In 
advance the aim and methods are determined. Educa- 
tion can be nothing- more than training - . What the 
boy shall study, how he shall study it, when he shall 
study it, are all answered before the boy is born. This 
kind of an educational system is like a factory for mak- 
ing - door-knobs. 

It is not too much to affirm that an educational sys- 
tem that is to meet the demands of to-day must have 
for its aim something - other than training. Disci- 
pline is a result — one of the results of education, the 
end must be deeper. We have passed out of the stage 
of Feudal life; let us now deliver our educational system 
from the spirit and aims of Feudalism. 

Burg Nbideck. Novelle von Wilhelm Heinrich 
Riehl. With Introduction and Notes by Charles 
Bundy Wilson, A. M., Professor of Modern Languages 
and Literatures in the State University of Iowa. 12-mo. , 
Introduction, pp. xix; Text, pp. 57; Notes, pp. 19, 
54 cents. Boston: Ginn & Co. 

It is very desirable to bring students and all those 
who love modern German Literature, into contact with 
Riehl. We therefore welcome Prof. Wilson's edition 
of Burg JVeideck, as we did Prof. Palmer's last year. 

The Introduction gives a biographical sketch of the 
author and a history of his literary activity. Prof. 
Wilson suggests that the book be used by students 
who are at the end of their first year, or in the begin- 
ning of their second, and for such the Notes are pre- 
pared; but the Introduction, and especially the discus- 
sion of the limits and scope of the Historical Novel, are 
better suited for more mature students. Of course, 



348 University Magazine. 

the book, as written by the author, is a specimen of 
literature of high class, with no reference to instruc- 
tion. 

The Notes, which arc chiefly translations, with an 
occasional historical explanation, will be of service to 
those for whom the edition is intended, Some notes 
might have been omitted; for example, those to pp. 5, 
3; 9, 10; 11, 3. On the other hand, it would have been 
well to 1 say that Hubcrtitsburg- (11, 12-) is neuter, 
because it is a castle {Schloss, ni), although Burg- 
itself is feminine. Again, on p. 15, 1.17, Prof. Wilson 
might have pointed out the relation of um deswillen to 
the following subordinate clause. Striking and char- 
acteristic as this relation is, students often fail to see 
it. The compound Besoldungshilder (29,15), "pictures 
in return for his salary," ought to have been trans- 
lated; waAfrondete er doc/i, etc., (36,5), "for indeed \ 
he was doing a vassal's service (in honor of his castle"), 
is puzzling enough to beginners to warrant an explana- 
tion. Such readers would also profit by a rendering of 
uberhaupt (48,8), "in a general way." With these 
exceptions, the Notes are helpful. We heartily com- 
mend the book to all those who wish to enjoy an enter- 
taining and very original story. 

Morcejaux Choisis d'AIvPhonse Daudet. Edited 
and annotated by Frank W. Freeborn, Master in the 
Boston Latin School. 12-mo, pp. 179. Notes, pp. 46, 
85 cents. Boston: Ginn & Co. 

Mr. Freeborn gives us here selections from the Tar- 
iarin de Tarascon and Tartarin sur les Alfies, with a 
number of complete shorter stories, ending" with La 
Belle- Nivernaise. For most readers of French, and 
especially, the younger ones, the chief difficulty in 
understanding Daudet, lies in his rich and varied vocab- 
ulary and his extremely idiomatic diction. We can 
therefore commend this annotated edition, along with 
Prof. Cameron's Conies de Daudet, (Henry Holt & Co., 
1893), and Boielle's La Belle-Nivernaise, (D. C. Heath 
& Co., 1889). 



Book Notices. 349 

The Notes to the present edition consist chiefly in 
translations of separate words or of whole sentences. 
There are 977 such translations, which are useful. 

Daudet has given to French Literature a new style 
and a new charm. Sometimes deeply pathetic, as in 
the Tales relating - to the Franco-German War, some- 
times teeming* with humor, as in the Tartarin books, 
he is always full of brightness and feeling". If, in the 
little volume before us, one reads L/a Derniere Classe 
and Le Siege de Berlin, he will hardly lay the book 
aside. 

Both the stories of Tartarin belong" fitly to the Sum- 
mer-time. They were born under the warm Southern 
sky, and have inherited its brightness along" with the 
softness of the Ocean-breezes and the perfume of the 
Southern groves. 

Parisian Points of View. By Ludovic Halevy. 
Translated by Fdith V. B. Matthews, An Introduction 
by Brander Matthews. With Portrait. 16-mo., pp. 
xv-195, $1. New York: Harper & Brothers. 

Readers of fiction will gladly welcome this collection 
of short stories from M. Halevy, the author of that 
charming" novel, The Abbe Constantin. The transla- 
tion has been well done, and the value and interest of 
the volume is greatly increased by an able critical intro- 
duction by Prof. Brander Matthews. The book 
includes nine short stories, each one of which is in the 
happy style of the gifted writer. They are pure and 
wholesome in their thought and withal vivacious and 
interestiag. They move along rapidly and directly; 
' 'the construction has the simplicity of the highest skill. 
The arrangement of incidents is so artistic that it seems 
inevitable, and no one is ever moved to wonder whether 
or not the tale might have been better told in different 
fashion. " We cannot give a fair idea of these charming 
stories by any extracts from them. E)ach one is good, 
but especial mention might be made of "Only a Waltz," 
"The Most Beautiful Woman in Paris," and "In the 
Express." In these perhaps the author's best qualities 



350 University Magazine. 

are seen, and we would refer the reader to them. 
The book is neatly printed and bound, and we doubt 
not that it will tend to increase the author's popularity 
with American readers. 

Myths oe Greece and Rome. By H. H. Guerber. 
12-mo., pp. 448, $1.50. New York: American Book 
Company. 1893. 

This volume is not intended as a hand-book for the 
scholar or the student of comparative mythology. The 
purpose is to provide a bright, interesting account of 
the leading features of classic legends for the general 
reader and pupils of high schools. The general knowl- 
edge of mythology necessary for the proper understand- 
ing of the allusions in literature can easily be obtained 
from this work. In fact, where there is more than one 
form of the same story, the one which has most influ- 
enced literature is given. There are hundreds of quo- 
tations taken from the poets, all the way from Hesiod 
and Homer to Tennyson and Browning. The Roman 
names of the deities are generally used, though the 
Greek are mentioned. There is a valuable analysis of 
myths at the end and also a full glossary and index. 
The illustrations, more than seventy, are all fully 
page and are beautiful representations of famous sculp- 
ture or paintings. Though the preference has been 
given to modern conceptions, yet the sculptors of anti- 
quity are not forgotten. The mechanical execution of 
the book is all that can be desired and it deserves a 
place in any library. 

Whittaker's Anatomicae Model: A Pictorial 
Representation of the Human Frame and its Org - ans. 
With Descriptive Text by Dr. Schmidt. English 
Edition by W. S. Furneaux. Cloth, 4-to. , pp. 16, 75cts. 
New York: Thomas Whittaker. 

The time when Mary Ann's mother did not want her 
to "study about her innerds" is happily passing away, 
and the right of every child to a knowledge of his own 
body, its organs and their functions, is being recog- 



Book Notices. 351 

nized by parents and school boards everywhere. But 
a lamentable ignorance of the human body still remains 
among teachers the world over. An applicant for a 
teacher's certificate who was examined by the writer 
of this notice wrote that "The stomach is the principal 
bone of the body; it is about the size and shape of a 
Scotch hornpipe and will hold a gallon and a half." 
This was hardly worse than an answer given by a 
teacher in one of our graded schools when asked for a 
definition of the alimentary canal. She described it as 
"A short canal in the Dismal Swamp which connects 
Lake Drummond with the Dismal Swamp Canal," and 
to prove that she did know what the alimentary canal 
is she added, "It is sometimes known as 'The Feeder.' " 
The required books have not yet enabled the 
teachers and pupils to get hold of this information; or, 
rather, the information rarely gets hold of them. Not 
all are so fortunate as to have access to a manikin; and 
the large and colored charts are too expensive for the 
country school-teacher, and not convenient for home 
use. Whittaker's Model, however, is a very satisfac- 
tory substitute for both. A colored chart five by ten 
inches in size, composed of several large and small 
plates folding upon each other, illustrates all the main 
parts and organs of the body. The lungs, heart, 
stomach and other organs are represented by appro- 
priately colored and shaped pieces of heavy paper that 
fold into their proper place in the model so as to con- 
vey a very good idea of their relative size and location 
in the human body. The text is a condensed yet clear 
description of the skeleton, muscles, heart and blood 
vessels, the other internal organs, the brain and nerves 
and the organs of sense. The book deserves high 
commendation in all respects, and especially because it 
is offered at so moderate a price. 

Iron Ores Oe North Carolina: A Preliminary 
Report. By Henry B. C. Nitze, Assistant Geologist. 
8-vo., pp. 239. Raleigh: North Carolina Geological 
Survey. 



353 University Magazine. 

In response to numerous demands for information 
concerning - the iron ores of .North Carolina, Professor 
J. A. Holmes, State Geologist, has published this pre- 
liminary report. 

The preparation of the report, including - the neces- 
sary field work, was intrusted to Mr. H. B. C. Nitze, 
who visited and examined all of the more important 
iron ore deposits in the State, the results of which he 
presents in this report in a very attractive form. The 
total area examined amounts to some 6000 square 
miles, distributed through twenty-three counties. The 
subject of this report deals principally with the econo- 
mic side of the geology, giving - descriptions of the 
localities, the extent and character of the ore deposits, 
and the quality of the ores as determined by analysis. 

Some general notes on the old forg - es and furnaces, 
the chrome iron ores, mang'anese ores, and limestones 
are among the interesting features. 

A map of the State showing the position of the 
various iron ore deposits has been prepared and accom- 
panies the report, besides numerous illustrations and a 
table of several hundred analyses. The report is full 
of valuable information, is handsomely gotten up and 
reflects credit on the Geological Survey as well as 
upon the State. 

The Centennial Celebration op Raeeigh, N. C. 
8-vo., pp. 141, with index. Raleigh: Published by the 
Committee. 

This little book preserves for us the account of the 
centennial celebration of the foundation of Raleig - h, our 
capital city. The leading article is by Dr. Kemp P, 
Battle, Professor of History in this University. It is 
confined "mainly to the inauguration of the city and to 
the institutions and leading citizens of the iirst two 
decades." Dr. Battle writes with peculiar interest 
because of his long and intimate acquaintance with the 
city. He has made a careful study of his subject and 
handled the materials in his usual happy manner. The 
charm of his historical work lies in its interesting accu- 



Book Notices. 353 

racy. In the statement of facts enough of incident is 
preserved to make the production peculiarly entertain- 
ing. 

The address begins with the formation of the county 
of Wake, traces the movements for a permanent seat 
of government, and describes the foundation and growth 
of the city. Valuable biographies of various commis- 
sioners are given, and the social, educational and moral 
life of early Raleigh is well pictured. A concise sum- 
mary of enterprises aud numerous institutions of to-day 
completes the address. It abounds in wit and wisdom 
and puts in permanent shape much important matter. 

Capt. C. B. Denson, of Raleigh, adds an interesting 
sketch of the Raleigh of the present, telling of her 
schools and churches, stores and factories, and all the 
various elements that make up her prosperous present 
and give abundant signs of a still better future. The 
account of the exercises has been well prepared by 
Capt. Denson. The "Digest of laws relating to Ral- 
eigh" is concise and valuable. A prize poem by Miss 
Minnie May Curtis, of Raleigh, introduces the volume. 
It is full of appropriate thought and is well-written. 
The book is interesting and valuable, and the complete 
index makes it readily available. 

to be reviewed. 

The Constitutional Beginnings of North Car- 
olina. By J. S. Bassett, Professor in Trinity Col- 
lege, N. C. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University 
Press. 

Some Saeient Points in the History of the 
Earth. By Sir J. Wm. Dawson. New York: Har- 
per & Brothers. 

Notes to Oed Persian Inscriptions. By H. C. 
Tolman. Chapel Hill: The University Press. 
11 



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HYMN TO APOLLON (APOLLO.) 

FRAGMENT I. 
ATHENIAN. 

To the accompaniment of the lyre, (thee,) glorious child 
of great Zeus (thy people) praise, since along - the snow- 
capt mount immortal utterances for all mortals thou de- 
clarest. For thou (Apollon) didst take the prophetic 
tripod which the hostile serpent was guarding, when by 
thy missiles thou didst pierce his variegated and twisted 
body, (the serpent) sending forth his (dying) hisses, and 
cruel strife of the Galatai unholy passed 

FRAGMENT II. 

Ye daughters of the loud thundering Zeus, who have 
deep wooded Helicon as your portion, white-armed, come 
that ye may praise with song your brother Phoibos, who 
along the double-crested seats of this broad Parnasos with 
the glorious Delphian priestesses haunteth the springs of 
the well watered Kastalia, coming upon the glorious pro- 
phetic mount of Delphoi. Come, O noble city Athens, with 
prayers, thou, which art situated in the strong ground 
of the armed Tritonian maid. On the holy altars 
Hephaistos burns the thigh pieces of young bullocks, and 
with the fire the Arabian smoke (of incense) rises to Olym- 
pos. And sweetly the flute resounding strikes the song 
through varied strains, and the golden, sweet-voiced lyre 
through hymns praises: and the whole assemblage of 
spectators which has the land of Attica as its portion. 

In editing this hymn to Apollon recently discovered 
by the French ICcole d' Athene's, I desire to express my 
indebtedness to the United States Minister to Greece, 
Hon. E}ben Alexander, LL. D., who has kindly for- 
warded to me the Greek papers containing the frag- 
ments. Also my thanks are due Professor Collier 
Cobb for his ready help and deep interest in this mat- 
ter. 

H. C. Toyman. 

University of North Carolina, April 30th, 1894. 



AMONG THE MAGAZINES. 

HOLLAND M. THOMPSON. 

The Atlantic is surely taking- on new life. The April number is 
full of readable and interesting articles. Elizabeth Stuart Phelps 
writes a story of college life, war and woman's constancy. There is 
a careful and appreciative study of the treatment of nature by the 
Old English poets, written by Richard Burton. He brings out the 
fact that to our hardy ancestors the biting cold of winter seemed 
more important than the g'entler summer as shown by their counting 
time by winters rather than by years. Something quite different 
from her former contribution on Bi Sicilian hatred and vendettas is 
Elizabeth Cavazza's "Jerry: A Personality." Any lover of horses 
will appreciate it and will be able to match many of the wonderful 
deeds of this equine Solomon. The English scholar, R. Y. Terrell, 
treats of "Early Eatin Poetry" giving particular attention to Plau- 
tus and Terence. The question of giving to the people a more 
direct voice in government is discussed by A. Eawrence Eowell in 
"The Referendum in Switzerland and America." The compulsory 
and facultative forms are defined. The first is the requirement that 
every law shall be submitted for popular approval. The second is 
that a law shall be submitted, when demanded by a certain number 
of voters. The writer concludes that, on account of the greater size 
of our national divisions and the complexity of our life, either form 
would be found impracticable in America. 

The April McClure opens with a portrait and sketch of Emile Zola, 
"His Own Account of his Eife and Work." Simply as a matter of 
interest this article is worth reading. Except this it is of no impor- 
tance. Human Documents contain portraits of Henry Drummond, 
Andrew Carnegie and Miss Ellen Terry. By the way, the Atlantic 
calls the exposure of these z'whuman documents the refinement of 
cruelty and inhumanity. The character sketch of Miss Terry by 
Ethel MacKenzie McKenna is fairly well executed and quite inter- 
esting. Those who have kept up with the war of Dr. Parkhurst upon 
the dens of vice and the incompetent and dishonest officials of New 
York, will appreciate the description of his life and work by E. J. 
Edwards. There are two or three fairly interesting stories, among 
them, is "A Typewritten Letter" by Robert Barr. 

The leading article of the number is "Christianity — True and 
False," by Canon Parrar. Dr. Farrar closes his article thus: "To 



Among- the Magazines. 357 

true religion, the genuine Christianity, no being ever was, or ever 
can be, an enemy; for they only express the true relation of man to 
God, and the beauty of holiness, the god-like elevation of spirit, the 
pure consistency of character, the love and self-sacrifice which 
spring from that relation." W. T. 

The most remarkable feature of the April Cosmopolitan is a story 
by Napoleon Bonaparte. One finds by reading it that Napoleon, the 
author, is much inferior to Napoleon, the general. It is interesting 
however as showing the singular bent of the man's imagination in 
the realm of fiction and to what extent it was haunted by scenes of 
carnage and massacre. Frederic Masson writes a running history 
and comment. The inside facts of the building of the Suez Canal 
on which the honorable fame of De Lesseps rested are told by G. F. 
Ferris. The article seems to shatter the pedestal as Panama deposed 
the idol. Fdward W. Bok, the Philadelphia journalist, discusses the 
different phases of "The Employer and the Young Man," treating 
both sides of the question. He admits that young men are not 
always valued at their true worth but says that these cases are 
exceptions. "The American employer stands ready to pay all that 
the American employee is capable of earning." 

Though this magazine is noted for its fine illustrations, the engrav- 
ings belonging to "Some Colonial Women" and Graham's Bungalow 
are especially good. Much of the charm of the latter little story 
comes from Small's drawings. This story, by the way, makes the 
man to sacrifice himself instead of the woman. Mr. Howells still 
afflicts us with his Altruistic letters, which are enough to drive every 
particle of brotherly love from the heart. J. N. 

Trilby continues to hold her position as the leading attraction in 
the April Harper's. Du Maurier seems to have attained the perfec- 
tion of the end-of-the-century magazine story if indeed the attain- 
ment is at all possible. Of course he is also illustrator, and what 
pictures! Any one who is acquainted in the slightest degree with 
illustrative art is familiar with the name of George du Maurier, and 
what reader of Harper's has not looked forward each month to enjoy- 
ing his illustrated wit. But the illustrator's art alone would not 
produce Trilby. The author is a thorough-going artist and it is 
manifested quite as strongly in his literary style. The intense yet 
delicate delineation of his novel characters makes the story a favor- 
ite. Its Bohemianism makes the morality a little doubtful, but this 
Parisian artist life is delightfully picturesque. Triby is quite differ- 
ent from the common run of heroines; she is everywhere and above 
all, unique. Mr. Henry James in his splendid criticism does not say 
too much "We love her so much that we are vaguely uneasy for her, 



358 University Magazine. 

considerably inclined even to pray for her. Eet us pray among 
other things that she may not grow taller." "Spring in a Side 
Street" is decidedly Branderesque. The one thing about Mr. Mat- 
thews is that he is always interesting. The obscurity in which he 
leaves his point is his greatest fault, but this is probably effected by 
an arduous effort not to weary by the expression of details. He goes 
too far in the other direction but all in all he is a pleasant and enter- 
taining author. "An Affair of the Heart" is the best thing we have 
seen lately by Grace King. It is well done and the idea — a good one 
— vividly presented. A woman's heart is her conscience which pro- 
duces in her a purer, a more perfectly altruistic feeling than in man 
who by his nature reasons. Among other things this young girl 
cannot comprehend why the dwellers by the river, her own kinspeo- 
ple, strengthen the levee on the other side when they know it will 
be the destruction of their opposite neighbors. 

THE COLLEGE MAGAZINES. 

Our only foreign exchange is the Queen's University Journal, of 
Kingston, Canada. Lattle can be said of its literary qualities. 
Nearly the whole space is taken up with communications and 
society meetings. The editors say that their social duties are very 
burdensome. This is almost incredible to Chapel Hillians. 

The Academy, from that long-established school the Salem Female 
Academy, is always gladly received. The historical articles by Miss 
Fries are interesting. However, the friends of the institution would 
be glad to see a more pretentious publication as its organ. 

Among the students of the University of Vermont must be num- 
bered many poets in embryo. The Cynic verse is often good and 
generally worthy of quotation. 

The Trinity Archive comes out somewhat reduced in size. There 
are usually several readable articles. "Student Eife in Berlin" leads 
in the March number. The Personal Department sometimes seems 
too personal. 

The Wofford College Journal often contains many creditable con- 
tributions, though there is little verse. The magazine does not gain 
the deserved recognition because of the poor quality of the mechan- 
ical make-up. The printer is not an expert. 

Something new is seen in the latest Elon College Monthly. The 
number is gotten out exclusively by the "co-eds." The articles 
seem to be quite up to the usual standard. A better publisher would 
much improve this magazine also. A well-printed paper has a great 
advantage over one that is poorly done. 



Current Comment. 359 

Our opinion of the Harvard Advocate has been somewhat modified 
upon longer acquaintance. There seems to be too much of a dispo- 
sition among the editors to regard themselves as censors for the 
whole University. They find much more to condemn than to praise. 



CURRENT COMMENT. 

CASWELL ELLIS. 

In the death of Senator Vance the University has lost one of her 
most gifted, most eminent and most useful sons. As a student in 
1851 and '52, as a trustee from 1875 until his death, as three times 
chief executive of the State and ex-officio chairman of the Board of 
Trustees, as orator three times at our annual Commencement festi- 
vals, he has shown himself a warm, devoted and energetic friend of 
his alma mater. No man was more welcome at the University than 
Vance. The students greeted him with fervent enthusiasm and the 
country people came from great distances to see and hear him — 
perhaps the largest crowd ever assembled in the University Chapel 
came to hear his oration on Swain. His oration at Commencement 
in 1866 on the "Duties of Defeat" is a masterpiece of elogence and 
philosphy. It is full of manly dignity, fortitude, and hopefulness. 
Vance was always in sympathy with youth. His own buoyant 
spirits, his love of fun and humor, his broad genial sunny tolerance 
of human infirmities and his irrepressible hopefulness of the best 
results, made him a genuine friend of youth. He would have made a 
great University President. The boys would have almost worshiped 
him. 

This is not the place to sum up his public career nor to delineate 
his character. Both will be done hereafter on proper occasion by 
competent hands. He was a son of the University and she is proud 
to have nurtured and inspired his splendid genius and his honor- 
able ambition. 

Ai,pha Thexa phi. The organization of the Alpha Theta Phi 
society here is a hopeful sign. 

Heretofore, in the South, there has been organized effort to culti- 
vate only the social side of our nature through the fraternities. 
Now we have a society whose aim is to promote sound scholarship 
and to reward scholars. The continued existence and high standing 
of Phi Beta Kappa at the great Northern institutions has shown 
that such a society may be of great value. This society adds 



360 University Magazine. 

another incentive to patient labor for sound scholarship; as the high 
stand required for entrance makes membership in Alpha Theta Phi 
no doubtful honor. 

New management of library. The new management of the 
library centres the government and the responsibility; so we may 
now expect more satisfactory arrangements. The employment of a 
permanent librarian will save the great waste that has come about 
in the past from the change in plans and purposes in buying 
books, attendant upon the yearly changes in management. Some 
definite plan will now be followed, looking to the time when the 
librarian will be as important, and receive as large salary as a mem- 
ber of the faculty. The need of some one to teach the new men how 
to use a library has long been apparent. This year there has been 
an addition of two thousand volumes including perhaps the best 
working Pedagogical department in the South. 

University press. The University Press is a fact and we have 
taken one more long stride forward. The advantage of having our 
own press is not easily estimated. Through this, all of our work 
that is desired may be given to the public. Even those now so ignor- 
ant of our workings, our bitterest enemies, may through this agency 
be brought to see the good work done here. A closer connection can 
be established between the State and her University. For instance; 
the University stands at the head of public schools in the State and 
should labor to bridge the chasm between itself and the lower 
schools; so that it can rest as a handsome building upon a noble • 
substructure; not float far above as a balloon in uncertain space — 
say at an "Apex." — To accomplish this, our public schools must be 
improved. By means of a University Press, the best work upon the 
most advanced thought in Pedagogy may be given out to our pub- 
lic teachers from the department here. They may be inspired, 
instructed, and encouraged by this kind of work. Similarly in 
other lines, our work here may be carried into the life of the peo- 
ple and their life brought into ours with mutual benefit. Then too, 
our arrangements for printing our present publications are greatly 
improved by a home press. 

Summer schools. To bring the University work still closer into 
the life of the state and to increase its usefulness, summer courses 
are now offered in Political Economy, History and Civics, Mathe- 
matics, Modern Languages, English, Ancient Languages, Physical 
Geography, Biology, in addition to Law, and the Geology courses 
begun at King's Mountain last year. 

The Biology class will meet at the seashore at Beaufort, while 
Geology will again be taught in the region around Kings Moun- 
tain. The remaining courses will be offered in Chapel Hill. 



College Record. 361 

Summer Schools are rapidly growing over the country. The best 
kind of recreation, change of occupation, is thus offered. Summer 
is not a season for laborious work, but many who are unable to take 
a regular college course may find in these summer schools opor- 
tunty for pleasant and profitable work along some favorite line. 
These courses are now offered by the largest and most progressive 
institutions and have rapidly gained favor. All courses except that 
of Iyaw are open to both men and women. 



COLLEGE RECORD. 

FRED. L. CARR. 

Rev. Mr. Hubbard lectured in the Chapel Friday evening, March 
16th, on the "Peace of Nations." 

Mr. Henry Blount, of the Wilson Mirror, lectured here Saturday 
evening, March 10th, on "Success." 

Dr. K. P. Battle lectured at the Episcopal church, on Sunday night, 
22nd., on "Paul before Agrippa and Gallia." 

Dr. K. P. Battle and Prof. E. A. Alderman have been elected 
corresponding members of the Maryland Historical Society. 

Mr. Hugh N. White, of the Union Theological Seminary, address- 
ed the Y. M. C. A. on the gospel call to the University, Sunday, 
March 11th. 

Owing to the inability of Bishop Capehart to be present at the 
coming Commencement, the senior class have invited Rev. F. J. Mur- 
dock, D. D., to deliver the Baccalaureate sermon. 

The first base ball game of the season was played Saturday after- 
noon, March 17th, between the University and the Durham teams. 
The game was finished in spite of the rain storm, resulting in a 
score of 6 to 3 in favor of the University. 

Mr. L,. A. Coulter, State Secretary of the Y. M. C. A., held two 
very interesting services in the Chapel on the 28th and 29th of March, 
taking as his subjects: "What think ye of Christ?" and "The chains 
that bind young men." He spoke with great power and feeling on 
these matters of such vital importance to all young men. 

A new weekly, the "White and Blue" has been started at the 
University with the purpose of reviving the interest in the Lit- 
erary Societies. It has the following board of editors: L,. C. Van 
Noppen, chairman; J. E. Alexander, J. O. Carr, W. C. Smith, T. J. 
Wilson, J. C. Eller, H. F. C. Bryant; A. B. Kimball, F. W. Brawley, 
Business Manag-ers. 12 



362 University Magazine. 

The contests for the medals given annually by the two societies, 
for the best declamation and debate, came off in their respective 
halls, Friday night, April 20th. For the Phi, Alexander, J. B., 
received the Debater's Medal; Allsbrook, R. G., the Declaimer's. 
For the Di, T. S. Rollins received the Debater's; R. W. Blair the 
Declaimer's Medal. 

The Visiting- Committee consisting- of Rev. J. L<. Stewart, Chair- 
man; Hon. R. A. Doughton, R. T. Gray, Esq.; Judge W. T. Fair- 
cloth and Mr. D. G. Worth, made their annual tour of Inspection to 
the University on April 12th. Of the committee Mr. Worth is an A. 
B. of 1863, Rev. Mr. Stewart an A. B. of 1857, and Mr. Doughton a 
member of the class of 1883. 

The latest addition to the ever-increasing educational force of the 
University is the Summer School. The school is divided into two 
departments, the Academic, with ten professors, and the Pedagogic 
with seven. Instruction will be offered in twenty-two subjects. 
Constant emphasis will be laid upon the pedagogic basis of the sub- 
jects taught. The university is seeking in this way to connect itself 
with the teaching force of the State. L<et the teachers attend. 

Under the auspices of the Dialectic Society, Dr. Winston delivered 
before the student body the first of a series of lectures to be given 
by members of the Faculty. By request Dr. Winston gave his cele- 
brated lecture on "Rome." The Chapel was crowded and for an 
hour and thirty minutes the audience was held spell-bound by the 
eloquence of the speaker. 

On the following Saturday night, Dr. Battle lectured on the "Inci- 
dents connected with Sherman's entrance into Raleigh." In con- 
versational style "Pres." described the scenes and incidents of which 
he was an eye-witness. The lecture was interspersed with the 
humor for which the Doctor is so noted. 

The students of the University are much indebted to the Dialec- 
tic Society for affording them the opportunity of enjoying such a 
rare treat as the recital and interpretation of two of Shakespeare's 
plays by Mr. Hannibal A. Williams of New York, the accomplished 
Shakespearian reader. On Monday evening, March 19th, Mr. Wil- 
liams rendered Part I. of Henry IV and on the following evening 
the "Taming of the Shrew." His personal grace, charming manner, 
well moduated voice, and the fidelity and accuracy with which the 
various characters were portrayed, constituted but a few of his 
many charms. There was no attempt at elecutionary effect, the 
reader depending almost wholly upon change of tone in the repre- 
sentation of the characters. As a feat of memory alone, his effort 
was wonderful, reciting the whole of both plays without once hav- 
ing to refer to the text. 



College Record. 363 

The GlEE Club returned from its Eastern tour Saturday, April 
1st, after a week's absence. On the trip they gave concerts at Ral- 
eigh, Fayetteville, Wilmington, Newbern, and Kinston. The Club 
was universally well received, and the trip a most enjoyable one. 

On Tuesday night. April 24th, Professor Collier Cobb, lectured 
before the Geology class of the Normal School at Greensboro, on 
"The Triassic Period in North Carolina." On the following night 
Dr. K. P. Battle delivered his lecture on "Incidents connected with 
Sherman's Entrance into Raleigh;" and on Friday night Prof. E. A. 
Alderman lectured on "Childhood in Civilization." 

LECTURES BEFORE THE Y. M. C. A. 

Prof. E. A. Alderman lectured in the Chapel, Sunday, April 15th, 
on the "Ideal Man," The talk was very interesting and impressive, 
full of thought and well expressed. 

The second of the series of lectures was delivered by Dr. Winston 
on "The Greatest Miracle." The Dr. held his audience in his usual 
charming manner. 

ALPHA THETA PHI SOCIETY. 

The example of Phi Beta Kappa in sister colleges has led to the 
founding of a similar society at the University. It is strictly an 
honor society, and has no secrets of any kind. Any student is eligi- 
ble for membership who has attained the average grade of "two" 
(90 per cent). It is the purpose of the Society to conform as closely 
as possible to the standard of Phi Beta Kappa. 

LECTURES BY DR. THOMAS HUME. 

Dr. Thomas Hume has delivered lectures at the following places 
during the last two months: 

At Clayton, Johnson county, Feb. 17th. 

At Salisbury, Feb. 24th. 

At Baptist church, Chapel Hill, April 11th, on the "History and 
Philosophy of Hymnology." 

At Salisbury, April 23rd on "The best way of studying Shakes* 
pere" using "Hamlet" as a model. 

BASE BALL. 

Yale, 7; U. N. C, 4; at Greensbore, N. C, March 23. 

Lehigh, 7; U. N. C, 12; at Chapel Hill, March 24. 

Lehigh, 1; U. N. C, 6; at Raleigh, March 26. 

Durham 4; U. N. C, 20; at Durham, March 31. 

Vermont, 7; U. N. C, 6; at Charlotte, April 5. 

Vermont, 3; U. N. C, 10; at Charlote, April 6. 

Oak Ridge, 1; U. N. C, 6; at Chapel Hill, April 15. 

Richmond College, 1; U. N. C, 14; at Chapel Hill, April 21. 



364 University Magazine. 

INTER--SOCIETY DEBATE. 

The fifth Inter-Society debate came off in the Dialectic Hall, 
Thursday night, Feb. 2nd, resulting- in a victory for the Di's. 
. The hall was called to order by Pres. T. B. Lee, and Secretary 
Blair announced as the query for debate: "Resolved that Hawaii 
should be admitted into the United States." Messrs. Home and 
Alexander, representing- the Phi society, had the affirmative. 
Messrs. Swink and Dockery, S., representing the Di society, the 
negative. 

The debate was opened by Mr. Home and closed by Mr. Swink, 
both sides discussing the question ably from all points, and show- 
ing themselves thoroughly familiar with it. After a short consul- 
tation, the judges, Dr. Winston, Dr. Crowell of Trinity College, and 
Rev. Mr. Watson of Chapel Hill, rendered their decision in favor of 
the negative. 

PHILOLOGICAL, CLUB. 

The regular monthly meeting of the club was held at the 
rooms of Prof. Tolman on Friday evening, March 2nd. and the fol- 
lowing papers read: 

"A possible ancient Persian original of Ezra, I. 46," by Prof. Tol- 
man. Cyclostyle copies of the version proposed were furnished the 
members and the reading justified in each case by comparison with 
the Ancient Persian inscriptions translated by Prof. Tolman in his 
"Guide to the Old Persian Inscriptions." 

"Some studies in the action of Persius," by Mr. Pugh, comment- 
ing specially on the rare words, words of Greek origin, diminuatives. 
colloquial issues, proverbs and metoporia. 

"Does the Saturnian verse of Naevius show an advance beyond that 
of Eivius Andronicus!" by Prof. Harrington. 

LECTURE BY EEI PERKINS. 

The absence of the usual Washing-ton's Birthday Oration was well 
atoned for by a lecture on "The Philosophy of Wit and Humor" by 
"Eli Perkins" (Melville D. Eangdon), the famous humorist, who at 
the instance of the Dialectic Society, came over from Durham and 
addressed quite a large audience assembled in the Chapel. In a 
happy and easy way he defined and drew the distinction between 
Wit and Humor, showing that Wit was only deformity, deformity of 
rhetoric and grammar as of thought. It is exaggeration, imagina- 
tion. Humor on the contrary is always true. It is nothing but a 
faithful description of life. Wit is that which might be. Humor 
that which is. Satire is an exaggeration for truth's sake. It exag- 
gerates error to kill it. Ridicule bears the same relation to truth 



College Record. 365 

that Satire does to error. It exaggerates the truth and "laug-hs it 
out of court." The lecturer held his audience well for more than an 
hour, and notwithstanding- the fact that rumor would have had it 
otherwise, it is certain that no one who heard him had cause for 
offence at any unkind allusion to the South. 

CONCERT. 

It seldom falls to the lot of the student body to enjoy such a treat 
as was tendered it by the "Eeo Wheat and Tuxedo Mandolin and 
Guitar Club" on Tuesday evening, April 3rd. College life is at best 
but a monotonous one, and an3 r thing tending to disturb that monot- 
ony is welcomed with the greatest enthusiasm. So it was that Mr. 
Wheat was met by a highly appreciative audience. The encores were 
many, the applause prolonged and loud. 

EEISHA MITCHEEE SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY. 

The Society met in Person Hall, Tuesday night, Feb. 20th, to hear 
the lecture of Dr. H. B. Battle, Director of the State Experiment 
Station. The speaker was introduced by President Holmes, State 
Geologist, who referred to the fact that the speaker's father, when 
President of the University, was the main advocate of experimental 
work in agriculture in the State. 

Dr. Battle spoke of the founding of the station, asserting that it 
was only "a child of the University." In a general convention of 
many local agricultural clubs and societies it was determined to 
memorialize the legislature to give the farmers of the State protec- 
tion from the fraudulent practices of fertilizer manufacturers. 
Accordingly in March, 1877, the legislature passed a bill authorizing 
the founding of the experiment station, the second in America. The 
station is now supported not by the State but by the national gov- 
ernment. Money is required for such scientific work, but it is not 
thrown away. It returns in increased amount to the agricultural 
classes. 

The lecture was instructive and thoroughly enjoyed by all. 

SHAKESPEARE CEUB. 

Obedient to the call of the President, the club met in Gerrard Hall, 
Thursday night, March 1st. Dr. Hume announced Othello as the 
subject for the night, and after some very interesting remarks, intro- 
duced Ellis, '94, who read a paper on "Sources of Othello." He 
traced the origin of the play back to Cinthio, an Italian poet of the 
16th century. This crude production, Shakespeare worked into art 
in Othello. His best work was the remodeling of the characters of 
Othello and Iago. Othello is not wild and passionate as in Cinthio, 
but brave and generous. Iago is not a polished everyday scoundrel, 



366 University Magazine. 

but the Prince of Devils, loving- evil for its own sake. The general 
historical coloring of the play is correct, and it may have had a real 
back ground. 

Extracts were read from Hodgins' paper on "Scenery of Venice 
and Discusions of Othello," in which he discussed the characters 
generally. Also from a paper on "Jeolousy of Othello" by C. L. 
Van Noppen. 

Swink, '94, in his paper, "Character of Desdemona," traced the 
story of her love, showing how her imagination had been stirred by 
the stories of Othello's adventures. The elopement throws a 
glamour over the whole and prepares for the tragic ending. He 
described her character contrasting it with that of Amelia her foil, 
showing that she possessed a happy vein of playfulness and humour 
in spite of her passivity. So free and noble she could not realize 
her husband's jealousy, nor her own danger until it was too late. 
Amelia on the other hand is not a child but a woman, one who would 
hesitate in telling the truth if the reward was great enough. The 
contrast is one of sensuous nature as opposed to moral. The moral 
of the play was touched upon. 

The president read extracts from a paper by Sawyer on "Amelia 
as a foil," and from one by L. Barnes on "Desdemona" in which he 
touched upon the pathos of her character. 

T. B. Lee presented a sonnet on "Desdemona" which was read by 
the president, Dr. Hume. He also read one from L. C. Van Noppen. 
Both were deserving of the praise they received. For lack of time, 
papers presented by Bingham, Rollins, Gillespie and Brawley were 
not read. 

A paper by T. C. Smith, '94, treated of the interpretation of Iago's 
character by actors, and called attention to the fact that the moral 
causes were disproportionate to the results. Oldham, '94, discussed 
the question as to whether fatalism enters the play. 

H. Home, '95, in his "Contrast in Othello in metre, diction, char- 
acterization, and scenes," showed that the nature of contrast was to 
deepen the character of the things opposed, and aid in the portrayal 
of character. 

Dr. Winston responded to the call of the Club with a few interest- 
ing remarks on the main characters of the play, and commented on 
its remarkable naturalness. 

The Club met in Gerrard Hall, Tuesday night, Ap'l 17th, obedient to 
the call of the President, to discuss the play "Hamlet." H. Home, 
'95, read a paper on the "Objective and subjective influences of the 
Play," and was followed by T. B. Lee, '94, who gave some "Glimpses 
into Elizabethan Life." Mr. Harding, Law, discussed in a very 
entertaining manner "Shakspeare's knowledge of law." Two son- 
nets by L. C. Van Noppen were read by Dr. Hume, and the Club 
was adjourned to meet again at the call of the President. 



College Record. 367 



RESOLUTIONS OF RESPECT. 

Dialectic Hai.Iv, University of North Capolina, 
Whereas, the All-wise Father, in His inscrutable providence, has 
seen fit to remove from a life of unremitting- and useful activity our 
honored fellow-member, Zebulon Baird Vance; and, 

WHEREAS, we feel that in his death the Nation has lost a valuable 
and trusted leader, the University a loyal son, and the Dialectic 
Society a devoted and faithful adherent; therefore, by the Society 
in meeting - assembled, be it 

Resolved 1, That, being deeply sensible of our bereavement, we 
recognize in the career and achievements of this patriot statesman 
an example worthy of emulation. 

2. That, as a token of respect, the Dialectic Hall be draped in 
mourning for thirty days; that copies of these resolutions be sent to 
the family of the deceased, to the University publications, the State 
press, and that a copy be spread on the minutes of the Society. 

Holland M. Thompson, 
Thos. Bailey Eee, 
Aw. S. Barnard, 

Committee, 
April 17, 1894. 

Memorial Services. — On Monday morning, April 16th, the stu- 
dent body assembled in the Chapel to pay the last tribute to the 
memory of the late Senator Zebulon B. Vance. After a fervent 
prayer by Dr. Hume, Drs. Manning and Battle, friends of the dead 
Senator, sketched his life and character, following him in the suc- 
cessive steps of Congressman, Captain, Colonel, War-Governor and 
Senator; touching upon the earnest, sincere, tender spirit of the 
man, his unflinching integrity, and heart overflowing with the milk 
of human kindness. 

After a few remarks by Dr. Winston the audience sang "One 
sweetly solemn thought," and were dismissed. 

AEUMNI NOTES. 

Eugene P, Withers, 1888, is making a reputation in the Virginia 
Legislature. 

C. M. Busbee, 1865-'68, has been appointed Postmaster at Raleigh. 

Marion Butler, A. B., 1885, has been elected President of the 
National Farmers' Alliance, 

J. S. Carr, 1862-'64, has been selected to deliver the Memorial 
Address at Wilmington, May 10th. 

J. E- Cunningham, 1891, is studying Theology at Vanderbilt Uni- 
versity. 



368 University Magazine. 

Boyden and Sumpter, both of the law class of 1894, have opened 
up an office in Chapel Hill. They will continue here until June 
when they receive their B. Iy.'s. 

Goe. F. Butler, Law, 1893, is associated with T. M. Lee, 1891, in 
the practice of law at Clinton, N. C, where they are fast building 
up an enviable reputation. 

V. S. Bryant, Ph. B., 1890, and Merritt, Law, 1894, are practising 
at Roxboro, N. C. They have opened up a branch office at Hillsborro. 

F. L. Robbins, 1888-1890, has been elected superintendent of the 
new cotton mills at China Grove, N. C. 

W. L. Spoon, B., S. 1891, has published an accurate and compre- 
hensive map of the neighborhood surrounding Burlington, N. C. 

George V. Tilley, 1890, was ordained to the full work of the min- 
istry, at Bethel Baptist church, Sunday, March 24th, 1894. Dr. John 
L. Carrol, 1863, preached the sermon, Professor Thomas Hume,D. D., 
delivered the charge and Rev. J. W. Watson, 1892-'94, presented the 
Bible. 

Bowman Gray, Ex. 1894, is Teller of the First National Bank, 
Salem, N. C. 

W. A. Devin, Law, 1893, is practising law at Oxford, N. C. 

R. B. McLaughlin, 1888-'89, who was a member of N. C. Senate 
from 37th District, is a successful lawyer at Statesville, N. C. 

William P. Hubbard, Law, 1893, is practising at Fresno, Cali- 
fornia. 

H. J. Darnall, 1890, is a professor of Modern Languages in Uni- 
versity School, Knoxville, Tenn. 

B. F. Tyson, Fx. 1884, is engaged in the law practice at Greene- 
ville, N. C. 

MARRIAGFS. 

Alex. W. McAllister, 1882, was married to Miss Sally Little, at 
Little's Mills, Richmond county, N. C, April 11th. 

Walter Borden, 1885-'87, was married to Miss Mattie Fuller, daugh- 
ter of Judge T. C. Fuller, 1849-'50, at Raleigh, N. C, Feb. 15th, 
1894. 

DEATHS. 

Thomas Badger Wetmore, A. B., 1841, Maj. C. S. A,, died at 
Birmingham, Ala., Thursday March, 8th, 1894. 

Dr. John Means Lawing, A. B., 1857, Surgeon C. S. A. died at his 
home in Lincolnton, N. C, March 6th, 1894. 

Norfleet Smith, 1860, died at Scotland Neck, Halifax county, N. C, 
March 28, 1894, in his fif ty-fith year. Mr. Smith was a lieutenant in 
the Confederate Army and a successful planter. 



University of North Carolina. 



GEORGE T. WINSTON, LE. D., President, and Professor of Po- 
litical and Social Science. 

KEMP P. BATTEE, EE. D., Professor of History. 

FRANCIS P. VENABEE, Ph. D., Professor of General and Ana- 
lytical Chemistry. 

JOSEPH A. HOEMES, B. S., State Geologist and Lecturer on 
Geology of North Carolina. 

JOSHUA W. GORE, C. E., Professor of Natural Philosophy. 

JOHN MANNING, LE. D., Professor of Law. 

THOMAS HUME, D. D., EE. D., Professor of the English Lan- 
guage and Literature. 

WAETER D. TOY, M. A., Professor of Modern Languages. 

*EBEN ALEXANDER, Ph. D., EE. D., Professor of the Greek 
Language and Literature. 

WIEEIAM CAIN, C. E-, Professor of Mathematics. 

RICHARD H. WHITEHEAD, M. D., Professor of Anatomy, 
Physiology and Materia Medica. 

HENRY H. WIEEIAMS, A. M., B. D., Professor of Mental and 
Moral Science. 

HENRY V. WIESON, Ph. D., Professor of Biology. 

KARE P. HARRINGTON, A. M., Professor of the Latin Language 
and Literature. 

COEEIER COBB, A. B., Professor of Geology and Mineralogy. 

EDWIN A. AEDERMAN, Ph. B., Professor of History and Phil- 
osophy of Education. 

HERBERT C. TOEMAN, Ph. D., Professor of Sanskrit and Act- 
ing Professor of Greek. 

INSTRUCTORS AND ASSISTANTS. 
CHAREES BASKERVIEEE, B. Sc, Instructor in Chemistry. 
THOMAS R. FOUST, B. E., Instructor in Mathematics. 
JAMES T. PUGH, B. A.. Instructor in Latin. 
CHAREES H. WHITE, Assistant in Physical Laboratory. 
WIEEIAM R. KENAN, Jr., Assistant in Chemical Laboratory. 
ROBERT P. JENKINS, Assistant in Biological Laboratory. 
OFFICERS. 
J. W. Gore, Secretary and Registrar. 

E. A. Alderman, Librarian. 

F. C. Harding, Student Librarian. 
W. T. Patterson, Bursar. 

*Minister to Greece, Roumania and Servia. 



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THE UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE, 

CHAPEL HIU„ N. C. 



Historical Number 



THE 



University Magazine 

WILL ISSUE ITS 

Historical Number, May 21 



It will contain many valuable historical 
ments, including- a letter from Nathaniel 
to his pastor, Rev. Thomas Gardner, upon ti 

litical situation in 1792. 

Among the contributors to the number 
.1 ustiee Walter Clark, 

i;isJi»]> Joseph Blount C-henliire, 
Major Graham 



Vol. XIII. 



MAY, 1894. 



No. 8. 



NORTH 
CAROLINA 
UNIVERSITY 
AAGAZINE 




(Copyright, 1894. by Collier Cobb, for the Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies.) 

PRICE 25 CENTS. 



NORTH CAROLINA 

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE. 

(Founded in 1844.) 

CONTENTS FOR MAY, 1894. 
A. B, Andrews Frontispiece. 

PAGE. 

Officers of the North Carolina Line on the Continental 

Establishment. Graham Daves 369 

The Office of Solicitor General. Jos. Blount Cheshire. . . . 380 

To An Autumn Leaf. A Poem. Ross T. 391 

Alexander Boyd Andrews. /. D. Cameron 391 

My Fountain Pen. A Poem. Henry Jerome Stockard 404 

Memories. A Poem. Leonard C. Van Noppen 405 

Petit Treason — Death by Burning. Walter Clark 405 

Lost Hopes. A Poem. T. F. Simmons 409 

The Fall of Babylon and the Mysterious Handwriting 

on the Wall. H. C. Tolman 409 

An Examination Day. W. C. Smith 417 

A Song in the Night. A Poem. Howard A. Banks 423 

Book Notices 424 

Select Poetry of North Carolina — Historical Tales — 
First Lessons in Our Country's History — The Consti- 
tutional Beginnings of North Carolina. 

Among the Magazines. Holland M. Thompson, 'p? 427 

Current Comment. Caswell Ellis, '94 428 

College Record. Fred. L. Carr, '95 430 

Historical Society — Flisha Mitchell Scientific Society. 

* # *Nathaniel Macon's Letter, promised in this number, will be 
held over for a future issue. 

Entered at the Chapel Hill Post-office as second-class mail matter. 

THAPELHILL. N. C. : PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 






F PUB 5 






NORTH CAROLINA 

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE 

OLD SERIES, VOL. XXVI. NO. 8-MAY, 1894. NEW SERIES, VOL. XIII. 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA LINE ON 
THE CONTINENTAL ESTABLISHMENT. 

Judge Schenck says, in his "North Carolina in 1780—81," 
in a sketch of the North Carolina Troops of the Continental 
Line, who served in the War of the Revolution, that "The 
sources of information in regard to the, history of our regu- 
lar troops, while under Washington, are extremely meagre. " 
How meagre and disjointed can be known to those only 
who have endeavored to inform themselves on the subject, 
especially. as to. the period of time between the battle of 
Germantown, 4th October, 1777, and the surrender of 
Charleston, 1 2th May, 1780. .North Carolina had Conti- 
nental troops in the field throughout the war, but a con- 
nected and complete history of their services is yet to be 
written. Much material bearing on the subject has, how- 
ever, been collected within the last few years, a large part 
of which will be embodied in the volumes to be compiled 
and edited by the Hon. Walter Clark in continuation of the 
Colonial Records published by Col. Wm. L- Saunders, and 
from them, and from other sources, it is hoped that that 
brave story of gallantry and suffering, of duty faithfully 
done and privation cheerfully endured, may yet be told in 
its entirety.. 

Among the "Washington Correspondence" filed in the 
archives of the State Department at Washington, D. C, 



370 University Magazine. 

are many papers, still in the original manuscript, of much 
interest in this connection. From among these the reports 
and list following were selected and copied, and as important 
data in the lives and services of our Continental officers, 
never before published, and, by consequence of the Revo- 
lutionary history of our State, they are very valuable. The 
first and second of the papers are returns made by the 
Colonels of the first and second of our Continental Battal- 
ions of the officers who served in their respective commands, 
extending, in the case of the first, over a space of nearly 
three years, and of more than a year in that of the second. 
The third paper is a list of the North Carolina Continental 
officers, as reported to General Washington, who continued 
in that service until the end of the war. 

In order to make clear some of the statements under the 
head of "Remarks," in the returns, it is necessary to men- 
tion that by a resolution of the Continental Congress, passed 
29th May, 1778, the North Carolina brigade, then in camp 
under Washington, was reduced, and the nine regiments or 
battalions composing it were consolidated at first into four. 
The terms of the resolution required that the supernumerary 
officers of the several battalions were to be returned to 
Carolina to be assigned to four new regiments, authorized 
to be levied there for the Continental service, and such offi- 
cers as could not be so provided for were to be honorably 
discharged. This will explain the word "Dismissed," as 
applied to certain officers in the return of the first battalion. 
It is not used in a derogatory sense at all, but means merely 
that they were discharged in pursuance of the resolution. 
So, too, the rather remarkable expression, "Agreb'l to the 
arran g'mt," refers to the assignment of the officers to the 
new regiments in Carolina. These new regiments, so far 
as they had been organized, constituted the brigade of 



North Carolina Continental Officers. 371 

Gen. Jethro Sumner in the campaign of 1779 in South 
Carolina and Georgia, and among the wounded at the bat- 
tle of Stono, S. C, fought on 20th June, 1779, appear the 
names of Col. James Armstrong, previously of the 8th Regi- 
ment, Lieut. Col. Archibald Lytle of the 6th, Major Henry 
Dixon of the 3d, Captain Rhodes, and Lieutenants Charl- 
ton (mortally) and Campbell. It is worthy of note that the 
losses of the N. C. Continental infantry at Stono — viz., 
killed, 10, rank and file; wounded, officers 6, rank and file 
26 — were greater than those of any other one organization 
in the action. Besides these there were a number of casu- 
alties in the North Carolina militia and "Light Horse," 
engaged there. 

An article in the May (1893) number of The Magazine, 
page 269, gives entire another of this collection of "Wash- 
ington Papers," in which is set forth the reorganization of 
another Continental Brigade of General Sumner, and a 
reassignment of officers by a Board of Officers assembled 
for that purpose at Ponpon, S. C, February 6, 1782. The 
brigade last mentioned was recruited after the disastrous 
surrender of Charleston in May, 1780, and was the last of 
the North Carolina Continentals that saw active service in 
the field. Graham Daves. 

Newbern, N. C. 



372 



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*A LIST OF THE OFFICERS WHO SERVED IN THE SECOND 
NORTH CAROLINA BATTALION SINCE JANUARY 9, 1777. 



Names of Officers. 



FIELD OFFICERS. 
Alexander Martin, Colonel- 
John Patterson, L,t. Col INov. 22, 1777. 



Dates of 
Commissions. 



John White, Major. 

Hardy Murfree, Captain 
Selby Harney, Major 

John Armstrong, Captain 

CAPTAINS. 

James Gee 

John Heritage . 

William Fenner 



jFeb. 1st, 1777.-. 

Feb. 1st, 1777- - 
Nov. 22d, 1777- 

Oct. 4th, 1777--. 



Edward Vail — 

Benjamin Williams. 

James Gardiner 

Clement Hall 

James Martin 

Joseph Tate 

Charles Allen 

Benjamin Coleman .. 



July 19, 1776 
April 24th, 1777. 



Robert Fenner 



John Ingles 

Thomas Armstrong, 

Manlove Tarrant 



John Craddock 

Thomas Standin 

FIRST LIEUTENANTS. 

Joseph Worth 

Phillip Lowe 

Clement Nash 

Isaac Rolston 



David Vance — 
Charles Stewart- 



Thomas Evans — 

John Jacobs 

John Daves 

James Parkerson. 



Oct. 24th, 1777-- 



April 30th, 1777. 



Oct. 24, 1777. 
Oct. 25, 1777- 



Dec. 21st, 1777- 



May 15th, 1777- 



Oct. 4th, 1777- 



Remarks. 



Resigned Nov. 22, 1777. 
Promoted Nov. 22, 1777. 
Promoted to commaud of 

a Reg't in Georgia. 
Promoted to a Major. 
Promoted Lt. Col. from 

the 8th to 2d Regiment. 
Promoted Major to the 

4th Regiment. 

Died Nov. 12, 1777. 
Resigned May 15th, 1777. 
Promoted Major to the 

7th Regiment. 
Cashiered Dec. 21, 1777. 

Resigned May 15, 1777. 

Transferred to 5th Reg't. 
Died 2d June, 1777. 
Transf 'd to 5th Regime't. 
Transf'd from the 5th 

Regiment. 
Date of Commission in 

dispute. 

Transf'd from the 5th 

Regiment. 
Sent to No. Carolina, 

agreeable to arraiigm't. 

Resigned May 15th, 1777. 

Died April 6th, 1777. 

Resigned Feb. 1st, 1777. 

Resigned Feb. 1st, 1777. 

Sent to Carolina, Agree- 
able to the arrangem't. 

Sent to Carolina, Agree- 
able to arrangement. 

Transf'd from the 5th 
Reg't. 

Resigned March 1st, 1776. 

Died 26th March, 1778. 



♦Washington Papers, Army Returns, Vol. 8, No. 27, page n, Dep't of State Washing- 
>n. D. c 



ton, D. C 



37* 



University Magazine. 



Names of Officers. 



FIRST LIEUT'S — CONTINUED. 

Samuel Budd 

John Williams 



James Campen 

Arthur Colgrave 

Charles Garrard 

SECOND LIEUTENANTS. 

William Killeby 

Stringer Mcllewaine 

John Radford 

James Luton 

Levi Sawyer 

ENSIGNS. 

Samuel Jones 

William Ferrill 

Richard Andrews 

Thomas Finney 

L,evi Gatliug . 

Stephen Southall 

Nathaniel Lawrence 

James Verrier 



Dates of 
Commissions. 



Nov. nth, 1777. 



Dec. 21st, 1777— 
March 26th, 1777 
June 1st, 1777 — 



Sept. 8th, 1777. 
Nov. 1st, 1777- - 
Nov. 12, 1777-- 



April 1st, 1777- 
June 1st, 1777-- 
June 1st, 1777 — 



Remarks. 



Sent to No. Carolina, 
agreeable to arrangm't. 

Transf 'd to the 5th Reg't. 

Died April 6th, 1777. 
Resigned Oct. 24, 1777. 
Resigned Feb. 1, 1778. 
Resigned March 10, 1778. 
Resigned March 16, 1778. 

Died July, 1778. 



Cashiered Aug. 18, 1778. 



JOHN PATTEN, Colo. 

N. B. — This Return is not dated, but the records show it to be of Sep- 
tember 9th, 1778. G. D. 



*LIST OF OFFICERS OF THE LATE WAR, WHO CONTINUED 

TO THE END THEREOF, OR WERE DERANGED BY 

ACTS OF CONGRESS. 



James Armstrong, 
Gideon Lamb, 
James Thackston, 

John Armstrong, 



NORTH CAROLINA. 

Major General Robert Howe. 
Brigadier General Jethro Sumner. 

colonels: 
Thomas Clark, Selby Harney, 

Archibald Lytle, John Patten. 

lieutenant-colonels : 
William Davidson, Hardy Murfree. 



*Washington Correspondence, Department of State, Washington, D. C, Book 115, 
Pages 142^—43. 



North Carolina Continental Officers. 



379 



Reading Blount, 
Thomas Hogg, 

William Armstrong, 
Kedar Ballard, 
Benjamin Bailey, 
Benjamin Coleman, 
Francis Child, 
Tilghman Dixon, 
William Fawn, 
John Ingles, 
Micajah Lewis, 
Joseph Mumford, 
John Madearis, 
James Read, 
Robert Raiford, 
Anthony Sharpe, 
John Walsh, 



William Alexander, 
Robert Bell, 
Anthony Crutcher, 
Thomas Clarke, 
Charles Dixon, 
Richard Fenner, 
John Ford, 
William Hargrave, 
John Hill, 
Nathaniel Lawrence, 
Thomas Pasteur, 
William Saunders, 



majors: 
Thomas Donohoe, 
Griffith J. McRee, 

captains: 
Thomas Armstrong, 
Gee Bradley, 
Samuel Budd, 
Leonard Cooper, 
Thomas Callender, 
John Daves, 
Thomas Evans, 
Clement Hall, 
Samuel Jones, 
John Kingsbury, 
James Mills, 
Elijah Moore, 
Jesse Reed, 
Joseph T. Rhodes, 
John Summers, 

captain-lieutenant: 
Phillip Jones. 

lieutenants: 
James Tatum, 
Samuel Ashe, 
Joseph Brevard, 
John Clendennin, 
Wayne Dixon, 
Charles Gerrard, 
Robert Hays, 
Curtis Ivey, 
Dixon Marshall, 
Daniel Shaw, 
James Scurlock, 
John Vance, 



George Doherty, 
John Nelson. 



William Williams, 
Peter Bacot, 
Alexander Brevard, 
John Craddock, 
Benjamin Carter, 
Robert Fenner, 
Joshua Hadley, 
William Lytle, 
John McNees, 
Benjamin Mills, 
James Pearle, 
John Rochell, 
Charles Stewart, 
William Walton, 
Edward Yarborough. 



William Bush, 
James Campen, 
John Campbell, 
Thomas Dudley, 
Thomas Finney, 
Francis Graves, 
Hardy Holmes, 
Abner Lamb, 
James Moore, 
Stephen Slade, 
Jesse Steed, 
Nathaniel Williams. 



James Fergus, 

Solomon Hailing, 



surgeons: 
James W. Green, William McClure, 

Joseph Blyth. 

mate: 
William McClaine. 



THE OFFICE OF SOLICITOR GENERAL OF 
NORTH CAROLINA. 

Few even of the legal profession remember that there 
•was once a Solicitor General, as well as an Attorney Gen- 
eral, of the State. And fewer still know how the office 
came to be created, and how and why it disappeared from 
our judicial system. A series of inquiries addressed by 
the writer to all the lawyers of his acquaintance in one of 
the principal towns of the State a few years ago failed to 
elicit any satisfactory information on the subject. 

The only name commonly associated with recollections 
of the Solicitor Generalship is that of the late Edward 
Jones, of Chatham County. He was appointed to the 
office very soon after its creation in 1790, and held it until 
his resignation in 1827. Mr. Jones was a man of intellect 
and a lawyer of eminence. He was descended of a notable 
Irish stock, counting among his lineal ancestors no less 
illustrious a name in literature and religion than that of 
Jeremy Taylor. It must be remembered, however, that the 
illustrious Irishmen of the last century were almost without 
exception Englishmen by blood and Churchmen in religion. 
Grattan, Curran, Emmet, Willesley, and Mr. Edward Jones's 
brother, Todd Jones — witli other great Irishmen of the days 
preceding "the Union'''' — were Irish of the Anglo-Saxon 
Colony in that unhappy land. It is not necessary to say 
anything in this place of Mr. Jones's character or career, 
both are too well known. So entirely is the memory of 
the office of Solicitor General associated with his incum- 
bencv that in an article giving reminiscences of him in a 
Wilmington paper a few years ago, Col. J. G. Burr asserted 



Office of Solicitor General of North Carolina. 381 

that the office was created for him, and that he was the 
only man who ever held it. Surprise at this statement 
that an office in North Carolina had been created for an 
individual, and especially for one who at that time had 
been but a few years resident in the State, led to the in- 
quiries above referred to. These inquiries being fruitless, 
and curiosity being stimulated by exercise, the matter was 
pursued with results which, if they are not valuable, may 
at least prove of some interest to those who are interested 
in the judicial history of our State. This article may per- 
haps deserve to be ranked as an humble foot-note to Mr. 
Kemp P. Battle's admirable address, or to Judge Clark's 
more elaborate articles upon the History of our Supreme 
Court. 

When North Carolina asserted her independence, along 
with the other colonies, in 1776, she appointed a Superior 
Court consisting of three Judges — Ashe, Iredell and Spen- 
cer. Judge Iredell soon resigned and was succeeded by 
Judge John Williams, of Granville. The State was divided 
into six districts, called after the names of the six dis- 
trict towns, Edenton, Newbern, Wilmington, Halifax, 
Hillsboro, and Salisbury. Two terms of the Court were 
held in each of these towns during each year, and an Attor- 
ney General represented the State throughout the entire 
circuit. The first Attorney General was Waightstill Avery. 
He was succeeded by James Iredell, and he by Alfred 
Moore. In 1782 the progress of settlements westward, and 
the necessities of the western people, demanded the erec- 
tion of the "District of Morgan," to include the territory 
too far beyond Salisbury to attend conveniently at that 
town ; and so two terms of the Court were held at Morgan- 
ton. It was before this Court for the District of Morgan, 
then embracing so much of Tennessee as had been settled, 



382 University Magazine. 

that John Sevier was arraigned in 1788. In 1787 it became 
necessary to appoint a new District Court for the conveni- 
ence of the populous region of the upper Cape Fear, and 
to meet this want the General Assembly erected "the Dis- 
trict of Fayetteville," and provided for two terms of the 
Superior Court each year in Fayetteville. The Court was 
still composed of the same three Judges, and Alfred Moore, 
the Attorney General, had to represent the State in all of 
these districts. 

With the creation of the District of Fayetteville came 
the necessity for some more practicable arrangement. It 
must have been laborious enough for one set of Judges to 
hold two terms each year in places so remote from each 
other and so difficult of access as the six original district 
towns; but when the number of these towns was raised to 
eight, and one of the new ones was nearly a hundred miles 
west of Salisbury, it became all but a physical impossibil- 
ity for one set of Judges to do the necessary business of 
Courts so widely separated, with the meager facilities for 
intercommunication which were to be had at that day. 

The Act of 1790, chapter 3, therefore, divided the State 
into two ridings, the Western Riding, including the Dis- 
tricts of Morgan, Salisbury, Hillsboro' and Fayetteville, 
and the Eastern Riding, including Halifax, Edenton, New- 
bern and Wilmington. Spruce McKay, of Salisbury, was 
added to the three Judges already on the bench, and they 
were directed to arrange the two ridings among themselves 
so that two Judges should be assigned to each, and such a 
rotation should be observed as would send each one of their 
number regularly around the whole State. 

These two ridings could not both be attended by the 
Attorney General, and so the act further provided that a 
Solicitor General should be appointed by the General Assem- 



Office of Solicitor General of North Carolina. 383 

bly, "a man of abilities, integrity and learned in the law," 
who should "have the same powers, and be under the same 
restrictions and have the same allowances and fees as the 
Attorney General of this State." (1790, ch. 3, § 7, I. p. 
695.) The offices were thus put upon a perfect equality, 
and no distinction was made between them. As in the case 
of the Judges, so also the Attorney General and the Solictor 
General were to arrange between themselves as to which 
riding each should take. There is nothing in the act 
creating them to give one of these officers any precedence 
over the other, but the traditions of the bar assign a higher 
place to the Attorney General from the first, and we shall 
presently see how the Attorney General eventually became 
the first law officer of the State.* 

This arrangement of our Courts, with these Judges and 
officers, continued unchanged for some years. In 1798 an 
act was passed which seems to have escaped the notice of 
all our writers on this subject. It is Chapter 33 of the Act 
of 1798, according to Martin (Martin's Public Laws, II, 
128), and it provides for the election by the General Assem- 
bly of a fifth Judge "under the same rules, regulations and 
restrictions," and "with the same privileges, powers and 
authority" as the other Judges. It says nothing further 
about his duties, but seems to leave that to be settled by 
the Bench, as in the case of the others. This addition to 
the number was probably made to provide against the con- 
tinued sickness or other disability of a Judge, and the con- 
sequent delay of business; for the act goes on to provide 
that where a Judge is disabled from any cause for six con- 
secutive months his salary shall be held back until he resume 



* The Attorney General had the further distinction of being an officer whose office 
was created by the State Constitution. But in the Act of the legislature carrying out 
this provision of the Constitution there was nothing which put his office above that 
subsequently created merely by legislative action. 



384 University Magazine. 

his duties, or until further action by the General Assembly. 
In his marginal note upon this statute Martin says: "There 
are but four now, one of the former having died in October, 
I799-" Judge John Williams died in October, 1799, and 
before his death and before the elevation of Judge Moore 
to the Supreme Court of the United States in the same year, 
our list of Judges shows the names of five at that time on 
our Superior Court Bench, Williams, McKay, Haywood, 
Moore and Taylor. 

The year 1799 brought the first attempt at any real 
improvements in our judicial system. The frauds discov- 
ered in the Secretary of State's office called for some special 
provision in order to secure a proper investigation of the 
matter; and doubtless the Bench and Bar both felt the great 
inconvenience of having no means of reviewing the decisions 
of the Superior Courts upon the many perplexing questions 
which must necessarily have arisen in passing through such 
social, economic and political changes as marked the close 
of the last and the beginning of the present century. An 
act was therefore passed entitled "An Act directing the 
Judges of the Superior Courts to meet together to settle 
questions of law or equity arising on the circuit, and to 
provide for the trial of all persons concerned in certain 
frauds." Act of 1799, ch. 4, (Martin II, 133). 

This act contained also a provision (§ 7) dividing the State 
into four ridings instead of two, and authorizing one Judge 
to hold the Court in each riding, but making no provision 
for additional prosecuting officers. The act was to continue 
in force for only two years, and though at the end of that 
time it was renewed so far as its provisions in regard to the 
Court of Conference were concerned, this feature of the 
four ridings was not renewed. 



Office of Solicitor General of North Carolina. 385 

Nothing- is said in the act establishing the Court of Con- 
ference about any officer to represent the State at its bar. 
Probably the Attorney General and the Solicitor General 
were expected to follow their cases as other lawyers would do. 
The most notable case tried before it was the case against 
Glasgow. The act directed both the Attorney and the Solic- 
itor General to prosecute for the State, but Blake Baker, the 
Attorney General, seems to have taken the place of lead- 
ing counsel.* The case against Glasgow had begun in his 
riding upon bills found by the grand jury of the Newbern 
District, though the indictment upon which the defendant 
was tried was found by the grand jury of the Court of Oyer 
and Terminer, held for that special purpose. 

This Court was required to to be held at Raleigh, and by 
several acts was continued and developed until it became 
in 1805 the Supreme Court. In 1810 (Potter's Revisal II, 
§ 1 169), the Court was authorized to elect one of their num- 
ber to preside with the title of Chief Justice; and it was 
further provided that "it shall be the duty of the Attorney 
General to attend on the said Court at their several sittings 



* Governor Swain in his Tucker Hall address says that the Solicitor General seems 
to have been most depended on in this prosecution; and Moore in his History of North 
Carolina follows Governor Swain. It seems presumptuous to differ with such an 
authority as Governor Swain, but I venture to do so. In the first place Governor 
Swain speaks very doubtfully and not as if he had any accurate information or even 
any strong impression. In the second place the report of the trial in Conference 
Reports gives the Attorney General as alone representing the State in arguing the 
motion in arrest of judgment, and this is in accordance with the criminal traditions 
of the bar as to the relative position of the Attorney and Solicitor General, the latter 
being an office of inferior dignity to the former. Thirdly, I have in my possession ms. 
copies of bills of indictment against Glasgow prepared by the Attorney General, and 
seemingly found by the grand jury of the Newbern District before the'special term at 
Raleigh. And lastly, the local tradition of the bar as I received it either from Governor 
Clark or the late John I,. Bridgers, IJsq., was that it was Blake Baker, the Attorney 
General, who consulted Judge Haywood in drawing up the commission of Oyer and 
Terminer, and the bills of indictment upon which Glasgow was tried. 

Blake Baker and Judge Haywood lived in the same district and had long been asso- 
ciated together in practice, Baker having succeeded Haywood as Attorney General; 
and Haywood is more likely to have been consulted by Baker than by Mr. Jones, who 
jived in a different section and seems never to have been especially associated with him. 
2 



386 University Magazine. 

for the purpose of managing the business on the part of the 
State," and he is allowed a compensation of twenty pounds 
for this additional duty. This provision of the Act of 18 10 
sets the Attorney General distinctly above the Solicitor 
General, and rescued the former officer from sinking to the 
position of a mere prosecutor for the State in the Criminal 
Courts, as happened to the Solicitor General in consequence 
of an act now to be noted. 

Just before this time a complete change had been made 
in our judicial system. By the act of 1806 (Potter II, p. 
1053) it was provided that two terms of the Superior Court 
should be held in each county of the State annually; and 
to that end the State was divided into six Districts, two 
additional Judges were elected, making one for each District, 
and these Judges were directed to ride the several Districts 
in rotation. It was further provided that, four Solicitors 
should be elected to represent the State in the First, Second, 
Fifth, and Sixth Districts, and that the Attorney General 
should represent the State in the Third District and the 
Solicitor General in the Fourth. This act therefore reduced 
both the Attorney General and the Solicitor General to the 
position of Solicitors in their respective Districts, and the 
Solicitor General continued such until the office ceased to 
exist. On the contrary, the Attorney General by the Act 
of 1 8 10, represented the State in the Supreme Court, as 
has already been stated; and the increasing reputation of 
our Supreme Court, and the character of the Attorney Gen- 
eral's business in it made his position very distinctly above 
that of any other law officer of the State. The Attorney, 
however, continued to act as the prosecuting officer of the 
Judicial District in which Raleigh was included, in addition 
to performing his duties in the Supreme Court, down to the 
changes that came in at the close of the war between the 
States. 



Office of Solicitor General of North Carolina. 387 

In the same way the Solicitor General continued to prose- 
cute for the State in the old Fourth District so long as there 
was any Solicitor General. The office was dropped out in 
the revision of our Statutes in 1835, but long after that 
time and even down to the days of Reconstruction, the peo- 
ple throughout that District commonly spoke of the State's 
Attorney as ' ' the Solicitor General. " It is said that the late 
eminent lawyer of that section, Mr. Poindexter, was called 
"General Poindexter" upon the strength of his being for 
many years the Solicitor of the District. This may seem 
a strange way of acquiring so distinct a military title, but 
it is well remembered that the late John Reeves Jones 
Daniel, of Halifax, was called " General Daniel " from 
having so long filled the office of Attorney General. 

It has already been said that the office of Solicitor Gen- 
eral of this State has been almost identified with the person 
of him who so long filled that place, Mr. Edward Jones, so 
much so that a man as well informed as Colonel Burr sup- 
posed that the office had been created for him. We have 
seen how, as a matter of fact, the office was created to meet 
the necessities of our judicial system. But Mr. Burr was 
mistaken in thinking that Mr. Jones was the only person 
who held the office. The Journals of the General Assem- 
bly show that when he resigned the office in 1827, Mr. J onn 
Scott, of Hillsboro, was elected to succeed him. And pur- 
suing the matter a little further it also appears that although 
Mr. Jones was the first person who for any length of time 
exercised the office, he was not the first who held it. In 
the list of ' ' subscribers ' ' to Iredell's Revisal of our Statutes, 
published in 1791, appears the name of John Haywood, 
and he is described as "Solicitor General of North Caro- 
lina." This designation of Mr. Haywood by so accurate 
a man as Judge Iredell seemed to the writer when he first 



388 University Magazine. 

noticed it a few years ago to demand investigation; and 
investigation showed that Judge Iredell was right. The 
Journals of the General Assembly contain the following 
record : 

Friday, December 10, 1790. 

Senate met according to adjournment. Received from the House the 
following message: 

"Mr. Speaker and Gentlemen: 

We propose that the General Assembly proceed to ballot to-morrow 
at 4 o'clock in the afternoon for the additional Judge and Solicitor Gen- 
eral; and nominate for Judge, John Hay, Waightsill Avery and Adlai 
Osborne, Esquires; and for Solicitor General, Spruce McKay, William 
R. Davie, John Haywood and I,ewis L. Taylor [sic], Esquires." 

The foregoing being read, Ordered, That the following message be sent 
to the House of Commons: 

"Mr. Speaker and Gentlemen: 

We do not agree to your proposition for balloting to-morrow evening 
for a Judge and Solicitor General; but propose that that business be pro- 
ceeded with this evening, and approve of your nominations." 

The Journal of the Senate for the day following thus 
records the result of the election: 

Saturday, December 11, 1790. 

Senate met according to adjournment. Mr. Courtney and Mr. Phillips 
appointed on behalf of this House to superintend the balloting for an 
additional Judge and Solicitor General, delivered the following report: 
That having executed the business to them committed, they find on cast- 
ing up the poll that Spruce McKay, Esquire, is elected Judge by a 
majority of the votes; and that John Haywood, Esquire, is appointed 
Solicitor General. 

In a letter from John Hay, of Fayetteville, to Judge 
Iredell, dated December 16, 1790 (McRee's Iredell II, 304), 
the same election is alluded to: 

Mr. McCoy [sic] has been appointed additional Judge, to the great 
satisfaction of all men; and the reading clerk of the House of Commons 
Solicitor General to succeed Mr. Moore in the circuit he could not ride 
as Attorney General. 






Office of Solicitor General of North Carolina. 389 

It is apparent from other letters in the same volume that 
this arrangement continued at least some months, and that 
therefore, John Haywood is correctly designated as Solicitor 
General in the subscription list appended to Iredell's Revisal, 
March 4, 1791, {Ibid. II, 330). Mr. Thomas Iredell writes 
to his brother: "You have seen, I suppose, the change in 
our Court system, since which Mr. Moore has resigned his 
place as Attorney General," etc. But on the next page 
Governor Samuel Johnston writes under date of April 15, 
1791, that Mr. Moore being obliged to attend at Hillsboro, 
"a young gentleman of the name of Sampson takes charge 
of his business [at the Court in Edenton], and acts as Attor- 
ney General, pro tern. , by order of the Court. The Gov- 
ernor has not thought proper to make any appointment." 
Evidently then Mr. Moore had resigned, but no successor 
had been appointed in April, 1791, and, therefore, Mr. 
Haywood must have been Solicitor General at this time. 

The Mr. Moore referred to was, of course, Alfred Moore, 
of Brunswick, who in the year 1782* had succeeded James 
Iredell in the office of Attorney General, as afterward, in 
1799, he succeeded the same great lawyer upon the United 
States Supreme Court. Mr. Moore, in common with Gen- 
eral Davie, was displeased with the changes made in the 
Courts by the law of 1790. Within a few months of its 
passage he resigned the Attorney Generalship, as we have 
seen. Shortly after his resignation John Haywood was 
appointed to succeed him in that office, and Mr. Edward 
Jones took Haywood's place as Solicitor General. Mr. 
McRee (Life and Letters of J. Iredell, II, 9) states, on the 
authority of Governor Swain, that Mr. Moore was "indig- 



* Wheeler puts Moore's appointment to the office of Attorney General in 1790. And 
in Appleton's excellent Clyclopedia of American Biography the date given is 1792. 
Wheeler also says that when appointed Attorney General he had never read a law 
Look. In fact he had been admitted to the Bar in 1775. 



390 University Magazine. 

nant at what he regarded as an unconstitutional interference 
with his rights." It is difficult to see how the General 
Assembly could have avoided some such arrangements, and 
to us Mr. Moore's objection, as above given, seems rather 
a captious and unreasonable one. It is quite possible, how- 
ever, that he had other grounds of discontent with the 
whole judicial arrangement as settled by the recent law; 
and we know that both he and General Davie contemplated 
seeking an election to the next General Assembly, for the 
purpose of co-operating in some reforms in the judicial sys- 
tem of the State. (L,ife and Letters of J. Iredell, II, 331.) 
This plan between two such men must have had some more 
serious origin than questions of mere personal credit or 
interest. 

At the time of Mr. Jones's appointment, in 1791, the two 
law officers of the State held office, as did also the Judges, 
dum bene gesserint. It was plainly within the power of 
the legislative body to have reduced either the emoluments 
or the dignity of the office held by Mr. Jones, or to have 
abolished it altogether; but his high personal character, his 
professional reputation and his universal popularity probably 
made the members of the General Assembly reluctant to 
reduce the office so long as he continued in it. Thus he 
remained Solicitor General in title until his resignation in 
1827. Upon his resignation another was elected to succeed 
him, but with the publication of the Revised Statutes of 
1835 the office of Solicitor General disappeared finally from 
our judicial system. '>. 

Though not a matter of any great importance, yet this 
bit of our past history may be worth presenting to the 
readers of the University Magazine, and may have an 
interest for some student of our institutions and their devel- 
opment. 

Jos. Blount Cheshire, Jr. 



TO AN AUTUMN LEAF. 

Thou frail embodiment of fire, 

That in the gentlest stir of air 
Doth tremble as a vague desire, 

And, like such longing, linger there: — 
Thou gorgeous leaf of maple tree, 

With delicate indentured rim, 
How do the breezes trouble thee? 

And yet, some unknown loving whim 
Persuades thee not to leave the one 
That nurtured thee through summer sun — 
Content, ah no; for even now 
Desertion's blush is on thy brow; 
The wooing wind will soon prevail 

To lure thee from thy parent stem, 
When, gaily downward thou shalt sail 

One moment to adorn the hem 
Of summer's tattered gown, and there, 
Brown and bedraggled, once so fair, 
An ideal lost — a dead belief, 
A vanished love — a faded leaf. 

Ross T. 



ALEXANDER BOYD ANDREWS. 

This gentleman stands prominently before a very wide, 
observing and appreciative public as marked illustration of 
the changes in human conditions; more conspicuously as 
the successful achiever of fortune and eminence by the 
inherent forces of his own character. 



392 University Magazine. 

In the first, he strikingly illustrates one of the most 
remarkable phases of modern times, the total revolution in 
the modes and appliances of travel and transportation; in 
the second, he is presented for all coming generations as 
the bright, encouraging exemplar for the young. The 
application of steam power to the uses of transportation, on 
land or by sea, is the distinctive line of demarcation between 
this century and its immediate predecessor. In the last, 
but only towards its close, there was a beginning of an 
understanding of the uses of steam in its application to the 
economies of human industries. Its powers were known, 
but they were powers as mysterious and as terrible as those 
in the possession of the Genii of Arabian story, to be easily 
evoked perhaps, but to be beyond control, and, in their 
unbridled strength, too furious in their sudden violence and 
too exultant in their liberated powers to be lightly aroused 
or recklessly employed. The time came at last when steam 
became the powerful, though restive and unsafe "slave of 
the loom," the spindle, the mine, and such stationary work 
as might be regarded as safe under painful care and cease- 
less caution. But to apply it to purposes of traction or 
propulsion, to trust it with the liberties of draft or extended 
motion, was as perilous as to drive the fabled Pegasus, and 
as certain as the disaster which befell the ambitious Icarius. 
And though certain enthusiasts like Fitch and Fulton did 
at last persuade themselves that steam could be applied to 
navigation, and did succeed, early in the century, in initia- 
ting in a feeble and tentative way the propulsion of boats 
by steam, it was only in 1826 that Stephenson succeeded 
in his efforts to build a railroad on which the carriages 
were to be drawn by steam. 

The steamboat went from America; the railroad came 
from England; and in the two devices the characteristics 



Alexander Boyd Andreivs. 393 

of the people of the two countries were strikingly illustra- 
ted. The Americans with their inventions hampered by 
no antique customs nor rigorous models, were free to adapt 
their boats to surrounding conditions, and shape them as 
ingenious fancy dictated, the resultant product being mar- 
vellously light and swift river-palaces, the wonder of the 
world and the unattainable ambition, until recent days, of 
other competing nations. The railroad, originating in 
Kngland, had the force of conservative habits of a people, 
always slow to abandon old methods and habits, to contend 
against. It had also the opposition of a popular system of 
transportation, strengthened by heavy invested capital and 
fortified by public favor to meet and combat. The con- 
struction of fine macadamized roads throughout the king- 
dom, the national fondness for horse-flesh and the exhilara- 
tion of rapid travel over roads of such extent and excellence, 
gave the old style mail-coach, with its showy forms, the 
ample conveniences, its superb teams, its autocratic drivers, 
its pompous guards and its speed and clock-like regularity 
of movement, a prestige and a popularity well adapted to 
resist the encroachments of the innovation of railroads, 
steam locomotives and the passenger coaches which aspired 
to supercede the road coach, dragged along swiftly and 
safely by its prancing powerful team of four spirited horses. 
What more of speed and comfort and convenience could be 
asked or desired? But the end of coaching days came at 
last; the triumph of steam was signal and conclusive. But 
in its defeat it snatched some triumph and dictated some 
conditions. It defined the width of the tread of wheels, 
the tracks of the railroads to be no wider, no narrower than 
the space covered on the old macadam or dirt roads by the 
mail coach; and the fruits of this victory are retained, 
world-wide, at the present day. 



394 University Magazine. 

Introduced from England, the railroad, if not speedily, 
yet surely and permanently, was naturalized in the United 
States. England might be content to adhere to her stage 
coaches because of her firm roads and her short distances, 
covering no more than even one of our smaller States. 
Here everything was vast, continental, scattered, rude. 
Whatever system of movement would connect together the 
remote parts of the country would bring the separated peo- 
ple closer in interest and community, would lighten the 
fatigues of travel, and reduce the costs of transportation, 
would surely meet favor if feasibility of accomplishment 
could be demonstrated. The cost, at first blush, might 
appear to present inseparable obstacles. In England rail- 
road construction was very costly ; it was a densely peopled 
country; property was held at enormous valuation; land 
damages were exhorbitant, both because of the mischief 
encroachment upon private rights might effect, and because 
of that stubborn conservative temper which opposed any- 
thing new, and which resented the disturbance of old ways 
and habits. Here opposite conditions existed. Economy 
of construction, in the then absence of abundant capital, 
or the natural timidity of capital in risking itself in what 
was new and untried, assured railroads relatively cheap, 
and sufficiently suitable for the exegency of existing wants. 

In the youth of the system the management of railroads 
was simplicity itself. Each corporation worked within 
itself and for itself, not altogether selfishly, but as if tenta- 
tively and experimentally, acquiring experience, and wait- 
ing for, and somewhat distrustful of the developments of 
the future. The presidents maintained a dignity and im- 
portance only a little greater than that of the manager or 
agents of the old stage lines. They did not look beyond 
their own limits, and contented themselves with the effort 
to make their own lines popular and profitable. 



Alexander Boyd Andrews. 395 

There were few or no competing lines and little or noth- 
ing to fear from opposition. They attempted few innova- 
tions upon or changes in the original system of track or 
equipment. They were content with the introduction of a 
novelty which certainly pleased and might eventually profit 
the public; and railroad presidents often chosen, not with 
reference to the knowledge fitting them for their positions, 
not for their abilities as managers and financiers, not for 
their energy and sagacity, but more often for political ser- 
vices or as easy reward of comfortable retirement with 
ample salary for faithful and effective work for party. 

But in the course of time there was a development of a 
different spirit and the consequent requirement of other 
and more active qualities. Competition grew up in the 
more densely populated sections; roads were extended into 
less frequented sections; new and unexpected sources of 
revenue multiplied, freight and passenger travel increased 
with the addition of every new facility; the public, im- 
pressed with the advantage it had gained and conscious 
that perfection had not been attained, became clamorous 
for greater conveniences, smoother roads, quicker time, 
closer connections, and as shares in the enterprise might 
exact conditions contemplating remunerative dividends on 
their investments. All these considerations presaged these 
changes in railroad management which proved nothing less 
than revolution, combination, consolidation, keen compe- 
tition ; and, to be successful in it, better road-beds, superior 
engines, improved rolling-stock, more comfortable and 
luxurious coaches, swifter time and lower rates. All these 
predicated the existence of men as presidents or managers 
better equipped in all respects for the demands of the times 
than their easy going predecessors. Hence it followed that 
railroad presidents or superintendents must be men who 



396 University Magazine. 

could command like generals of an army, who could act 
like autocrats, who could devise like strategists, who could 
combine like scientists, who could negotiate like financiers; 
men ready, prompt, firm, intelligent, liberal, sagacious, 
generous to the public, true to their corporate obligations. 
Such men were required as seemed to be the special crea- 
tions for the times and for the occasion. There had been 
no previous call for them; there had been no previous 
experiences in human enterprises that could evolve the 
characters or the qualities now proven to be indispensably 
needed for the enormous machinery of railroad manage- 
ment. Wonder and admiration are aroused when we find 
that human capacity proves itself always able to meet and 
supply even the most unexpected and trying exigences. 

So much has thus been said in relation to railroad affairs, 
because what is said is appropriately introductory to the 
subject of this sketch ; of one himself so conspicuously and 
honorably associated with railroad history and enterprise. 
When the magnitude, importance and responsibility of the 
system is considered it will be readily conceded that no 
ordinary man and no inferior qualifications can achieve 
either honor or success in its arduous and exacting man- 
agement. That Alexander Boyd Andrews has done this is 
the reason and the justification for the following brief out- 
line of his life and career. 

He was born in Franklin County, N. C. , on July 23, 
1 84 1. His ancestry was an honorable one, and among 
these were men of historical fame and nerve. His father 
was William Johnston Andrews, of Edgecombe County. 
His paternal grandfather, John Andrews, was of English 
birth, emigrating to America, and becoming a successful 
merchant in Eastern North Carolina. His maternal grand- 
father, Jonas Johnston, commanded a regiment in the 



Alexander Boyd Andrews. 397 

Revolutionary war, and died of wounds received in battle. 
His mother was Virginia Hawkins, daughter of Colonel 
John D. Hawkins, of Franklin County, a gentleman known 
and honored throughout the State. His maternal grand- 
mother, Jane Boyd Hawkins, was the daughter of Alexan- 
der Boyd, of Boydton, Va. The Hawkins family was 
descended from that Sir John Hawkins, of English naval 
renown, distinguished in one period of his career as a suc- 
cessful commercial navigator, subsequently more honorably 
and conspicuously for his gallantry as a rear admiral aboard 
the Victory in the attack upon and dispersion of the Spanish 
Armada, for his conduct in which service he was knighted 
by Queen Elizabeth. He was three times returned as a 
member of Parliament — a proof of the esteem in which he 
was held, both for peaceful and warlike life. 

Of his boyhood and early days there is but meagre infor- 
mation. Doubtless he was a thoughtful, serious boy, with 
full comprehension of the need for early preparation for the 
burdens and struggles of life. And thus we find him, when 
most of his age were still at school or careless of the future, 
ready to take up his burden. He went to school in the 
town of Henderson, and stood first in his class. But his 
school days, though evidently well employed, were not 
long extended. His uncle, Philemon B. Hawkins, had a 
large and important railroad contract to complete in South 
Carolina, and we find his nephew, at the age of eighteen, 
put in charge of the work as general superintendent — a 
heavy responsibility thrown on young shoulders, but ably 
and faithfully borne. 

When the war between the States broke out he enlisted 
as a private in Company E of the First North Carolina Cav- 
alry, the largest and one of the first in the Confederate ser- 
vice. His gallantry, his fidelity and his general soldierly 



398 University Magazine, 

qualities soon brought him promotion — first as lieutenant, 
and then as captain. In July, 1862, when lieutenant, with 
a party under his command, he was entrusted with the bold 
and somewhat unique purpose of driving back a fleet of 
three Federal gunboats which had been sent up the Roanoke 
river from Plymouth with instructions to destroy the rail- 
road bridge at Weldon. Lieutenant Andrews had only 
forty-one men with him, but so watchful was he of the 
opportunity, and so persistent was he in pursuing the boats 
along the river from Williamston to Hamilton, wherever 
he could strike a blow, that the harassed enemy abandoned 
the enterprise and returned to Plymouth, with a loss of six- 
teen killed and twenty-two wounded. 

In all his campaigns he was noted for courage, energy 
and dash. In an action at Jack's Shop, Virginia, he was 
shot through one of his lungs and supposed to be mortally 
wounded, and was, in fact, reported officially to be dead. 
His dauntless courage and his indomitable will sustained 
him, and, to the surprise of his friends, he recovered, to 
join his regiment again as soon as he could mount to a seat 
in the saddle, and served until the final surrender of Gen. 
Joseph E. Johnston at Greensboro. 

Peace found him penniless and without employment, but 
not without hope or purpose. Seeing an opportunity to 
serve both himself and his country, he borrowed, on the 
faith of his own character, one hundred dollars from one 
who had full faith in his integrity and energy, and with 
this he re-established the connection between the opposite 
shores of the Roanoke river at Gaston — for, most unwisely, 
the bridges spanning the river both at Gaston and Weldon 
had been burned in the closing hours of the war, and the 
return of peace found the absolute loss of all the avenues 
of traffic until the establishment of the convenient ferry 



Alexander Boyd Andrews. 399 

by Captain Andrews, and this was continued in use until 
the rebuilding of the railroad bridges. 

The experience acquired in that vocation, and the favor- 
able observation made upon his personal characteristics, had 
direct influence upon his future fortunes; for, in 1867, only- 
two years after the war, he was elected to the superinten- 
dency of the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad, discharging his 
duties with such skill and acceptability that other lines 
became eager for his services. He remained, however, with 
the first company until 1875, when he was invited to take 
the same position on the North Carolina division of the 
Richmond and Danville Railroad Company. This com- 
pany, with constantly expanding views and with ambitious 
purpose to become one of the leading trunk-lines of the 
South, had recently leased for the term of thirty years the 
whole of the North Carolina road from Goldsboro to Char- 
lotte, a distance of 223 miles, but with present purpose 
chiefly to utilize that section between Greensboro and Char- 
lotte as the immediate available link in the contemplated 
ultimate design. 

In his capacity of superintendent, with a wider field of 
action, he exhibited the same energies, the same fidelity to 
duty, the same sagacity, which had prominently marked 
his official career of labor. He was fitting himself for that 
still wider career of responsibility which was opening before 
him. 

Up to 1880 the Western North Carolina Railroad, begun 
some years before the war, had been finished only to the 
foot of the mountains, 135 miles beyond Salisbury. The 
heaviest of the work — the surmounting of the Blue Ridge — 
remained to be done. Various devices of legislation had 
been contrived to carry out this work, but they were slow, 
costly, and, because of the remote prospects of completion, 



400 University Magazine. 

becoming odious to the public and burdensome to the tax- 
payers. In the midst of the embarrassing questions pre- 
sented to the State — whether to pursue the work, with the 
certainty that such work would be slow, tedious, unremu- 
nerative, with indefinite prospect of ultimate accomplish- 
ment of the object of the construction; with the impatience 
of the people of the section for whose benefit chiefly it was 
being built, and at the depressing delays and remote com- 
pletion of the road; with the growing enmity and opposi- 
tion of all the rest of the State, impatient under endless 
taxation for a fancied political favor for party favorites; or 
whether to abandon it to its fate, though with the certain 
prospects of postponing indefinitely the hopes of the trans- 
mountain people, and alienating the affections and interest 
of a section which every principle of statesmanship coun- 
selled to bring into closer and commorA relations with all 
the rest of the State — a proposition was made by capitalists 
from abroad to buy the road, push it at once to completion 
and then relieve the State from its painful dilemma. The 
proposition was apparently in such good faith, and the finan- 
cial ability of those making the offer seemed to be well 
guaranteed, that the then Executive of the State, Thomas 
J. Jarvis, called upon the Legislature to assemble in special 
session, which it did in the winter of 1880, and then and 
there made a sale to a New York syndicate, which, after 
the transfer of the property, obligated itself to begin, in 
the May following, the work of reconstruction and exten- 
sion. But that month came and passed without movement, 
and then it was developed that all those associated in the 
partnership had receded from their obligation, leaving only 
Mr. W. J. Best faithful to it; but he was alone and help- 
less, and the responsibility of so stupendous a failure was 
about to be thrown upon Governor Jarvis and the Demo- 



Alexander Boyd Andrews. 401 

cratic party, when A. B. Andrews, with his means, ener- 
gies and influence, brought relief and enabled Mr. Best to 
begin his work. But relief to him was only temporary; 
and, without going into intermediate history, it is enough 
to say that eventually the whole Western North Carolina 
Railroad, with its branches from Asheville, came into the 
possession of the Richmond and Danville Company. It 
entered upon its work with determined energy, Colonel 
Andrews its moving and guiding spirit; and in July, 1881, 
the people of Western North Carolina had the happiness of 
knowing that it had crossed the mountains and had reached 
its station at Asheville. 

The extension of the road to Paint Rock, on the Ten- 
nessee line, the destined terminus of the main stem in that 
direction, was a work of difficulty and labor, but unattended 
with political or sectional opposition. But the Murphy 
branch, far the longest and most important to Western 
North Carolina, encountered hostility at home and abroad, 
in the Legislature and out of it, by western as well as east- 
ern politicians, by antagonizing railroad schemes and by 
rival interests, by distrust in the feasibility of the enterprise, 
by its assumed costliness, by the difficulty of acquiring con- 
fidence, by the unwillingness of the Legislature to lend its 
aid, or the favor of the Legislature in any form by which 
the work could be prosecuted to successful conclusion. For 
this it was necessary that there should be applied tact to 
win, judgment to devise, energy to proceed, fertility in 
resource, firmness to meet and overcome opposition, cour- 
tesy and patience to conciliate. All of these qualifications 
were possessed and applied by Colonel Andrews; and the 
long line of road to Murphy, in remote Cherokee, contend- 
ing against obstacles nature seemed purposely to have 
thrown in its way, over obtruding chains of mountains, 
3 



402 University Magazine. 

along and across broad and rapid rivers, or through deep 
gorges and along tremendous roaring torrents, through 
frequent tunnels and up and down grades of marvellous 
steepness, is due to the skill, the assiduity, the persistence, 
the State pride and the interests of the people of Western 
North Carolina of Col. A. B. Andrews. 

Of this measure, as a whole, from its eastern terminus 
at Salisbury to its western termini at Paint rock and Mur- 
phy, it may truthfully be said that to the same gentleman, 
his intelligence and his laudable ambition, has resulted the 
development of what was an unimportant local road into 
one of the great thoroughfares of the whole country, the 
expansion of Asheville from a village to a world-renowned 
city, and significant addition to the resources and impor- 
tance of the whole State. 

And connected with this system is that important feeder 
and invaluable connection with the States and cities to the 
South of us — the Asheville and Spartanburg Railroad — 
brought to final conclusion, after several years of suspen- 
sion, by the interest and energies of the same gentleman. 

But he was not content with witnessing the success of 
the main line, in whose construction he had borne so active 
and efficient a part. He recognized in those only a founda- 
tion upon which might be built other interests that would 
not only aggrandize the parent lines, but be the creation or 
development of other great dormant interests. Thus he 
projected the line to Chapel Hill, which at once brought 
the University in touch with the outside world. He secured 
the construction of that important branch from High Point 
to the cotton-mills on Deep river. He may be said to be 
the creator of that fine road from Winston to Wilkesboro, 
up the valley of the Yadkin, a distance of seventy-five 
miles, unlocking the long-sealed resources of one of the 



Alexander Boyd Andrews. 403 

most productive and beautiful regions in North Carolina. 
He procured the rehabilitation of the road from Charlotte 
to Statesville, thus giving new life to what had been dead, 
and giving value to what had become almost worthless. 
He had built the important line from Winston to Mocks- 
ville, and he had made the important connection between 
Statesville and Taylorsville. It is to be presumed also that 
he had important influence on the construction of the road 
from Durham to Keysville, Va., by which an alternate 
route to Richmond and the North was provided. 

It may be here said, in connection with his railroad life, 
that he was made assistant to the president of the Raleigh 
and Gaston road and of the president of the Richmond and 
Danville Railroad while serving as superintendent. In 
1886 he was made third vice-president of the Richmond 
and Danville road, and in 1890 made second vice-president. 
Though the affairs of the company are now in the hands 
of a receiver, he retains his position with the additional 
honor and responsibility of being the general agent of the 
receiver. 

When Zebulon B. Vance was elected Governor he ap- 
pointed Capt. A. B. Andrews on his staff with the rank of 
colonel, and that is the origin of his present title. 

Colonel Andrews is not merely a railroad official. His 
large information, his sound judgment and his unblemished 
integrity mark him for valuable service in other vocations; 
and he has been for a long time a director and'vice-presi- 
dent of the Citizens National Bank of Raleigh, and director 
in other public institutions. He is president of the Home 
for Disabled Soldiers at Raleigh, a trustee of the University 
of North Carolina, one of the commissioners of the World's 
Fair on the part of this State, and was elected one of the 
vice-presidents of the National Commission for the World's 



404 University Magazine. 

Fair. He was also appointed by President Cleveland as 
one of the inspectors of the Northern Pacific Railroad, per- 
forming his responsibilities with characteristic intelligence 
and fidelity. 

Colonel Andrews is a resident of Raleigh. He married 
Julia, daughter of Col. William Johnston, of Charlotte, and 
has a family consisting of five children, viz., William John- 
ston Andrews, Alexander Boyd Andrews, Jr. , Jane Hawkins 
Andrews, John Hawkins Andrews and Graham Harris 

Andrews. 

J. D. Cameron. 



MY FOUNTAIN PEN. 

My fountain pen wherewith I write 

This would-be poetry to-night 

Was bought me by my children dear, 
With pennies picked up here and there, 

Each one contributing his mite. 

And now they claim that, in their sight, 
I make a rondeau to requite 

Them for the present given me here — 
My fountain pen! 

O Muse, I'm in a sorry plight! 
Come to my aid — help me indite 
The lines they crave; for I declare 
That fitting words are nowhere near! 
For once endow with Dobson's sleight 
My fountain pen! 

Henry Jerome Stockard. 



MEMORIES. 

Like the faint echo from a bugle blast, 
Afar off on some lonely mountain peak, 
At early morn, when hunting shepherds seek 
Their unreturning flock; so, from the past 

Of toilsome, weary years, faint echoes steal 

Across life's barren moor of days agone — 
Days that e'en now, though long since flown, we feel, 
As memory's page we sadly muse upon. 

O 'witching memory, by whose magic wand 
Alone we cleave that darksome vale of years 
Below us, where we walked in doubt and fears 
Of this high beetling peak where now we stand. 
Ah! that by thee we could the darkness scan 
Of heights beyond, and read God's mystic plan. 

Leonard C. Van Noppen. 



PETIT TREASON— DEATH BY BURNING. 

Blackstone tells us (4 Com., 75 and 203), that for a ser- 
vant to kill his master, a woman her husband, or an eccle- 
siastical person his superior was petit treason, and that this 
offence was punished more severely than murder, a man 
being drawn as well as hanged, and a woman being drawn 
and burnt. This law has since been changed in England. 

It has doubtless been forgotten by most that the offence 
of petit treason continued in this State after the adoption 
of our republican form of government, as to slaves at least, 



406 University Magazine. 

and that the punishment usually inflicted was to be burnt 
at the stake. ' 'History, ' ' said a very wise man, ' ' is philos- 
ophy teaching by example." It is well to consider closely 
the doings of our ancestors. When those acts were wise 
and just, honest and patriotic they should serve as examples 
to excite our emulation and shame us against departing there- 
from. When the deeds of our forebears are not such as to 
be cause of pride and imitation, we should rejoice that we 
live in happier times, in the noon-day splendor of greater 
enlightenment, and measure the progress we have made by 
our distance from the evil precedent. 

Your Magazine has been a depository of much curious 
as well as useful historical data, which but for it would 
long since have passed beyond proof and beyond recall. I 
therefore send you a copy of one of the few remaining 
records of the judicial executions by burning at the stake 
which have taken place since the adoption of the Constitu- 
tion of 1776. 

The Act of 1 741, which continued in force till 1793, 
provided that if any negroes or other slaves (and there were 
other slaves in those days), should conspire to make an 
insurrection or to murder any one they should suffer death. 
It was further provided that any slave committing such 
offence or any other crime or misdemeanor should be tried 
by two or more Justices of the Peace and by four freeholders 
(who should also be owners of slaves), "without the solem- 
nity of a jury; and if the offender shall be found guilty 
they shall pass such judgment upon him, according to their 
discretion, as the nature of the crime or offence shall require, 
and on such judgment to award execution." It further 
provided that this commission should assess the value of 
any slave executed by them and report to the next Legis- 
lature, who should award the owner of such slave the com- 
pensation assessed. 



Petit Treason — Death by Btirning. 407 

The following is a verbatim copy of one of the certificates 
made to the Legislature to procure pay for a slave executed 
under said act: 

State of No. Carolina: Brunswick County. March 5th, 1778. 

At a Court held for the tryal of a negro man slave for the murder of 
Henry Williams, said fellow being the property of Mrs. Sarah Dupree. 
Justices of the Peace present. Freeholders: 

William Paine John Stanton 

John Bell James Ludlow 

Thomas Sessions Needham Gause 

Aaron Roberts. 

According to law valued said negro James at eighty pounds Prockla- 
mation Money. 

The Court proceeded on said tryall and the said fellow James confessed 
himself to be One that had a hand in the murdering of said Henry Wil- 
liams in concurrence with the evidence of four other mallefactors that 
were Executed for Being Concerned in said murder on the 18th. day of 
March 1777. 

Ordered that the Sheriff take the said Jimmy from hence to the Place 
of execution where he shall be tyed to a stake and Burnt Alive. Given 
under our hands this 5th. day of March 1778. 

Justice of the Peace: Freeholders: 

William Gause Aaron Roberts 

John Bell John Stanton 

Thos. Sessions Needham Guase 

Jas. X Ludlow 
(his mark) 

State of No. Carolina— Brunswick County. 

We, the undernamed persons being summoned as Justices of the Peace 
and freeholders of the County aforesaid to hold a court for the Tryall of 
a negro man slave named James the property of Mrs. Sarah Dupre for 
the murder of Mr. Henry Williams of Lockwood Folly do value the 
said slave James at the sum of Eighty pounds Procklamation Money. 
Given under our hands this 5th. day of March 1778. 
Justices of the Peace Freeholders: 

William Gause Aaron Roberts 

John Bell John Stanton 

Thos. Sessions Needham Gause 

bis 
Jas. Ludlow X 
mark 



408 University Magazine. 

The Journals of the Legislature show that the assessed 
compensation, "eighty pounds proclamation money," was 
voted to Mrs. Sarah Dupree, the owner of said slave. 

There is a similar record in Granville County, showing 
that on 21st October, 1773, Robert Harris, Jonathan Kit- 
trell and Sherwood Harris, Justices; and Thomas Critcher, 
Christopher Harris, Samuel Walker and William Hunt, 
freeholders, tried and convicted Sanders, a negro slave of 
Joseph McDaniel, for the murder of William Bryant, and 
he was sentenced to be burnt alive on the 23d — two days 
thereafter. 

Doubtless there are records of similar proceeding in other 
counties, if not destroyed in the lapse of time, but these two 
will serve as a curious reminder of a by-gone age. After 
1793 the slave charged with murder became entitled to a 
trial by a jury of freeholders, and one of the most splendid 
efforts of the late Hon. B. F. Moore was in behalf of a 
slave tried for murder. His brief in that case and the 
opinion of the Court, delivered by Judge Gaston, will remain 
enduring monuments of the claim of both to abiding fame. 
The opinion and brief will be found reported in ' ' State v. 
Will)" 18 N. C, 121— 172. 

While the circumstance I have attempted to rescue from 
oblivion may not seem to the credit of the men of that day, 
it is an historical, social and legal fact which will serve to 
"show the age, its very form and pressure." It is to the 
credit of the next generation that the statute was repealed 
by a more humane and just one in 1793, and that the latter 
act was afterwards illustrated by the learning and impartial 
justice displayed by Court and counsel in State v. Will. 

It is true of the generations of men as of individuals 
that we "rise on stepping-stones of our dead selves to 
higher things. ' ' 

Walter Clark. 



LOST HOPES. 

There are hopes that never blossom, 

And our pleasures soon are past, 
Joys that light a person's bosom, 

Smiles that beam too bright to last. 
Transient as the summer flower 
Joy shines out its little hour, 
Then forever fades away 
Like the petals of a day. 

T. F. Simmons, '97. 



THE FALL OF BABYLON AND THE MYSTERIOUS 
HANDWRITING ON THE WALL. 

To appreciate more fully the circumstances under which 
the mysterious words were written it will be necessary to 
compare, in a brief way, the accounts relating to the cap- 
ture of the city. 

GREEK ACCOUNT. 

Herodotus (I, 1 88-1 91) decribes the taking of Babylon 
as follows*: And Cyrus made war against this woman's 
son, who had the name of his father Labynetus, and ruled 
the empire of the Assyrians. * * * The Babylonians 
going out for battle awaited him. When he was near the 
city the Babylonians engaged in conflict, and being defeated 
in the battle, were shut up in the city. * * * (Cyrus) 

*Cf. Xenophon, Cyr. VII. 5. Also Herodotus III, 158, where Babylon is taken by 
Darius Hystaspes. 



410 University Magazine. 

stationing his whole army where the river enters the city 
and stationing others behind the city where the river makes 
its egress from the city, bade his army, when they should 
see the stream fordable, to enter here into the city. * * * 
Bringing the river, by a canal, into the lake * * * he 
made the stream fordable. * * * The Persians, when 
the Euphrates river had subsided to about the middle of a 
man's thigh, in this way entered Babylon. * * * Owing 
to the size of the city, so the inhabitants say, when the 
extremes of the city were taken, those of the Babylonians 
who dwelt in the middle did not know that they were taken, 
but were dancing at this time. (For there happened to be a 
festival going on.) 

BIBUCAL ACCOUNT. 

Daniel v. gives us the following picture: Belshazzar, 
the king, made a great feast to a thousand of his lords. 

* * * In the same hour came forth fingers of a man's 
hand and wrote over against the candlestick upon the 
plaster of the wall of the king's palace; and the king saw 
the part of the hand that wrote. * * * Then came in 
all the king's wise men, but they could not read the writ- 
ing nor make known to the king the interpretation thereof. 

* •* * Then was Daniel brought in before the king. * * * 
Daniel answered and said * * * I will read the writing 
unto the king and make known to him the interpretation. 

* * * * And this is the writing that was written, 
mene, mene, TEKEE upharsin. This is the interpreta- 
tion of the thing: MENE, God hath numbered thy kingdom 
and finished it; TEKEL, Thou art weighed in the balances 
and art found wanting; PERES, Thy kingdom is divided 
and given to the Medes and Persians. Then commanded 
Belshazzar, and they clothed Daniel with scarlet. * * 



The Fall of Babylon. 411 

In that night was Belshazzar, the king of the Chaldeans, 
slain, and Darius, the Median, took the kingdom. 

INSCRIPTIONAL ACCOUNT. 

The cylinder inscription of Cyrus does not indicate that 
there was any siege in the capture of Babylon. The inhab- 
itants opened the gates to Gobryas, the general of the Per- 
sian forces, and Nabunit (whom Herodotus called Labyne- 
tus) was taken prisoner. On the third day of the month, 
Marchesvan, Cyrus has a triumphal entry into the city. In 
Belshazzar we have undoubtedly an historical character. It 
was long supposed that this name was found only in the 
Biblical record. The cuneiform inscription of Nabunit 
(I Rawl. 68, col. II, 24), contains the name which we are 
considering. The Babylonian form is bil-shar-usur, 
meaning " Bel, protect the king. " The inscription reads 
as follows: "And concerning Belshazzar, the eminent son, 
the offspring of my body. Put reverence for thy great 
divinity in his heart. May he not yield to sin." This 
crown-prince seems to have been assigned the keeping of 
Babylon during the absence of Nabunit, holding a place 
sufficiently high in honor to justify the royal title. The 
various traditions seem to connect the glory of the empire 
with the name of its great founder, Nebuchadnezzar, while 
the fall of the city is associated with the person of Belshaz- 
zar, the first-born son of Nabunit. 

WAS THE WRITING MIRACULOUS? 

We turn now to the strange sentence which appeared 
during the festival described in the book of Daniel. At the 
outset let me say, that I have derived much help respecting 



412 University Magazine. 

the interpretation of these prophetic words, from an able 
article of Mr. John D. Prince, of New York City, lately 
published in the American Oriental Society's Proceedings. 
I beg to make my acknowledgment of indebtedness to him. 

In respect to the nature of the writing, there are various 
theories. One class of scholars, who deny the miraculous 
production of the words, advanced the theory that it was 
the work of courtiers and friends of the king. But they 
can give no satisfactory reason why these should desire to 
give such warning and in such wise. Another class main- 
tain that these words were written by conspirators. It is 
generally believed that a vast conspiracy was at work in 
the fall of Babylon. Nabunit had offended the priests by 
frequent disregard for the native religion. The Jews, too, 
were dissatisfied and looked forward to Cyrus as a deliverer. 
(Is. xlv., i). 

The cuneiform inscription of Nabunit, which we have 
considered, prepared as other inscriptions by priests, shows 
a yearning for a ruler who may not yield to sin. Whatever 
view one may hold as to the production of the writing, it 
is certain that the author of Daniel believed most implicitly 
that these words were written by divine agency to warn the 
prince of folly and to reveal to him his impending doom 
and the destruction of his realm. 

ANCIENT INTERPRETATIONS. 

We have seen the interpretation given in the Biblical 
record of the words, each word requiring a complete sen- 
tence to give its meaning. Joseph us, Antiq. X, n, 3, 
translates mene, TEKEL, PERES, by the Greek words arith- 
mos (number), stathmos (balance), klasma (division) 
respectively. It may be well to remark here that the aspi- 



The Fall of Babylon. 413 

rated ph in upharsin can be the unaspirated p of PERES, 
rendered rough by the preceding vowel u ("and"), a familiar 
euphonic law in the Semitic languages. 

Saint Jerome translates by numerus, appensio, divisio. 

Scholars have for a long period (even as late as 1850) 
regarded these words as passive participles of well known 
Semitic verbs, translating "it is counted, it is weighed, 
and it is divided." 

GANNEAU'S THEORY. 

Clermont-Ganneau, a French scholar, was the first to 
bring a new light to bear upon this mysterious sentence. 
In 1886, in an article published in the Journal Asiatique, 
he discovered that mene and PERES were Babylonian 
weights, and rendered them by "mina" and "half mina." 
He had no definite understanding of TEKEL, but thought 
it might be connected with the verb meaning "to weigh." 
(See above.) Ganneau also noticed the figurative use of 
"mina" in the Talmudic writings. In the Talmud a son 
equal to his father is a "mina, son of a mina." A son 
inferior to his father is called a "half mina;" a son who 
is superior a "mina," the father in the former instance 
being designated "mina," in the later "half mina," e.g. 
"It is good that a mina son of a half mina come to a mina 
son of a mina; but not that a mina son of a mina should 
come to a mina son of a half mina." This, then, would 
mean, "It is good that a son superior to his father come to 
a son equal to his father; but not good that a son equal to 
his father should come to a son superior to his father." 
Ganneau suggested that there be the same metaphorical 
meaning in the words mene "mina," and PERES "half 
mina" in the handwriting on the wall. 



414 University Magazine. 

noldeke' S theory. 

Theodor Noldeke, the distinguished Orientalist of Strass- 
burg in the Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie (I, 414), accepted 
the theory respecting the meaning of mene and PERES 
given above. The word TEKEL he considered not a verb 
but a noun in the absolute state, and discovered in it the 
familiar "shekel." His translation then ran "a mina, a 
mina, a shekel, and half minas." 

HOFFMANN'S THEORY. 

Georg Hoffmann, of Keil, in the Zeitschrift fur Assyrio- 
logie, 1887, accepted the view that had become quite gen- 
erally adopted that u-pharsin ("and two half minas") the 
dual of PERES, referred to the division of the Babylonian 
empire between the Medes and the Persians. He sanc- 
tioned the translation of Noldeke, but suggested that TEKEL 
be in apposition with mene, meaning a "shekel in mina 
pieces. ' ' 

THE TRANSLATION. 

Unless we regard the second MENE as associated with 
TEKEL in the way which Hoffmann proposed, it would be 
unsatisfactory to interpret the first two words mene, mene 
in the same way. Even Noldeke showed that mene could 
easily be the passive participle Pe'al of the Aramaic verb 
mena, "to count." The verb here would have the signi- 
fication of "to establish or destine by divine power," as it 
does in Psalm 147:4, "He establishes the number of the 
stars." The first mene, then, was regarded not as a noun 
but as the verb on which the rest of the sentence depends. 
This interpretation has been accepted by Professor Paul 
Haupt of Johns Hopkins University. 



The Fall of Babylon. 415 

We are now prepared for the literal translation of the 
words, which would be as follows: "There have been 
counted a mina, a shekel and two half minas." 

THE MEANING OF THE WORDS. 

If this be the correct translation, what meaning are we 
to derive from such a sentence ? Let us take up each word 
separately. MENE, "it is counted," i. e. it is divinely 
decreed. Mene, "mina." For the understanding of this 
word and the following, we must have constantly in mind 
the metaphorical use contained in the Talmud (see under 
Ganneau's Theory). The general belief is, that mene 
refers to the great Nebuchadnezzar, who is justly entitled 
to the honor of being the founder of the Babylonian empire. 
Although Nabunit, and not Nebuchadnezzar, is the father 
of Belshazzar, yet the author of the book of Daniel repre- 
sents him as the father of this prince, to bring out in more 
striking contrast the difference between the splendor and 
the decay of Babylonian power. By mene is meant the 
superior ancestor. Tekel, "shekel," a coin one-sixtieth 
in value to the mina. This signifies that Belshazzar is 
an infinitely inferior descendant of a superior ancestor. 
U-pharsin, ' ' and two half minas, ' ' means that the empire 
is cut in twain. Hence we might read, " It is the Provi- 
dence of God that the great Nebuchadnezzar should found 
the mighty Babylonian empire; that a son vastly inferior 
to his ancestor should rule; that the empire should be divi- 
ded between the Median Darius and the Persian Cyrus." 

As regards Darius the Mede, the cylinder-inscription of 
Cyrus and the cuneiform records of Nabunit show that 
there is no place in history for such a character. Haupt 
has suggested that the fall of Ninevah, which was captured 



41 6 University Magazine. 

by the Medes, was confused in popular tradition with the 
fall of Babylon. We know that Darius is not a Median 
word, but as the old Persian cuneiform inscriptions show 
(darayava(h)ush, dar "hold," vahu "wealth"), a name 
of Indo-European origin. 

WHY WAS THE WRITING UNKNOWN TO THE WISE MEN ? 

Two questions remain to be answered. Why was the 
sentence not intelligible to the wise men of Babylon ? Why 
were the words as clear as daylight to their minds after 
Daniel had interpreted them ? 

Some (including Calvin) have supposed that the king 
alone had this vision, and that Daniel was gifted with super- 
natural sight in reading the king's mind. But everything 
in the sacred writing points against such an hypothesis. 
Others have thought that unknown characters were em- 
ployed for writing these words, or that it was a complicated 
handwriting. If this were so, the sentence would not have 
become so clear to the wise men after its interpretation. 
They would not have been willing to acknowledge that 
Daniel had read the words correctly unless the whole mys- 
tery was unmistakably apparent to all. Others believed 
the writing to have been vertical and not horizontal, and 
it remained for Daniel to point out that fact. Others again 
maintained that the words were written in reverse order 
and Daniel set them right. The Talmudists declared that 
the cabalistic alphabet was employed, an alphabet where 
the first letter has as its equivalent the last. 

But the most satisfactory theory is the one which Mr. 
Prince has accepted in his article. These words, which 
are in the Aramaic dialect of Daniel, would be restored into 
the original Babylonian language of the court of Belshazzar, 



An Examination Day. 417 

as follows : Mani manu shiqlu* u parse. In the cunei- 
form writing the ideographic combinations of wedges for 
the names of weights would have been most perplexing, 
especially if written closely together. Again, if the ideo- 
grams were grouped together out of their regular order, 
their interpretation would be almost an unsolvable enigma. 
An example is given of these words in cuneiform script, so 
arranged that the first combination could have fifteen dis- 
tinct meanings. When we consider that these words may 
have been written in those perplexing combinations, and 
when we remember the hidden metaphorical meaning 
which they contain, we are not surprised that the king and 
all his wise men gazed upon the mysterious sentence with 
wonder and awe. It was indeed a puzzle to the court, but 
when the puzzle had once been solved by the prophet, it 
was easily intelligible to all. 

H. C. Tolman. 



AN EXAMINATION DAY. 

At six o'clock the unwelcome sound of the college bell 
forces its way into your ears. Now the examination period 
is at hand, and you retired on the preceding night with the 
full determination of rising at five o'clock. Refreshed by 
a good night's rest, you had hoped at that early hour to 
pursue your studies with much profit. Alas! how vain are 
the hopes of youth. 

You are in no frame of mind to pursue your studies, for 
all night long have they been pursuing you. Your room 
has been haunted and your rest broken by such gloomy 



*Dr. C. F. I<ehmann in Verhandlungen der Berliner Anthropologisthen Gesellshafft, 
1891, has shown that shiqlu in Assyrian represents the Aramaic tekel. 
4 



41 8 University Magazine. 

monsters as Psychology, Biology, Philology — in fact, the 
whole ology family have paid their respects to yon. Ety- 
mology came striding in and, presenting you with a Skeat's 
Dictionary, demanded the root of "comic" and its rela- 
tionship to "cemetery." Chemistry followed, and, placing 
a nitrogen compound on the foot of your couch, dared you 
to move a muscle. A night spent with such unwelcome 
visitors completely unfits you for the labors of the day. 
You lose all desire to seek knowledge early or to get under- 
standing before getting breakfast. "Six o'clock," you 
mutter, "is so early — the room is cold and" — you are 
asleep once more. 

An hour later the bell again peals forth its loud alarum, 
warning all drowsy students that the business of college 
life will soon begin. The first bell disturbed you — the 
second exasperates you. Crawling from your downy couch, 
you register a vow that on becoming wealthy you will make 
your name imperishable and your memory universally 
revered and beloved by erecting on the University campus 
a building to be known as Somnolent Hall. 

While dressing for breakfast you recall to mind the fact 
that the Psalmist has said, "We spend our years as a tale 
that is told," and you startle your room-mate — who has not 
kept pace with your thoughts — by exclaiming, "Yes, and 
we regulate four years of our earthly pilgrimage by a bell 
that is tolled." 

A volume of Poe's poems attracts your attention and 
starts a train of thought. You wonder if Poe ever went to 
college, and if, while "nodding, nearly napping," the rude 
sound of a six-o'clock bell ever disturbed his dreams. Did 
he ever get up early in the morning and ponder "over 
many a volume of forgotten lore"? 



An Examination Day. 419 

After a little thought on this subject, you are rather 
inclined to believe that Mr. Poe did go to college and that 
he was thinking of college days and examinations when he 
wrote the fourth stanza of "The Bells." 

Picking up the volume in that peculiarly happy and 
delightful frame of mind produced by thoughts of impend- 
ing examinations — ordeals for- which you are totally unpre- 
pared — you alter the fourth stanza of "The Bells," making 
it to read as follows: 

Hear the tolling of the bells — 

Iron bells! 
What a world of solemn thought their monody compels 
In the early morning light. 
How we shiver with affright 
At the melancholy menace of their tone; 
For every sound that floats 
From the rust within their throats 
Is a groan. 

As you read these lines it may be that a poetic feeling 
takes possession of your own savage bosom. If so, you 
seat yourself and compose a few beautiful stanzas like the 
following: 

the college; bell. 

On a cold and frosty morning we hear its note of warning 

With a pain. 

Though unprepared on Latin, there must be no more " grattin' " — 

That is plain. 

The Registrar has said so; his notice plainly read so. 

Escape is vain. 

The time for breakfast having now arrived, you make 
haste to visit your boarding-house. There you partake 
lightly — yes, very lightly. 

Soon after finishing your morning repast the bell is heard 
summoning you to prayers. On reaching the chapel you 



420 University Magazine. 

for the moment forget examinations, and, while waiting for 
the exercises to begin, amuse yourself in watching other 
students. 

The Freshmen — innocent creatures — march boldly in 
and occupy the seats assigned them on the right and left of 
the aisles. Gazing on these specimens of future greatness, 
you recall your own youthful dreams. You entered the 
University with the determination of leading your class. 
You wondered that the Faculty were not startled by the 
appearance of such a prodigy in their midst. The Presi- 
dent, too, you are surprised to note, bore your arrival with 
great equanimity. He seemed utterly unaware of your 
mental powers. You left his office feeling that he had no 
idea of your capacity for solving mathematics and of your 
admiration for Greek and Roman classics. 

In the middle row of seats and towards the rear of the 
building sit the Sophomores. The Sophomore has a per- 
fect contempt for everything pertaining to his first year. 
Wilfully and with malice aforethought he forgets that he 
ever existed as a protoplasmic Freshman. He even goes 
so far as to forget all he learned in his first year. He is 
unable to demonstrate why, under certain conditions, two 
triangles enjoy the property of being similar. If the trian- 
gles take any great delight in being similar, if they enjoy 
that state — he for one will not destroy the harmonious 
relationship existing between them. He cannot describe a 
segment of a circle w r hich shall contain a given angle. To 
be perfectly frank with you, he cannot describe any figure 
to be found in the Geometry. To the great disgust of the 
professors of Mathematics and of Biology, he knows not 
the difference between a parallelopiped and an icthyonus 
biped. He has no idea by which pass Hannibal crossed 
the Alps. Hannibal has passed to rest and his ashes will 



An Examination Day. 421 

remain unmolested by any Sophomore. There still remains 
with him, however, an eager desire to become well versed 
in every branch of science. So strong is his desire to become 
posted on all subjects, that his favorite seat, while on recita- 
tion, is one directly behind a post. History records the 
sad fact that about examination time, many of these loyal 
patriots fall at their posts. 

The seats in front of you are occupied by Juniors. The 
first question a stranger asks on beholding a Junior, is 
"What great calamity has befallen him?" You are no 
stranger. You know that Juniors study Psychology. A 
fond mother, could she behold her son on the morning 
before he stands his examination in Psychology, would, 
like the Sphinx, feel prone to inquire, 

" Who, with sadness and madness, 
Has turned my child's head? " 

The exercises now begin. The students all rise and sing 

"Onward, Christian soldiers, 
Marching as to war." 

The martial strains are inspiring; they revive your droop- 
ing spirits; you almost feel ready for an examination. Yet 
you think the selection from Ecclesiastes a most appropriate 
one to read on this examination morning, and you remem- 
ber what Solomon said about much study being a weari- 
ness to the flesh. 

From the chapel the students hasten to their rooms for 
one final glance at their books. In an hour the bell tolls 
once again. The funeral procession marches forth. Care- 
fully the students cross the campus, more carefully they 
ascend the stairs leading to their respective examination 
rooms. Did ever wretch in the days of inquisition go to 



422 University Magazine. 

his dungeon more terror stricken than does the Freshman 
to the Latin room? The Sophomore enters the Mathe- 
matics room in such a state of anxiety as to be unable to 
demonstrate clearly the difference between hyperbole and 
the hyperbola. The Industrial Chemistry student can tell 
nothing more about either milk or coffee than that both 
occur in very small amounts, and when found usually con- 
tain excessively large amounts of water. 

The Junior ascends the steps leading to the Saxon room 
murmuring "swincan, swanc, swancon — to toil," and three 
hours thereafter comes down muttering "flinkan, flanx, 
flunkon— to fall." 

Your friend, though badly wounded, has not fallen, as is 
shown by the list subsequently posted on the bulletin board. 
There you meet on the following week and congratulate 
each other. Neither your name nor his is among the 
missing. W. C. Smith, '96. 



A SONG IN THE NIGHT. 

[Written in my room in the Old West Building upon hearing a mock- 
ing-bird sing in the oaks near my window, long after the shades of 
night had fallen.] 

I sat in my room, a book in my hand, 

My eyes shaded well from the light; 
Alone and in silence the pages I scanned, 

For day had passed far into night. 

Downcast and despondent I felt as I thought 

How quickly the day had expired, 
And what I 'd accomplished was almost as naught 

By the measure the morrow required. 

Then while for the future I took anxious care, 
And forgot that the Good Book forbade, 

A mocking-bird sang, as if all unaware 
That life could to any be sad. 

My book I flung down, the window upraised, 

To list to this night-singing lark; 
Condemned was I then by the bird which thus praised 

Its Maker, in spite of the dark. 

Then in seasons of trouble and trial I prayed — 
Thro' the gloom I might still see the light; 

And I asked that my trust upon Him might be stayed 
Who giveth "a song in the night." 

Howard A. Banks. 



BOOK NOTICES. 



J. T. PUGH. 



Select Poetry of North Carolina. Compiled by 
Hight C. Moore. 16-mo., pp. 210, $1.25. May be pur- 
chased of the author, at Winston, N. C. 

First and last much verse has been produced in our 
State, and we have had poets of no mean ability. At 
various times small volumes of poems for private circula- 
tion have appeared from individual writers, but we have 
not yet had a truly representative collection from our poets. 
Mr. Moore's book is intended to meet this long-felt want. 
A work similar to this was prepared in 1854 by Mrs. Mary 
Bayard Clarke, entitled u Wood Notes, or Carolina Carols." 
But, perhaps, our best poetry has been produced since that 
date, and, therefore, a new collection was needed. In this 
volume the editor has gathered from forty-one authors 
selections intended fairly to represent our best poets. A 
first attempt of this kind is always difficult. Different 
verses are variously estimated by different critics. Many 
poems may be omitted which deserve a place in the collec- 
tion, and some might easily give place to newer and better 
work. In a second edition these changes will doubtless be 
made. We see in this volume many verses which are true 
poetry, showing the touch of an inspired hand; others are 
only poor rhymes and jingles. But we have not produced 
as yet a great abundance of poetry of a high order, and this 
makes the compiler's task a harder one Mr. Moore has, 
on the whole, made for us a good collection, and we hope 
his work will be liberally encouraged. We doubt not that 
this volume will "prove a stimulus to native literature," 
and make for a wider appreciation of literary efforts. 

Xenophon's Anabasis, Seven Books. By William 
Rainey Harper, Ph. D., and James Wallace, Ph. D. 
12-mo. , pp. 575> $1.50. New York: American Book Co. 

This new text-book emphasizes the departure made in 
language study so noticeable in the whole series. The 



Book Notices. 425 

same features which characterize Harper & Tolman's Cczsar 
are observed here. As Caesar is the first author usually put 
in the hands of the beginner in Latin, so in Greek the 
pupil comes first to the Anabasis. In this edition he finds 
every word which he meets for the first time, printed in 
full-faced type. At the bottom of the page are frequent 
references to Hadley-Allen and Goodwin's Grammars. At 
the end of each section are "Topics for Study," based on 
the section read. These topics are both grammatical and 
historical. Scattered throughout the text are numerous 
illustrations. Following the text are brief but sufficient 
Notes. In the Vocabulary a numeral after each word 
denotes the number of times this word is found in the 
Anabasis. The introduction contains a description of Per- 
sia, an article on the Persian art of war and the Greek art 
of war, arranged as the description of Gaul, the Roman art 
of war, etc., in the introduction to the Ccssar. Fourteen 
pages are devoted to inductive studies. The book is very 
attractive in appearance, and the pupil will find increasing 
satisfaction in his studies in Xenophon from the many 
devices which the book contains. 

Historical Tales. American. By Charles Morris. 
12-mo. , gilt top, pp. 319, $1.00. Philadelphia: J. B. Lip- 
pincott Company. 

This is one of a series of historical tales — the other vol- 
umes being English and French. In this series it has been 
the design of the author to "cull from the annals of the 
nations some of their more stirring and romantic incidents 
and present them as a gallery of pictures that might serve 
to adorn the entrance to the Temple of History." In this 
undertaking the author has succeeded admirably. While 
many of the incidents are familiar to the general reader, yet 
the treatment is such that they are made interesting. The 
stories, although full of the element of the unusual, are 
life-scenes, in which the details are so skillfully handled 
that each character is real. Some of the best told of the 
collection are "The Story of the Regicides," "A Quak- 
eress Patriot," "Stealing a Locomotive," and "Daniel 



426 University Magazine. 

Boone, the Pioneer of Kentucky." The presswork is fairly 
well done, and the illustrations good. These are full page 
and include, among others, the Charter Oak, the old North 
Church, and Mount Vernon. 

First Lessons in Our Country's History. By Wil- 
liam Swinton. 16-mo., pp. 208, 48 cents. New York: 
American Book Company. 

This is a book for primary students. The story is told 
in simple language, and the author seems to have tried to 
divest himself of prejudice. The paragraphs are short and 
the illustrations good. The text is not burdened with a 
multiplicity of dates, but they are tabulated and arranged 
in the book. 

The Constitutional Beginnings oe North Caro- 
lina. By John S. Bassett. 8-vo., pp. J2>i 50 cents. Bal- 
timore: Johns Hopkins Press. 

Mr. Bassett has done some needed work. He traces the 
existence of Locke's Grand Model from its origin in the 
brain of Shaftesbury until it was finally given up on sur- 
render of the Province to the Crown. The County Pala- 
tine in England is described, and it is seen to have been 
the source of the "Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina." 
As this instrument never had a fair trial, it is difficult to 
judge of its efficiency. It was not, however, so tyrannical 
as our historians would have us believe. The power of the 
Assembly was always great, particularly as it held the 
purse-strings. There is an analysis of the whole instru- 
ment. Incidentally, the fact that Northern Carolina was 
not subject to the Southern part is shown. There was pro- 
vision for a Deputy Governor of South Carolina, as well as 
North Carolina, and both were subject to the Governor of 
Carolina. 



AMONG THE MAGAZINES. 

HOLLAND M. THOMPSON. 

The task of the editor in charge of exchanges and reviews is by no 
means easy. To do his work faithfully necessitates much time and 
trouble. He must read when he had rather rest, and when he tells his 
thoughts his friends ask him why his department is so dull. But the 
place is not without its recompense. The college exchanges are always 
gladly received. One is interested in seeing the ideals of different col- 
leges and in judging of the men in charge of the college papers. 

The exchange list of the Magazine has been large during the year, 
comprising periodicals from every section of the United States. The 
quality is as variable as the section, but it may be set down that the best 
are from the Bast and South. Those from the West are almost invari- 
ably poor. The greatest fault seems to be a lack of judgment. One is 
tempted to believe that those who attribute intellectual crudity to those 
States west of the Mississippi do so advisedly. 

Among our best exchanges we would class the University of Virginia 
Magazine, the Nassau Lit, the Brown Magazine, the Southern Col- 
legian, the Vassar Miscellany, the Wake Forest Student, the monthlies 
Of those appearing at shorter intervals the Occident, the University 
Courier, the Red and Blue, the Cynic, the Harvard Advocate seem to be 
rather better than the rest. 

College verse is usually pdor in quality. Very little that a poet would 
accept is printed. Some colleges have none at all, while others have an 
abundance. Lehigh, Vermont, Pennsylvania and Vassar seem to have 
the largest number of budding poets. The Harvard short stories are 
probably the best. In criticism it is hard to fix the rank, but, in our 
opinion, the articles from Washington and Lee are equal to any. 

All the magazines mentioned above, with dozens of others, have been 
read with interest by the students here, and their opinions of the col- 
leges have come largely from this source. If college authorities real- 
ized how much the good name of their institution depends upon their 
representatives, they would surely encourage the editors in every way. 
College journalism is, at best, an ungrateful task, but it makes opinion 
about the school. 

The Magazine feels that it cannot complain of the treatment accorded 
it during the past year. Compliments have been many and criticisms 
well meant. Some of the smaller publications seem never to have 
become aware of our existence, but it has caused no chagrin. To those 
that have helped us we extend our thanks; to those that have neglected 
us, the same. 



CURRENT COMMENT. 

CASWELL ELLIS. 

The Year. — This year has been quite an era in the life of our Uni- 
versity. Our roll has nearly reached four hundred. The curriculum 
has been greatly improved by the addition of a Department of Sanskrit 
and Persian, giving also increased advantages for the study of compara- 
tive philology. The new Department of Pedagogy is most happily fill- 
ing a long-felt want, and will yearly furnish our State many trained 
teachers. 

The small Summer School, begun last year with Geology, has developed 
into a full-grown, vigorous institution, with a full corps of teachers, 
offering courses in more than a dozen subjects. The scientists use the 
mountains and seashore as their field of labor, while the other depart- 
ments have the benefit of the advantages offered at Chapel Hill. 

The societies have remodeled themselves to fit the existing progressive 
state of the University. Effete forms have been abolished or modified, 
and now the societies are doing their true work, without burdening their 
members with a repetition of what is better done in other departments. 

The Library has been increased with two thousand volumes, and 
arrangements perfected for a permanent librarian and increased aids in 
the use of this valuable piece of University machinery. 

The sanitation has been rendered practically perfect and the students 
made more comfortable by the water-works and by repairing the build- 
ings. 

Perhaps most portentous of all is the establishment of the University 
Press. The University of Chicago, Columbia College, Johns Hopkins 
and University of North Carolina are the only institutions in the United 
States that have private presses under the direction of their Faculties. 
Our press has already published the Notes on Persian Inscriptions, by 
our scholarly Professor of Sanskrit. Our University Magazine was 
the first in America to publish the recently discovered " Delphic Hymn 
to Apollo." These works are but an earnest of the future usefulness of 
the press. Soon we hope to give the State the benefit of the work done 
here in the various departments. 

The University has never before offered such opportunities for the 
development of the resources and manhood of the State. Never before 
were the people so aroused to the need of education. It is only neces- 
sary for the Legislature to give the needed support now to this and all 
branches of public education, and in a few years the manhood of North 



Current Comment. 429 

Carolina will be so elevated that none will be found who will dare ques- 
tion the wisdom of spending money to develop our men and women. 

The i,arge amount of graduate work done here now, and the increased 
spirit of scholarship pervading the University, must be gratifying to 
every true lover of culture. The work done in the Shakespeare Club 
this year has been of very superior order. The Historical Society and 
Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society are both exciting increased interest. 
The establishment of a second weekly paper shows an increased interest 
in literary work, even though the paper was inaugurated primarily as a 
means of fighting the fraternities. It is ably edited. Most hopeful of 
all is the large amount of high-grade work done for the Magazine. The 
numerous poems of this year are highly meritorious and practically a 
new line of work for us. The Magazine has already enough available 
matter on hand to complete another volume, and the large amount of 
material submitted to the Magazine will enable us to make proper 
selection of good material — not only enough to maintain our present 
standard, but to advance it greatly. 

Owing TO The increased number of students, many classes are large 
and unwieldy. In a section of fifty or seventy, each man can demand 
very little personal attention. Many men who do not learn rapidly are 
often unable to understand the general explanation, and must either fail 
to get the fundamental principles of the subject or go after class and 
have the professor explain again. A man feels a delicacy in doing this 
frequently, and, furthermore, is accused by the boys of "booting." To 
avoid this we must introduce here the professional "coach." Coaching 
is often necessary and helpful and perfectly legitimate. Many men 
come here poorly prepared and really need some one to teach them how 
and what to study. To impose this work gratuitously upon our friends 
is not right. Let some of our students start this line of business. The 
work is both lucrative and improving. Many bright men have thus 
paid their entire college expenses. 

And now we have finished the volume and leave current events to a 
new commentator. We have incurred ungentle criticism for some of 
our comments. However, all has been written dispassionately and with 
only the kindest feelings. After more mature deliberation, we still think 
every criticism just and needed. We have only to suggest that our suc- 
cessor be unfettered, save by his own good sense. This department will 
do its full duty only when it gives to its readers a full and fair criticism 
of both sides of every move in University life. We grow powerful most 
rapidly when we know our weakness as well as our strength. The 
quickest way to dispel error is to bring it to the light. 



COLLEGE RECORD. 

Dr. K. P. Battle lectured on "Paul at Athens " before the Y. M. C. A. 
of Charlotte, Friday, May u. 

Prof. E. A. Alderman delivered his lecture on "Childhood in Civil- 
ization," at Guilford College, Saturday evening, May 5. 

Prof. E. A. Alderman has been selected to deliver the annual 4th of 
July oration on the Guilford Battle Ground. His subject will be "The 
Life and Services of William Hooper." 

The GlEE Club gave a concert in Durham Friday evening, April 27, 
in which they rendered their usual programme. Though the audience 
was small, the concert was one of the best ever given. 

The Third of the series of lectures under the auspices of the Dialectic 
Society was delivered by Dr. Thomas Hume Saturday evening, April 28, 
taking as his subject "Mrs. Browning, Woman, Poet, Prophet!" The 
Doctor has gained quite a reputation as a lecturer, and it is only neces- 
sary to say that he spoke in his usual charming manner. 

During the week ending May 12 Prof. J. A. Holmes, State Geologist, 
gave three lectures to the first and second geology classes on "The 
Geology of the Coastal Plain in North Carolina." The lectures were 
particularly interesting, since Professor Holmes has spent several years 
in a study of the deposits of this region, and has done much valuable 
work here. 

On Sunday afternoon, May 13, Dr. Kemp P. Battle delivered an 
address before the Y. M. C. A. on "The Judicial Murder of John the 
Baptist." The lecture showed much careful research and investigation, 
and was highly appreciated by the students, who were out in large num- 
ber to hear it. No man in the Faculty is so much beloved by the stu- 
dent-body as Old Pres. , and his life and teachings and thorough sympa- 
thy with young men have saved many a fellow from despondency and 
failure in right-doing, and have led him on to the achievement of a 
successful manhood. 

Tuesday, May 8, the regular exercises of the University were sus- 
pended and the day devoted to the contest between the Senior orators. 
Eight contestants entered, but, by the advice of the judges, the Faculty 
consented to allow all of them to speak at Commencement. We give 
the programme: 1. Charles L. Van Noppen, "Influence of Holland upon 
American Civilization." 2. E. E. Gillespie, "A Needed Reform." 
3. W. P. M. Currie, "Chivalry of the Nineteenth Century." 4. Thomas 
S. Rollins, "The Two Factors of Modern Civilization." 5. A. Caswell 
Ellis, " Permanence in Change." 6. William F. Harding, "Truth and 



College Record. 431 

Poetry." 7. S. A. Hodgin, "University and State." 8. T. Bailey Lee, 
"The State and the Child." 

On Friday afternoon, April 27, Prof. J. A. Holmes, accompanied by 
fourteen members of the Geology class, boarded the west bound train 
for Greensboro and Pilot Mountain. Leaving Greensboro the next 
morning, with a considerable party of young ladies from the Normal 
and Industrial School, they reached the mountain where they managed 
to spend a very enjoyable day. Returning to Greensboro at night, the 
University contingent left on the following morning for home, arriving 
in time for dinner, after a tiresome tramp of twelve miles from Univer- 
sity Station. It is the universal verdict of the party that a pleasanter 
trip has never been experienced, and to Misses Bryant and Kirkland of 
the Normal, together with Professor Holmes, their thanks are due for 
making it what it was. 

The following is the programme for Commencement Exercises: 

Sunday, June 3. — 11 a. m., Baccalaureate Sermon, by the Rev. F. J. 
Murdock, D. D. 

Monday, June 4.. — 8 p. M., Anniversary meetings of the Dialectic and 
Philanthropic Societies. 

Tuesday, June 5. — 9:30 a. m., Meeting of the Board of Trustees. 11:30 
A. m., Address by Rev. F. L. Reid, D. D., on "The Life and Character 
of Charles F. Deems." 12:30 P.M., Meeting of the Alumni Association. 
4 P. M., Senior Class-Day Exercises. 8 p. M., Orations by Representa- 
tives of the Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies. 10 p. m., Faculty 
Reception in the Gymnasium. 

Wednesday, June 6 — Commencement Day. — 10 a. m., Commencement 
Exercises in Memorial Hall: Orations and Theses by Graduates. 12 M. 
Address by Hon. Hoke Smith. 1 p. m., Conferring of Degrees; Announce- 
ment of Honors and Appointments. 1 130 p. m., Alumni Banquet. 4 P.M., 
Athletic Games. 8 p. m., Concert by Glee Club. 

HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 
The society met on Thursday night, May 3, to hear Gen. Rufus Bar- 
ringer's paper on "The History of the North Carolina Railroad," as 
read by Dr. K. P. Battle. In the beginning Dr. Battle sketched the 
career of General Barringer, showing that he took a prominent part in 
the great struggle between the east and west, in which the west was 
finally triumphant. The system of representation in the early part of 
the century was very defective, and gave the eastern counties a very 
great advantage over the western. The former steadily opposed all 
attempts on the part of the west for internal improvement, and this gave 
rise to much sectional conflict, the secret of North Carolina's backward- 
ness to-day. Among others the question of a railroad across the State 



432 University Magazine. 

from east to west was frequently agitated, but nothing came of it until 
Governor Graham, on retiring from office, recommended that the step 
be taken. Finally a compromise was effected and a bill to charter the 
N. C. R. R., as drawn by William S. Ashe, was introduced and passed 
by the Legislature. To Speaker Calvin H. Graves is due the passage of 
the bill, who, though he knew his constituents were opposed to the 
measure, conscientiously voted in the affirmative. The road was com- 
pleted in 1858, and from that year dated the material prosperity of North 
Carolina. The paper was well written, and much interest was added by 
the excellent rendition of it by Dr. 3attle. 

BASE-BALL. 

On Thursday, May 3, the club left for Virginia, accompanied by Bry- 
son, Bridgers and Graham, G. , composing the tennis team. Games were 
played as follows: U. Va. 2, U. N. C. 4, at Lynchburg, Va., May 4. 
U. Va. 10, U. N. C. 2, at Charlottesville, Va., May 5. Richmond Col- 
lege 3, U. N. C. 6, at Richmond, Va., May 7. Lafayette College 2, 
U. N. C. 1, at Greensboro, N. C, May 8. Lafayette College 5, U. N. C. 
6, at Greensboro, N. C, May 9. 

The tennis team was successful in its games with both U. Va. and 
Richmond College. 

On their return a banquet was given to the base-ball team by the stu- 
dents at Pickard's Hotel, Thursday evening, May 8. 

ELISHA MITCHELL SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY. 

The last meeting of the society, held in the Chemistry lecture room, 
Tuesday evening, May 1, was both a lively and interesting one. Papers 
were read by the following gentlemen: 

Mr. Baskerville, on the " Methods of Separating Zirconium," compar- 
ing it to that of Titanium. 

Mr. C. H. White, on " Glaciation," discussing the efficiency of astro- 
nomical causes of glaciation. Mr. White also reported concerning his 
work upon the " Paleotrochis," which, if he succeeds in his attempts to 
show that it is a fossil, will prove the oldest representative of the animal 
kingdom. 

Mr. McFadyen, on " The Triassic Deposition and Subsequent Defor- 
mation," as illustrated, in the Dan and Deep river regions. 

Mr. Harris, on the analysis of the Florida bean, showing that the 
peculiar smell is due to the action of water on the kernel of the bean. 

Mr. W. R. Kenan described his attempt to form double chlorides of 
the alkalies. 

Dr. F. P. Venable reported concerning his work on the atomic weight 
of zirconium. 

Prof. Collier Cobb reported an observation on the "charming" of 
seven quails by a dead snake, showing that the charming is in the bird 
and not in the snake. After a lively discussion the society adjourned.